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The Kingdom of Bali
Bali
was a series of Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. With a history of native Balinese kingship spanning from the early 10th to early 20th centuries, Balinese kingdoms demonstrated sophisticated Balinese court culture where native elements of spirit and ancestral reverence combined with Hindu influences – adopted from India
India
through ancient Java
Java
intermediary – flourished, enriched and shaped the Balinese culture. Because of its proximity and close cultural relations with the neighbouring Java
Java
island during the Indonesian Hindu- Buddhist
Buddhist
period, the history of Bali
Bali
Kingdom was often intertwined and heavily influenced by its Javanese counterparts, from Medang c. 9th century to Majapahit
Majapahit
empire in 13th to 15th centuries. The culture, language, arts and architecture of the island was influenced by Java. Javanese influences and presences grew even stronger prompted with the fall of Majapahit
Majapahit
empire in the late 15th century. After the empire fell to its Muslim vassal of Demak Sultanate, a number of Hindu
Hindu
Majapahit courtiers, nobles, priests and artisans, found refuge on the island of Bali. As a result Bali
Bali
became what historian Ramesh Chandra Majumdar describes as the last stronghold of Indo-Javanese culture and civilisation. The Balinese Kingdom in subsequent centuries expanded their influence to neighbouring islands. The Balinese Kingdom of Gelgel for example extended their influences to Blambangan region in eastern end of Java, neighbouring island of Lombok, as far as western part of Sumbawa
Sumbawa
island, while Karangasem established their rule on western Lombok
Lombok
in later period. Since the mid-19th century, the colonial state of Dutch East Indies began its involvements in Bali, as they launched their campaign against Balinese minor kingdoms one by one. By the early 20th century, the Dutch has completed their conquest of Bali
Bali
as these minor kingdoms fell under their control, either by force resulted in Puputan
Puputan
fighting followed by mass ritual suicide, or surrendered graciously to the Dutch. Either way, despite some of these Balinese royal houses still surviving, these events ended a millennium of the native Balinese independent kingdoms, as the local government changed to Dutch colonial administration, and later to provincial government of Bali within the Republic of Indonesia.

Contents

1 Early kingdom 2 Javanese ties 3 Majapahit
Majapahit
period 4 Kingdom of Gelgel 5 The nine kingdoms of Bali 6 Foreign intervention 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

Early kingdom[edit] Main article: Warmadewa dynasty Bali
Bali
has been inhabited by humans since Paleolithic
Paleolithic
times (1 my BCE to 200,000 BCE), testified by the finding of ancient tools such as hand axes in Sembiran and Trunyan villages in Bali.[1][2] Followed by Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period (200.000–3,000 BCE); however the ancestors of current Balinese inhabitants reached the island around 3000 to 600 BCE during Neolithic
Neolithic
period, characterised by rice-growing technology and speaking Austronesian languages. Bronze Age
Bronze Age
period follows, from around 600 BCE to 800 CE.

Stupika
Stupika
which contains Buddhist
Buddhist
votive tablets, 8th-century Bali. The bell-shaped stupas similar to Central Javanese Buddhist
Buddhist
art.

The historical period in Bali
Bali
started c. 8th century, marked by the discovery of inscribed Buddhist
Buddhist
votive clay tablets. These Buddhist votive tablets, found in small clay stupa figurines called "stupikas", are the first known written inscriptions in Bali
Bali
and date from around the 8th century CE.[1] Such stupikas have been found in the regency of Gianyar, in the villages of Pejeng, Tatiapi and Blahbatuh.[1] The bell-shaped stupikas bears resemblances to the style of the 8th-century stupas of Central Javanese Buddhist
Buddhist
art found in Borobudur and other Buddhist
Buddhist
temples dated from that period, which suggested the Sailendra
Sailendra
link to the Buddhist
Buddhist
pilgrims or inhabitant of early Bali's history.

The Belanjong pillar
Belanjong pillar
in Sanur (914), one of the earliest inscription in Bali

In the early 10th century, Sri Kesari Warmadewa
Sri Kesari Warmadewa
created the Belanjong pillar inscription found near the southern strip of Sanur beach. It was the oldest written inscription created by a ruler found in Bali. The pillar dated according to the Indian Saka calendar, in 836 saka (914 CE).[3] According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra
Sailendra
Dynasty that led a military expedition,[4] to establishing a Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhist
Buddhist
government in Bali.[5] Two other inscription by Kesari are known in the interior Bali, which suggest conflicts in the mountainous interior of the island. Sri Kesari is considered as the founder as the Warmadewa dynasty, the earliest known ruler of Bali, which prospered for several generations prior to Javanese expansion. It seems that the centre of early court of Bali
Bali
was first located in Sanur area east of today Denpasar
Denpasar
city, and later the political, religious and cultural centre moved inland to the north, clustered around southern plain within today Gianyar
Gianyar
Regency; more precisely in the old royal centre in Bedulu, near Goa Gajah
Goa Gajah
and Gianyar. The stone cave temple and bathing place of Goa Gajah, near Ubud
Ubud
in Gianyar, was made around the same period. It shows a combination of Buddhist
Buddhist
and Hindu
Hindu
Shivaite
Shivaite
iconography. Several carvings of stupas, stupikas (small stupas), and image of Boddhisattvas suggested that Warmadewa dynasty was the patron of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism. Nevertheless, Hinduism is also practised in Bali
Bali
during this period. Javanese ties[edit] Further information: Medang Kingdom
Medang Kingdom
and Kahuripan

Gunung Kawi
Gunung Kawi
rock-cut candi shrines demonstrate similar temple style of Java
Java
during the late Medang period.

In the second half of the 10th century, Bali
Bali
was ruled by king Udayana Warmadewa and his queen, Mahendradatta, a princess of Isyana dynasty from East Java. Mahendradatta was the daughter of king Sri Makutawangsawarddhana, and sister of king Dharmawangsa of Medang Kingdom. The presence of a Javanese queen in the Balinese court suggested that either Bali
Bali
had formed an alliance with East Java, or Bali
Bali
was Java's vassal; their marriage was a political arrangement to seal Bali
Bali
as part of East Javanese Medang realm. The royal Balinese couple was the parents of the famous king of Java, Airlangga (991–1049). Airlangga's younger brothers Marakata and later Anak Wungçu rose to the Balinese throne. The rock-cut candi shrine of Gunung Kawi
Gunung Kawi
in Tampaksiring was made around the same period. It demonstrates similar temple style of Java during the late Medang period. The Warmadewa dynasty
Warmadewa dynasty
continued to rule Bali
Bali
well until the 12th century with the reigns of Jayasakti (1146–50) and Jayapangus
Jayapangus
(1178–81). Contacts with imperial China were also important during this period. Chinese coins called kepeng were widely in use in the Balinese economy. In the 12th century, king Jayapangus
Jayapangus
of northern Bali
Bali
is known to have married a Chinese princess, and has been immortalised through the Barong Landung artform as the effigy of the king and his Chinese consort. After the Warmadewa dynasty, their descendant and their link to Javanese court, there was no continuous further detailed information found about the rulers of Bali. It seems that Bali
Bali
had developed a new native dynasty quite independent from Java. In the late 13th century, Bali
Bali
once again appeared in Javanese source as in 1284, king Kertanegara
Kertanegara
launched a Pabali offensive expedition against Balinese rulers, which integrated Bali
Bali
into the Singhasari’s realm. However, after the Jayakatwang rebellion of Gelang-gelang in 1292 that led to the death of Kertanegara
Kertanegara
and the fall of Singhasari, Java
Java
was unable to assert their rule upon Bali, and once again Balinese rulers enjoyed their independence from Java. The Javanese contacts led to a deep impact on the language of Bali which was impacted by the Kawi language, a style of Old Javanese. The language is still used in Bali
Bali
though is rare.[6][7] Majapahit
Majapahit
period[edit] Further information: Majapahit

Pura Maospahit (" Majapahit
Majapahit
Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit
Majapahit
red brick architecture.

Part of a series on the

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Prehistory

Java
Java
Man 1,000,000 BP

Flores Man 94,000–12,000 BP

Toba catastrophe 75,000 BP

Buni culture 400 BCE

Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdoms

Salakanagara Kingdom 130–362

Kutai
Kutai
Kingdom 350–1605

Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
Kingdom 358–669

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Melayu Kingdom 600s

Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Kingdom 600s–1200s

Sailendra
Sailendra
Kingdom 800s–900s

Galuh Kingdom 669–1482

Sunda Kingdom 669–1579

Medang Kingdom 752–1006

Bali
Bali
Kingdom 914–1908

Kahuripan
Kahuripan
Kingdom 1006–1045

Kediri Kingdom 1045–1221

Dharmasraya Kingdom 1183–1347

Singhasari
Singhasari
Kingdom 1222–1292

Majapahit
Majapahit
Kingdom 1293–1500

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Spread of Islam 1200–1600

Aru Kingdom 1225–1613

Ternate Sultanate 1257–1914

Samudera Pasai Sultanate 1267–1521

Pagaruyung Kingdom 1347–1833

Brunei Sultanate 1368–1888

Malacca Sultanate 1400–1511

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Cirebon Sultanate 1445–1677

Demak Sultanate 1475–1548

Aceh Sultanate 1496–1903

Banten Sultanate 1526–1813

Kalinyamat Sultanate 1527–1599

Mataram Sultanate 1500s–1700s

Johor Sultanate 1528s–1877

Siak Sultanate 1725–1946

Surakarta Sunanate 1745–1946

Yogyakarta Sultanate 1755–1945

Deli Sultanate 1814–1946

Riau-Lingga Sultanate 1824–1911

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Larantuka Kingdom 1515–1904

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India
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Netherlands
East Indies

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National Awakening 1908–1942

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United States of Indonesia 1949–1950

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New Order 1966–1998

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By topic

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portal

v t e

In East Java, Majapahit
Majapahit
under the reign of queen regnant Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi and her able and ambitious Prime Minister Gajah Mada, saw the expansion of Majapahit
Majapahit
armada into neighbouring islands in Indonesian archipelago
Indonesian archipelago
including nearby Bali. According to Babad Arya Tabanan
Tabanan
manuscript, in 1342 Majapahit
Majapahit
troops led by Gajah Mada assisted by his general Arya Damar, the regent of Palembang, landed in Bali. After seven months of battles, Majapahit
Majapahit
forces defeated the Balinese king in Bedulu (Bedahulu) in 1343. After the conquest of Bali, Majapahit
Majapahit
distributed the governing authority of Bali
Bali
among Arya Damar's younger brothers; Arya Kenceng, Arya Kutawandira, Arya Sentong and Arya Belog. Arya Kenceng led his brothers to govern Bali
Bali
under Majapahit
Majapahit
banner, he would become the ancestor of Balinese kings of Tabanan
Tabanan
and Badung
Badung
royal houses. Canto 14 of the Nagarakretagama, composed during the reign of Hayam Wuruk in 1365, mentioned several places in Bali; Bedahulu and Lwa Gajah (identified as Goa Gajah) as places under Majapahit
Majapahit
dominion. The Majapahit
Majapahit
capital in Bali
Bali
was established at Samprangan and later Gelgel. Following Hayam Wuruk's death in 1389, Majapahit
Majapahit
entered a steady period of decline with conflict over succession, among other was Paregreg war (1405 to 1406).[8] In 1468 Prince Kertabhumi rebelled against King Singhawikramawardhana and captured Trowulan. The usurped king moved the capital further inland to Daha (the former capital of Kadiri), effectively split Majapahit
Majapahit
into two centres of powers; Trowulan and Daha. Singhawikramawardhana was succeeded by his son Ranawijaya in 1474, that ruled from Daha. To keep Majapahit
Majapahit
influence and economic interest, Kertabhumi awarded Muslim merchant trading rights on the north coast of Java, an action which led to the prominence of Demak Sultanate in following decades. This policy increased Majapahit economy and influence, but weaken Hindu
Hindu
- Buddha's position as the main religion, as Islam began to spread faster and freely in Java. Hindu
Hindu
- Buddha followers' grievance later urged Ranawijaya to defeat Kertabumi. In 1478, Ranawijaya's army under general Udara breached Trowulan defences and killed Kertabumi in his palace,[9][10] Demak sent reinforcements under Sunan Ngudung, who later died in battle and was replaced by Sunan Kudus, but they came too late to save Kertabumi although they managed to repel the Ranawijaya's army. This event is mentioned in Jiwu and Petak inscription, where Ranawijaya claimed that he already defeated Kertabhumi and reunited Majapahit
Majapahit
as one Kingdom.[11] Ranawijaya ruled from 1474 to 1498 with the formal name Girindrawardhana, with Udara as his vice-regent. This event led to the war between Sultanate of Demak
Sultanate of Demak
and Daha, since Demak ruler, Raden Patah, were the descendant of Kertabhumi. In 1498, vice regent Udara usurped Girindrawardhana and the war between Demak and Daha recede. But this delicate balance end when Udara ask help to Portugal in Malacca and led Adipati Yunus of Demak to attack both Malacca and Daha.[12] Another theory suggested that the reasons for the Demak's attacks against Majapahit
Majapahit
was a revenge against Girindrawardhana, who had defeated Adipati Yunus' grandfather Prabu Bhre Kertabumi (Prabu Brawijaya V).[13] The defeat of Daha under Demak marked the end of Hindu
Hindu
Majapahit
Majapahit
era in Java. After the fall of the empire, many Majapahit
Majapahit
nobles, artisans and priests took refuge either in the interior mountainous region of East Java, Blambangan in eastern end of Java, or across the narrow strait to Bali. The refugees probably fled to avoid Demak's retribution for their support for Ranawijaya against Kertabhumi. The Javanese Majapahit
Majapahit
empire influenced Bali
Bali
both culturally and politically. The whole court of Majapahit
Majapahit
fled to Bali
Bali
following the conquest by the Muslim rulers in 1478, in effect resulting in the transfer of the whole culture. Bali
Bali
was looked on as the continuation of the Hindu
Hindu
Javanese culture and is the major source of knowledge about it in the modern times.[14] The incoming Javanese nobles and priests established Majapahit-style courts in Bali. The influx led to several important developments. The marriage of prominent Balinese families along with Majapahit
Majapahit
royalty led to the foundation of upper caste lineages of Bali. Javanese ideas especially the Majapahit tradition influenced the religion and arts of the island. The Javanese language also affected the spoken Balinese language.[6] The modern Bali
Bali
architecture and temples share much in common with aesthetics and style of bas-reliefs in East Javanese temples from the Majapahit golden age.[15] Large numbers of Majapahit
Majapahit
manuscripts, such as Nagarakretagama, Sutasoma, Pararaton and Tantu Pagelaran, were being well-kept in royal libraries of Bali
Bali
and Lombok, and provides the glimpse and valuable historical records on Majapahit. As a result of the influx of the Javanese element, historian Ramesh Chandra Majumdar states that Bali
Bali
"soon became the last stronghold of Indo-Javanese culture and civilisation."[16] Kingdom of Gelgel[edit] Main article: Gelgel, Indonesia

The gate in Gelgel, the old royal capital of Bali.

According to the Babad Dalem manuscript (composed in 18th century), the conquest of Bali
Bali
by the Hindu
Hindu
Javanese kingdom of Majapahit
Majapahit
was followed by the installation of a vassal dynasty in Samprangan in the present-day Gianyar
Gianyar
regency, close to the old royal centre Bedulu. This event took place in the mid-14th century. The first Samprangan ruler Sri Aji Kresna Kepakisan sired three sons. Of these the eldest, Dalem Samprangan, succeeded to the rulership but turned out to be an incompetent ruler. His youngest brother Dalem Ketut founded a new royal seat in Gelgel while Samprangan lapsed in obscurity.[17] The first European contact with Bali
Bali
was made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu
Antonio Abreu
and Francisco Serrão sailed from Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
and reached northern coast of Bali. Bali
Bali
was also mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues.[18] In Majapahit, East Java, the fall of Daha to Demak Sultanate
Demak Sultanate
in 1517 has prompted the refuge of Hindu
Hindu
nobles, priests and artisans to Bali. In 1585, the Portuguese government in Malacca sent a ship to establish a fort and a trading post in Bali, but the mission failed as ship foundered on the reef of the Bukit peninsula. By the 16th century, the Puri (Balinese court) of Gelgel become a powerful polity in the region. The successor of Dewa Ketut, Dalem Baturenggong, reigned in the mid-16th century. He received a Javanese Brahmin
Brahmin
sage called Nirartha
Nirartha
who fled from the decline of Hinduism in Java. The King become the patron of Nirartha, who carried out an extensive literary works that formed the spiritualism of Balinese Hinduism. Gelgel reached its apogee during the reign of Dalem Baturenggong, as Lombok, western Sumbawa
Sumbawa
and Blambangan on easternmost Java, were united under Gelgel's suzerainty. Gelgel's influence over the still Hindu
Hindu
Blambangan seems to caught the attention the Sultan of Mataram that aspired to unite the whole of Java
Java
and also to spread Islamic faith. In 1639 Mataram launched an invasion to Blambangan.[19] Kingdom of Gelgel immediately supported Blambangan as a buffer against the Islamic expansion of Muslim Mataram. Blambangan surrendered in 1639, but quickly regained their independence and rejoined Bali
Bali
soon after the Mataram troops withdrew.[20] Mataram Sultanate
Mataram Sultanate
itself, after the death of Sultan Agung, seems to preoccupied in their internal problems, and lost interest to continue their campaign and pursue hostilities against Blambangan and Gelgel. The nine kingdoms of Bali[edit]

Map of Balinese nine kingdoms, circa 1900

After 1651 the Gelgel kingdom began to break up due to internal conflicts. In 1686 a new royal seat was established in Klungkung, four kilometres north of Gelgel. The rulers of Klungkung, known by the title Dewa Agung, were however unable to maintain power over Bali. The island was in fact split into nine minor kingdoms; Klungkung, Buleleng, Karangasem, Mengwi, Badung, Tabanan, Gianyar, Bangli
Bangli
and Jembrana. These minor kingdoms developed their own dynasty, built their own Puri (Balinese palace compound) and established their own government. Nevertheless, these nine kingdoms of Bali
Bali
admitted Klungkung
Klungkung
leadership, that the Dewa Agung
Dewa Agung
kings of Klungkung
Klungkung
are their primus inter pares among Balinese kings, and deserved the honourable titular as the king of Bali. Most of these kingdoms today formed the base and boundaries of Kabupaten
Kabupaten
(regencies) of Bali. In following centuries, the various kingdoms would fought a succession of incessant wars among themselves, although they accorded the Dewa Agung a symbolic paramount status of Bali. This led to complicated relations amongst Balinese rulers, as there are many kings in Bali. This situation lasted until the coming of the Dutch in the 19th century. Foreign intervention[edit] Main articles: Dutch intervention in Northern Bali
Bali
(1846), Dutch intervention in Northern Bali
Bali
(1848), Dutch intervention in Northern Bali
Bali
(1849), Dutch intervention in Bali
Bali
(1906), and Dutch intervention in Bali
Bali
(1908)

The Raja of Buleleng
Buleleng
killing himself with 400 followers, in an 1849 puputan against the Dutch.

Although the European contacts has been made since 1512 and later in 1585 by the Portuguese fleet, no real presence of European power was felt in the Bali
Bali
as the Balinese kingdoms continued their way of life preserved since Hindu
Hindu
Majapahit
Majapahit
era. In 1597, the Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman
Cornelis de Houtman
arrived in Bali
Bali
and met the Dalem of Gelgel. A second Dutch expedition appeared in 1601, that of Jacob van Heemskerck. On this occasion, the Dalem of Gelgel sent a letter to Prince Maurits, a translation of which was sent by Cornells van Eemskerck. The letter grant the Dutch permission to trade in Bali
Bali
as well as Bali's request to freely trade with the Dutch. This diplomatic letter of friendship and trade agreement was mistranslated as Balinese recognition of Dutch's overlordship, and was subsequently used by the Dutch to lay their claims to the island. Although the VOC — centred in Batavia (now Jakarta) — was very active in the Maluku Islands, Java
Java
and Sumatra, it took little interest in Bali, as the VOC was more interested in the spice trade, a produce which was scarce in Bali
Bali
that was mainly a rice agriculture kingdom. The opening of a trading post was attempted in 1620 but failed due to local hostility. The VOC left the Bali
Bali
trade to private traders, mainly Chinese, Arab, Bugis
Bugis
and occasionally Dutch, who mainly dealt with opium and slave trade.

Dewa Agung
Dewa Agung
of Klungkung
Klungkung
in 1908.

However, the Dutch slight indifference to Bali
Bali
was totally changed in the 19th century, as Dutch colonial control expanded across the Indonesian archipelago
Indonesian archipelago
and began to coveted the island. The Dutch used the pretext of eradicating opium smuggling, arms running, Balinese tawan karang tradition (plunder of shipwrecks), and slavery to impose their control on Balinese kingdoms. The Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
army invaded northern Bali
Bali
in 1846, 1848, and finally in 1849 the Dutch was able to take control of the northern Bali
Bali
kingdoms of Buleleng
Buleleng
and Jembrana.[21] In 1894, the Dutch used the Sasak
Sasak
rebellion against Balinese ruler of western Lombok, as a pretext to interfere and conquer Lombok. The Dutch supported Sasak
Sasak
rebellion, and launched a military expedition against Balinese court in Mataram, Lombok. By the end of November 1894, the Dutch had annihilated the Balinese positions, with thousands of dead, and the Balinese surrendered or committed puputan ritual suicide. Lombok
Lombok
and Karangasem became part of the Dutch East Indies.[22] Soon the court of Bangli
Bangli
and Gianyar
Gianyar
also accepted Dutch suzerainty, but southern Bali
Bali
kept resisting. In 1906 the Dutch launched a military expedition against the southern Bali
Bali
kingdom of Badung
Badung
and Tabanan, and weakened the kingdom of Klungkung, again under the pretext of Balinese tawan karang tradition (plunder of shipwrecks). Finally in 1908, the Dutch launched an invasion against the court of Klungkung, under the pretext of securing their opium monopoly. This event conclude the Dutch conquest over Bali, and by then it become a Dutch protectorate.[23] Although some members of Balinese royalties still survived, the Dutch has completely dismantled the royal institutions of Bali, destroyed the power and authority of Balinese kings, thus ended centuries of Balinese kingdoms' rule. During Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
period, the colonial capital of Bali
Bali
also Lesser Sunda Islands
Lesser Sunda Islands
was located in Singaraja
Singaraja
on the northern coast. See also[edit]

History of Bali List of monarchs of Bali

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Bali
Bali
Museum notice ^ Archaeology: Indonesian perspective Truman Simanjuntak p. 163 ^ The people of Bali
Bali
Angela Hobart p. 24 ^ Bali
Bali
handbook with Lombok
Lombok
and the Eastern Isles by Liz Capaldi, Joshua Eliot p.98 [1] ^ Bali
Bali
& Lombok
Lombok
Lesley Reader, Lucy Ridout p. 156 ^ a b Mary Sabine Zurbuchen. The Language of Balinese Shadow Theater. Princeton University Press. p. 18.  ^ Mary S. Zurbuchen. Introduction to Old Javanese Language and Literature: A Kawi Prose Anthology. Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan. p. 3.  ^ Ricklefs, Merle Calvin (1993). A history of modern Indonesia
Indonesia
since c. 1300 (2nd ed.). Stanford University Press / Macmillans. ISBN 9780804721950.  ^ Pararaton, p. 40, " .... bhre Kertabhumi ..... bhre prabhu sang mokta ring kadaton i saka sunyanora-yuganing-wong, 1400". ^ See also: Hasan Djafar, Girindrawardhana, 1978, p. 50. ^ Poesponegoro & Notosusanto (1990), pp. 448–451. ^ MB. Rahimsyah. Legenda dan Sejarah Lengkap Walisongo. (Amanah, Surabaya, tth) ^ Marwati Djoenoed Poesponegoro dan Nugroho Notosusanto. Sejarah Nasional Indonesia. Jilid II. Cetakan V. (PN. Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, 1984) ^ Chris Sugden. Seeking the Asian Face of Jesus: A Critical and Comparative Study of the Practice and Theology of Christian Social Witness in Indonesia
Indonesia
and India
India
Between 1974 and 1996 with Special Reference to the Work of Wayan Mastra in the Protestant Christian Church of Bali
Bali
and of Vinay Samuel in the Church of South India. Oxford Centre for Mission Studies. p. 21.  ^ Robyn J. Maxwell. Sari to Sarong: Five Hundred Years of Indian and Indonesian Textile Exchange. National Gallery of Australia. p. 26.  ^ Rajesh Chandra Majumdar. The History and Culture of the Indian People: The struggle for empire. Allen & Unwin. p. 755.  ^ I Wayan Warna et al. (1986), Babad Dalem; Teks dan terjemahan. Denpasar: Dinas Pendidkan dan Kebudayaan Propinsi Daerah Tingkat I Bali. ^ Cortesão, Jaime (1975). Esparsos, Volume III. Coimbra: Universidade de Coimbra Biblioteca Geral. p. 288.  "...passing the island of 'Balle', on whose heights the nau Sabaia, of Francisco Serrão, was lost. .." - from Antonio de Abreu, and in João de Barros
João de Barros
and Antonio Galvão (Décadas da Ásia). [2] ^ "Mataram, Historical kingdom, Indonesia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 1 January 2015.  ^ Soekmono. Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia
Indonesia
3. Kanisius. p. 62.  ^ Barski, p.48 ^ The rough guide to Bali
Bali
& Lombok
Lombok
by Lesley Reader, Lucy Ridout p.298 ^ Bali
Bali
and Lombok
Lombok
Lesley Reader, Lucy Ridout p.496

References[edit]

Willard A. Hanna (2004). Bali
Bali
Chronicles. Periplus, Singapore. ISBN 0-7946-0272-X.

v t e

Former states in Indonesia

Java

Hindu/Buddhist

Blambangan Galuh Isyana Janggala Kahuripan Kalingga Majapahit Medang Medang Kamulan Rajasa Salakanagara Sanjaya Shailendra Singhasari Srivijaya Sunda Tarumanagara

Islamic

Banten Cirebon Demak Kalinyamat Mataram Pajang Sumedang Larang Surakarta Yogyakarta

Sumatra

Hindu/Buddhist

Dharmasraya Kantoli Kediri Majapahit Melayu Mauli Pannai Samaskuta Sanfotsi Srivijaya

Islamic

Aceh Aru Asahan Deli Jambi Johor Langkat Malacca Pagaruyung Riau-Lingga Samudera Pasai Serdang Siak

Kalimantan

Banjar Brunei Bulungan Kutai Lanfang Republic Negara Daha Pontianak Sambas Sarawak Tanjungpura

Sulawesi

Gowa Bone Luwu Toraja Wajo

Lesser Sunda Islands

Bali Bima Larantuka Sumbawa Tambora

West Timor

Amabi Amanatun Amanuban Amarasi Sonbai Wehali

Maluku

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