The Info List - Baiyue

--- Advertisement ---

(i) (i) (i) (i)

The BAIYUE, HUNDRED YUE or YUE were various groups of indigenous non-Chinese tribes who inhabited what is now Southern China and Northern Vietnam between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD. In the Warring States period , the word "Yue" referred to the State of Yue in Zhejiang
. The later kingdoms of Minyue in Fujian and Nanyue in Guangdong
were both considered Yue states. Although Yue people had an inchoate knowledge of agriculture and shipbuilding. Han era Chinese writers depicted the Yue as tribal backward barbarians who had tattoos, lived in primitive conditions, and lacked basic technology as swords, bows, arrows, horses and chariots.

The Yue were gradually displaced and assimilated into Chinese culture as the Han empire expanded into what is now Southern China and Northern Vietnam during the first half of the first millennium AD. Many modern southern Chinese dialects bear traces of substrate languages originally spoken by the ancient Yue. Variations of the name are still used for the name of modern Vietnam, in Zhejiang-related names including Yue Opera , and in the abbreviation for Guangdong.


* 1 Names * 2 Peoples of the lower Yangtze
* 3 Sinification and displacement * 4 Language * 5 Legacy * 6 References * 7 External links


The modern term "Yue" (Chinese : 越 or 粵; pinyin : Yuè; Cantonese Yale : Yuht; Wade–Giles : Yüeh4; Vietnamese : Việt; Zhuang : Vot; Early Middle Chinese : Wuat) comes from Old Chinese *wjat. It was first written using the pictograph "戉" for an axe (a homophone), in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions of the late Shang dynasty (c. 1200 BC), and later as "越". At that time it referred to a people or chieftain to the northwest of the Shang. In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle Yangtze
were called the Yángyuè, a term later used for peoples further south. Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC "Yue" referred to the State of Yue in the lower Yangtze basin and its people.

The term "Hundred Yue" first appears in the book Lüshi Chunqiu compiled around 239 BC. It was used as a collective term for the non-Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam.

Ancient texts mention a number of Yue states or groups. Most of these names survived into early imperial times:


於越/于越 Yūyuè jyu1 jyut6

Ư Việt Yue

揚越 Yángyuè joeng4 jyut6

Dương Việt Yang Yue

閩越 Mǐnyuè man5 jyut6

Mân Việt Min Yue

夜郎 Yèláng je6 long4

Dạ Lang Yelang

南越 Nányuè naam4 jyut6 Namzyied Nam Việt Southern Yue

山越 Shānyuè saan1 jyut6

Sơn Việt Mountain Yue

雒越 Luòyuè lok6 jyut6

Lạc Việt Sea Bird Yue

甌越 Ōuyuè au1 jyut6

Âu Việt Ou Yue


Sword of Goujian , labelled as belonging to a king of Yue

In the 5th millennium BC, the lower Yangtze
area was already a major population centre, occupied by the Hemudu and Majiabang cultures , who were among the earliest cultivators of rice .

By the 3rd millennium BC, the successor Liangzhu culture
Liangzhu culture
shows some influence from the Longshan-era cultures due to trade and commerce. However, a high frequency of O1 was found in Liangzhu culture
Liangzhu culture
sites, linking it to modern Austronesian and Daic populations.

From the 9th century BC, two northern Yue peoples, the Gou-Wu and Yu-Yue, were increasingly influenced by their Chinese neighbours to their north. These two states were based in the areas of what is now southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang
, respectively. Their aristocratic elite learned the written Chinese language and adopted Chinese political institutions and military technology. Traditional accounts attribute the cultural change to Taibo , a Zhou prince who had self-exiled to the south. The marshy lands of the south gave Gou-Wu and Yu-Yue unique characteristics. They did not engage in extensive agrarian agriculture, relying instead more heavily on aquaculture . Water transport was paramount in the south, so the two states became advanced in shipbuilding and developed riverine warfare technology. They were also known for their fine swords.

In the Spring and Autumn period , the two states, now called Wu and Yue , were becoming increasingly involved in Chinese politics. According to the Han historian Sima Qian , King Goujian of Yue was descended from the legendary Yu the Great .

In 512 BC, Wu launched a large expedition against the large state of Chu , based in the Middle Yangtze
River. A similar campaign in 506 succeeded in sacking the Chu capital Ying . Also in that year, war broke out between Wu and Yue and continued with breaks for the next three decades. In 473 BC, Goujian finally conquered Wu and was acknowledged by the northern states of Qi and Jin . In 333 BC, Yue was in turn conquered by Chu.

After the fall of Yue, the ruling family moved south to what is now Fujian and established the Minyue kingdom.


Main article: Southward expansion of the Han dynasty Qin empire and Yue peoples, 210 BC

After the unification of China by Qin Shi Huang , the former Wu and Yue states were incorporated into the Qin empire . The Qin armies also advanced south along the Xiang River to modern Guangdong
and set up commanderies along the main communication routes. The Han historian Sima Qian wrote: "In the south he seized the land of the hundred tribes of the Yue and made of it Guilin and Xiang provinces, and the lords of the hundred Yue bowed their heads, hung halters from their necks, and pleaded for their lives with the lowest officials of the Qin."

The "Treatise of Geography" in the Book of Han (completed AD 111) describes the Yue lands as stretching from Shaoxing on the southern shore of Hangzhou Bay to Jiaozhi in modern north Vietnam
. Throughout the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
period two groups of Yue were identified, that of the Nanyue in the far south, who lived mainly in the area of what is now the modern Chinese provinces Guangdong
, Guangxi , and northern parts of modern Vietnam
; and that of the Minyue to the southeast, centred on the Min River in the modern Fujian province.

The kingdom of Nanyue was founded at the collapse of the Qin dynasty in 204 BC by the local Qin commander Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
. At its height, Nanyue was the strongest of the Yue states, with Zhao Tuo
Zhao Tuo
declaring himself emperor and receiving the allegiance of neighbouring kings. The dominant ethnicities of this kingdom were the Han Chinese and Yue, who held all the most important positions in the kingdom.

The Han conquest of Nanyue occurred in 111 BC.

Sinification of these peoples was brought about by a combination of imperial military power, regular settlement and an influx of Han Chinese refugees. According to one Chinese immigrant of the second century BC, the Yue "cut their hair short, tattooed their body, live in bamboo groves with neither towns nor villages, possessing neither bows or arrows, nor horses or chariots." The difficulty of logistics and the malarial climate in the south made the displacement and eventual sinification of the Yue peoples a slow process.

As Han Chinese migrants gradually increased, the Yue were gradually driven out into poorer land on the hills and into the mountains. Unlike the nomadic peoples of Central Asia
Central Asia
, such as the Xiongnu or the Xianbei , the Yue peoples never posed any serious threat to Han colonial expansion. Sometimes they staged small-scale raids or attacks on Chinese settlements – termed "rebellions" by traditional historians.

Most Yue peoples were eventually absorbed and assimilated by the Han empire while the remnants of the ancient Yue continue to live in the modern provinces Zhejiang
and Guangdong
. Speakers of the Kam–Tai languages - in modern China such as the Zhuang , Buxqyaix , Dai , Aisui , Kam , Hlai , Mulam , Anan , Ong Be , Thai , Lao , and Shan - retain their ethnic identities.


Knowledge of Yue speech is limited to fragmentary references and possible loanwords in other languages, principally Chinese. The longest is the Song of the Yue Boatman , a short song transcribed phonetically in Chinese characters in 528 BC and included, with a Chinese version, in the Garden of Stories compiled by Liu Xiang five centuries later.

There is some disagreement about the languages they spoke, with candidates drawn from the non-Sinitic language families still represented in areas of southern China, Tai–Kadai , Hmong–Mien and Austroasiatic . Chinese, Tai–Kadai, Hmong–Mien and the Vietic branch of Austroasiatic have similar tone systems, syllable structure, grammatical features and lack of inflection, but these features are believed have spread by diffusion across the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area , rather than indicating common descent.

Jerry Norman and Mei Tsu-Lin presented evidence that at least some Yue spoke an Austroasiatic language:

* Zheng Xuan (127–200 AD) wrote that 扎 (middle Chinese: "jaat", modern Mandarin Chinese zā, modern Sino-Vietnamese: "trát") was the word used by the Yue people (越人) to mean "die". Norman and Mei reconstruct this word as OC *tsət and relate it to Austroasiatic words with the same meaning, such as Vietnamese chết and Mon chɒt. * According to the Shuowen Jiezi (100 AD), "In Nanyue, the word for dog is (Chinese : 撓獀; pinyin : náosōu; EMC: nuw-ʂuw)", possibly related to other Austroasiatic terms. Sōu is "hunt" in modern Chinese. * The early Chinese name for the Yangtze
(Chinese : 江; pinyin : jiāng; EMC: kœ:ŋ; OC: *kroŋ; Cantonese: "kong") was later extended to a general word for "river" in south China. Norman and Mei suggest that the word is cognate with Vietnamese sông (from *krong) and Mon kruŋ "river".

They also provide evidence of an Austroasiatic substrate in the vocabulary of Min Chinese . Norman and Mei's hypothesis is widely quoted, but has recently been criticized by Laurent Sagart .

Scholars in China often assume that the Yue spoke an early form of Tai–Kadai. The linguist Wei Qingwen gave a rendering of the "Song of the Yue boatman" in Standard Zhuang . Zhengzhang Shangfang proposed an interpretation of the song in written Thai (dating from the late 13th century) as the closest available approximation to the original language, but his interpretation remains controversial.

They probably spoke an early form of Austro-Tai languages .


Ruins of a Minyue city in Wuyishan, Fujian

The fall of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
and the succeeding period of division sped up the process of sinicization. Periods of instability and war in northern China, such as the Northern and Southern dynasties and during the Song dynasty led to mass migrations of Chinese. Intermarriage and cross-cultural dialogue has led to a mixture of Chinese and non-Chinese peoples in the south. Most of the distinctive features of vocabulary, phonology and syntax of southern varieties of Chinese are attributed substrate languages spoken by the Yue. By the Tang dynasty (618–907), the term "Yue" had largely become a regional designation rather than a cultural one, as in the Wuyue
state during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in what is now Zhejiang province.

In ancient China, the characters 越 and 粵 (both yuè in pinyin) were used interchangeably, but they are differentiated in modern Chinese:

* The character "越" refers to the original territory of the state of Yue, which was based in what is now northern Zhejiang
, especially the areas around Shaoxing and Ningbo
. The Shaoxing opera of Zhejiang, for example, is called "Yue Opera". It is also used to write Vietnam
, a word adapted from Nányuè (Vietnamese : Nam Việt), (literal English translation as Southern Yue). * The character "粵" is associated with the southern province of Guangdong
. Both the regional dialects of Yue Chinese and the standard form, popularly called " Cantonese
", are spoken in Guangdong, Guangxi , Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, Macau
and in many Cantonese
communities around the world.


* ^ Diller, Anthony (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-0415688475 . * ^ Wang, William (2015). The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics. Oxford University Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0199856336 . * ^ A B C D E Meacham, William (1996). "Defining the Hundred Yue". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association. 15: 93–100. doi :10.7152/bippa.v15i0.11537 . * ^ Barlow, Jeffrey G. (1997). "Culture, ethnic identity, and early weapons systems: the Sino-Vietnamese frontier". In Tötösy de Zepetnek, Steven; Jay, Jennifer W. East Asian cultural and historical perspectives: histories and society—culture and literatures. Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alberta. pp. 1–15. ISBN 978-0-921490-09-8 . * ^ A B Hutcheon, Robin (1996). China–Yellow. Chinese University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-962-201-725-2 . * ^ OC pronunciation from Baxter, William H. (1992). A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. p. 806. ISBN 978-3-11-012324-1 . These characters are both given as gjwat in Grammata Serica Recensa 303e and 305a. * ^ A B C D Norman, Jerry ; Mei, Tsu-lin (1976). "The Austroasiatics in Ancient South China: Some Lexical Evidence" (PDF). Monumenta Serica. 32: 274–301. JSTOR 40726203 . * ^ The Annals of Lü Buwei, translated by John Knoblock and Jeffrey Riegel, Stanford University Press (2000), p. 510. ISBN 978-0-8047-3354-0 . "For the most part, there are no rulers to the south of the Yang and Han Rivers, in the confederation of the Hundred Yue tribes." * ^ Chang, Kwang-chih; Goodenough, Ward H. (1996). "Archaeology of southeastern coastal China and its bearing on the Austronesian homeland". In Goodenough, Ward H. (ed.). Prehistoric settlement of the Pacific. American Philosophical Society. pp. 36–54. ISBN 978-0-87169-865-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ Li, H; Huang, Y; Mustavich, LF; Zhang, F; Tan, JZ; Wang, LE; Qian, J; Gao, MH; Jin, L (November 2007). "Y chromosomes of prehistoric people along the Yangtze
River.". Human Genetics. 122 (3-4): 383–8. PMID 17657509 . doi :10.1007/s00439-007-0407-2 . * ^ Brindley, Erica Fox (2015). Ancient China and the Yue: Perceptions and Identities on the Southern Frontier, c.400 BCE–50 CE. Cambridge University Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-316-35228-1 . * ^ A B Brindley, Erica (2003). "Barbarians or Not? Ethnicity and Changing Conceptions of the Ancient Yue (Viet) Peoples, ca. 400–50 BC" (PDF). Asia Major. 16 (1): 1–32. * ^ Sima Qian, Translated by Burton Watson. Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I, p. 11-12. ISBN 0-231-08165-0 . * ^ Records of the Grand Historian, section 97 《史記·酈生陸賈列傳》 * ^ Zhang, Rongfang; Huang, Miaozhang (1995). 南越国史. Guangdong
renmin chubanshe. pp. 170–174. ISBN 978-7-218-01982-6 . * ^ Cancer Virus: The story of Epstein-Barr Virus. Oxford University Press. April 1, 2014. p. 98. ISBN 978-0199653119 . * ^ 上海本地人源流主成分分析 * ^ 上海歷史上的民族變遷 * ^ A B Zhengzhang, Shangfang (1991). "Decipherment of Yue-Ren-Ge (Song of the Yue boatman)". Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale . 20 (2): 159–168. doi :10.3406/clao.1991.1345 . * ^ Enfield, N.J. (2005). "Areal Linguistics and Mainland Southeast Asia" (PDF). Annual Review of Anthropology. 34: 181–206. doi :10.1146/annurev.anthro.34.081804.120406 . * ^ Norman, Jerry (1988). Chinese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17–19. ISBN 978-0-521-29653-3 . * ^ Boltz, William G. (1999). "Language and Writing". In Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L. The Cambridge history of ancient China: from the origins of civilization to 221 B.C. Cambridge University Press. pp. 74–123. ISBN 978-0-521-47030-8 . * ^ Norman (1988) , pp. 18–19, 231 * ^ A B Sagart, Larent (2008). "The expansion of Setaria farmers in East Asia: a linguistic and archeological model". In Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Blench, Roger; Ross, Malcolm D.; Peiros, Ilia; Lin, Marie. Past human migrations in East Asia: matching archaeology, linguistics and genetics. Routledge. pp. 133–157. ISBN 978-0-415-39923-4 . In conclusion, there is no convincing evidence, linguistic or other, of an early Austroasiatic presence on the south‑east China coast. * ^ Gernet, Jacques (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49781-7 . * ^ de Sousa, Hilário (2015). "The Far Southern Sinitic languages as part of Mainland Southeast Asia". In Enfield, N.J.; Comrie, Bernard. Languages of Mainland Southeast Asia: The State of the Art. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 356–440. ISBN 978-1-5015-0168-5 . p. 363. * ^ Wen, Bo; Li, Hui; Lu, Daru; Song, Xiufeng; Zhang, Feng; He, Yungang; Li, Feng; Gao, Yang; Mao, Xianyun; Zhang, Liang; Qian, Ji; Tan, Jingze; Jin, Jianzhong; Huang, Wei; Deka, Ranjan; Su, Bing; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Jin, Li (2004). "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture". Nature. 431: 302–305. PMID 15372031 . doi :10.1038/nature02878 . * ^ de Sousa (2015). * ^ Yue-Hashimoto, Anne Oi-Kan (1972). Studies in Yue Dialects 1: Phonology of Cantonese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 14–32. ISBN 978-0-521-08442-0 .


* "The power of language over the past: Tai settlement and Tai linguistics in southern China and northern Vietnam", Jerold A. Edmondson, in Studies in Southeast Asian languages and linguistics, ed. by Jimmy G. Harris, Somsonge Burusphat and James E.