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BALINESE or simply BALI is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people (as of 2000 ) on the Indonesian island of Bali , as well as northern Nusa Penida , western Lombok and eastern Java . Most Balinese speakers also know Indonesian . Balinese itself is not mutually intelligible with Indonesian, but may be understood by Javanese speakers after some exposure.

In 2011, the Bali Cultural Agency estimates that the number of people still using Balinese language in their daily lives on the Bali Island does not exceed 1 million, as in urban areas their parents only introduce Indonesian language or even English, while daily conversations in the institutions and the mass media have disappeared. The written form of the Balinese language is increasingly unfamiliar and most Balinese people use the Balinese language only as a spoken tool with mixing of Indonesian language in their daily conversation. But in the transmigration areas outside Bali Island, Balinese language is extensively used and believed to play an important role in the survival of the language.

The higher registers of the language borrow extensively from Javanese : an old form of classical Javanese, Kawi , is used in Bali as a religious and ceremonial language.

CONTENTS

* 1 Phonology

* 1.1 Vowels * 1.2 Consonants * 1.3 Stress

* 2 Grammar

* 2.1 Registers

* 3 Numerals

* 4 Writing

* 4.1 Balinese script * 4.2 Latin alphabet

* 5 Gallery * 6 Note * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links

PHONOLOGY

VOWELS

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

HIGH i

u

MID e ə o

LOW

a

The official spelling denotes both /a/ and /ə/ by _a_. However, _a_ is usually pronounced when it ends a word, and occurs also in prefixes _ma-_, _pa-_ and _da-_.

CONSONANTS

LABIAL DENTAL PALATAL VELAR GLOTTAL

NASAL

m

n

ɲ

ŋ

STOP /AFFRICATE p b t d tʃ dʒ k g

FRICATIVE

s

h

Approximant (Lateral )

j

w

l

TRILL

r

STRESS

Stress falls on the last syllable.

GRAMMAR

The word order is similar to that of Indonesian , and verb and noun inflectional morphology is similarly minimal. However, derivational morphology is extensive, and suffixes are applied to indicate definite or indefinite articles, and optionally to indicate possession .

REGISTERS

Balinese has different registers depending on the relationship and status of those speaking: low (_basa ketah_), middle (_basa madia_), and high (_basa singgih_). _Basa singgih_ contains many loanwords from Sanskrit and Javanese .

NUMERALS

Main article: Balinese numerals

Balinese has a decimal numeral system, but this is complicated by numerous words for intermediate quantities such as 45, 175, and 1600.

WRITING

Balinese has been written in two different writing systems : the Balinese script , and in modern times the Latin script .

BALINESE SCRIPT

Basic signs of the Balinese script Note: The script is arranged in Javanese order. Main article: Balinese script

The Balinese script (_Aksara Bali_, ᬅᬓ᭄ᬱᬭᬩᬮᬶ), which is arranged as _ Hanacaraka _ (ᬳᬦᬘᬭᬓ), is an abugida , ultimately derived from the Brāhmī script of India . The earliest known inscriptions date from the 11th century AD.

Few people today are familiar with the Balinese script. The Balinese Script is almost the same as Javanese script .

LATIN ALPHABET

Schools in Bali today teach a Latin alphabet known as _Tulisan Bali_.

GALLERY

*

Balinese palm-leaf manuscript *

Sign at Pura Puseh Temple, Batuan, Bali *

Page from a Bible printed with Balinese script *

Street sign in Singaraja , written in Latin and Balinese script *

Klungkung Regent's Office sign

NOTE

^1 In Balinese script, sanskrit and kawi loanword has different orthography than native words. The first Balinese script is influenced by orthography of sanskrit and kawi as word _basa _ derives from the Sanskrit word भाषा _bhāṣā_. Meanwhile, diacritics is not written in current romanization of Balinese language. Thus, ᬪᬵᬱᬩᬮᬶ and _basa Bali_ are the standard forms.

SEE ALSO

* Indonesia portal

* Balinese ( Unicode block)

REFERENCES

* ^ Balinese at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Balinese". _ Glottolog<