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Jersey
Jersey
(/ˈdʒɜːrzi/, French: [ʒɛʁzɛ]; Jèrriais: Jèrri dʒɛri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey
(French: Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency[9] located near the coast of Normandy, France.[10] Jersey
Jersey
was part of the Duchy of Normandy, whose dukes went on to become kings of England
England
from 1066. After Normandy
Normandy
was lost by the kings of England
England
in the 13th century, and the ducal title surrendered to France, Jersey
Jersey
and the other Channel Islands
Channel Islands
remained attached to the English crown. The bailiwick consists of the island of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands, along with surrounding uninhabited islands and rocks collectively named Les Dirouilles, Les Écréhous, Les Minquiers, Les Pierres de Lecq,[11] and other reefs. Although the bailiwicks of Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
are often referred to collectively as the Channel Islands, the "Channel Islands" are not a constitutional or political unit. Jersey
Jersey
has a separate relationship to the Crown from the other Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
of Guernsey
Guernsey
and the Isle of Man, although all are held by the monarch of the United Kingdom.[12] Jersey
Jersey
is a self-governing parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy, with its own financial, legal and judicial systems,[5] and the power of self-determination.[13] The Lieutenant Governor on the island is the personal representative of the Queen. Jersey
Jersey
is not part of the United Kingdom,[14] and has an international identity separate from that of the UK,[15] but the UK is constitutionally responsible for the defence of Jersey.[16] The definition of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together.[17] The European Commission
European Commission
have confirmed in a written reply to the European Parliament in 2003[18] that Jersey
Jersey
is within the Union as a European Territory for whose external relationships the UK is responsible. Jersey
Jersey
is not fully part of the European Union
European Union
but has a special relationship with it, notably being treated as within the European Community for the purposes of free trade in goods.[19] British cultural influence on the island is evident in its use of English as the main language and the British pound as its primary currency, even if some people are still speaking the Norman language. Additional cultural commonalities include driving on the left, access to the BBC
BBC
and ITV regions, a school curriculum following that of England, and the popularity of British sports, including football, cricket and rugby.[20][21]

Contents

1 Toponymy

1.1 Origin of the name

2 History 3 Politics

3.1 Legal system 3.2 Parishes 3.3 International relations

3.3.1 International identity 3.3.2 Relationship with the European Union 3.3.3 Separation debate

4 Geography 5 Climate 6 Economy

6.1 Taxation 6.2 Currency

6.2.1 Coinage

7 Demographics

7.1 Immigration

8 Religion in Jersey 9 Culture

9.1 Media

9.1.1 Broadcast 9.1.2 Daily newspaper

9.2 Music 9.3 Cinema 9.4 Food and drink 9.5 Sport 9.6 Literature

10 Education

10.1 Schools 10.2 Further and higher education

11 Environment

11.1 Biodiversity

12 Emergency services 13 Notable people 14 See also 15 Footnotes and references 16 Further reading

16.1 Archaeology 16.2 Cattle 16.3 Religion

17 External links

Toponymy[edit] Main article: Name of Jersey Origin of the name[edit] The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
are mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary
Antonine Itinerary
as the following: Sarnia, Caesarea, Barsa, Silia and Andium, but Jersey cannot be identified specifically because none corresponds directly to the present names.[22] The name Caesarea has been used as the Latin name for Jersey
Jersey
(also in its French version Césarée) since William Camden's Britannia,[23] and is used in titles of associations and institutions today. The Latin name Caesarea was also applied to the colony of New Jersey
New Jersey
as Nova Caesarea.[24][25] Andium, Agna and Augia were used in antiquity. Scholars variously surmise that Jersey
Jersey
and Jèrri derive from jarð (Old Norse for "earth") or jarl (earl), or perhaps a personal name, Geirr ("Geirr's Island").[26] The ending -ey denotes an island[27][28] (as in Guernsey
Guernsey
or Surtsey). History[edit] Main article: History of Jersey See also: Archaeology of the Channel Islands, Maritime history of the Channel Islands, and German occupation of the Channel Islands

An 1893 painting of the Assize d'Heritage by John St Helier
Helier
Lander.

Jersey
Jersey
history is influenced by its strategic location between the northern coast of France
France
and the southern coast of England; the island's recorded history extends over a thousand years. La Cotte de St Brelade is a Palaeolithic site inhabited before rising sea levels transformed Jersey
Jersey
into an island. Jersey
Jersey
was a centre of Neolithic
Neolithic
activity, as demonstrated by the concentration of dolmens. Evidence of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and early Iron Age
Iron Age
settlements can be found in many locations around the island. In June 2012 it was announced what could be Europe's largest hoard of Iron Age
Iron Age
coins had been found in Grouville
Grouville
by two persons using metal detectors. The hoard may be worth up to £10 M. People had been searching for this treasure for 30 years. It was reported that the hoard weighed about three quarters of a tonne and could contain up to 50,000 Roman and Celtic coins.[29] In 2012 the same two men had found 60 Iron Age
Iron Age
coins in the same area.[30] Additional archaeological evidence of Roman influence has been found, in particular at Les Landes, the coastal headland site at Le Pinacle, where remains of a primitive structure are attributed to Gallo-Roman temple worship (fanum).[31] Jersey
Jersey
was part of Neustria
Neustria
with the same Gallo-Frankish population as the continental mainland. Jersey, the whole Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and the Cotentin peninsula
Cotentin peninsula
(probably with the Avranchin) came formerly under the control of the duke of Brittany
Brittany
during the Viking
Viking
invasions, because the king of the Franks was unable to defend them, however they remained in the archbishopric of Rouen. Jersey
Jersey
was invaded by Vikings in the 9th century. In 933 it was annexed to the future Duchy of Normandy, together with the other Channel Islands, Cotentin and Avranchin, by William Longsword, count of Rouen and it became one of the Norman Islands. When William's descendant, William the Conqueror, conquered England
England
in 1066, the Duchy of Normandy
Duchy of Normandy
and the kingdom of England
England
were governed under one monarch.[32] The Dukes of Normandy owned considerable estates in the island, and Norman families living on their estates established many of the historical Norman-French Jersey
Jersey
family names. King John lost all his territories in mainland Normandy
Normandy
in 1204 to King Philip II Augustus, but retained possession of Jersey
Jersey
and the other Channel Islands.[33] In the Treaty of Paris (1259), the English king formally surrendered his claim to the duchy of Normandy
Normandy
and ducal title, and since then the islands have been internally self-governing territories of the English crown and latterly the British crown.[34] On 7 October 1406, 1,000 French men at arms led by Pero Niño
Pero Niño
invaded Jersey, landing at St Aubin’s Bay and defeated the 3,000 defenders but failed to capture the island.[35]:50–1 In the late 16th century, islanders travelled across the North Atlantic to participate in the Newfoundland fisheries.[36] In recognition for help given to him during his exile in Jersey
Jersey
in the 1640s, King Charles II of England
Charles II of England
gave Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies in between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, which he promptly named New Jersey. It is now a state in the United States.[37][38]

Liberation Day
Liberation Day
celebrations in Jersey, 9 May 2012

Aware of the military importance of Jersey, the British government had ordered that the island be heavily fortified. On 6 January 1781, a French invasion force of 2,000 men set out to take over the island, but only half of the force arrived and landed. The Battle of Jersey lasted about half an hour, with Britain successfully defending the island. There were about thirty casualties on each side, and the British took 600 French prisoners whom were subsequently sent to England. Both British and French commanders were slain.[39] Trade laid the foundations of prosperity, aided by neutrality between England
England
and France.[40] The Jersey
Jersey
way of life involved agriculture, milling, fishing, shipbuilding and production of woollen goods. 19th century improvements in transport links brought tourism to the island. During the Second World War, some citizens were evacuated to the UK but most remained. Jersey
Jersey
was occupied by Germany from 1 July 1940 until 9 May 1945, when Germany surrendered.[41] During this time the Germans constructed many fortifications using Soviet slave labour. After 1944, supplies from mainland France
France
were interrupted by the D-Day landings, and food on the island became scarce. The SS Vega was sent to the island carrying Red Cross
Red Cross
supplies and news of the success of the Allied advance in Europe. The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
were one of the last places in Europe
Europe
to be liberated. 9 May is celebrated as the island's Liberation Day, where there are celebrations in Liberation Square. Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Jersey

The States building in St. Helier

Jersey's unicameral legislature is the Assembly of the States of Jersey. It includes 49 elected members: 8 senators (elected on an island-wide basis), 12 Connétables (often called 'constables', heads of parishes) and 29 deputies (representing constituencies), all elected for four-year terms as from the October 2011 elections.[42] There are also five non-voting members appointed by the Crown: the Bailiff, the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey, the Dean of Jersey, the Attorney General and Solicitor General.[43] Jersey
Jersey
has one of the lowest voter turnouts internationally, with just 33% of the electorate voting in 2005, putting it well below the 77% European average for that year.[44] The government is a Council of Ministers, consisting of a Chief Minister and nine ministers.[45] Each minister may appoint up to two assistant ministers.[46] A Chief Executive is head of the civil service.[47] Some government functions are carried out in the island's 12 parishes. The Bailiff is President (presiding officer) of the States Assembly,[48] head of the judiciary and as civic head of the island carries out various ceremonial roles. As one of the Crown dependencies, Jersey
Jersey
is autonomous and self-governing, with its own independent legal, administrative and fiscal systems.[49] In 1973, the Royal Commission on the Constitution set out the duties of the Crown as including: ultimate responsibility for the 'good government' of the Crown dependencies; ratification of island legislation by Order in Council (Royal Assent); international representation, subject to consultation with the island authorities before concluding any agreement which would apply to them; ensuring the islands meet their international obligations; and defence.[50] Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
reigns in Jersey
Jersey
as Queen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and her other Realms and Territories.[51]

Sir John Chalmers McColl as Lieutenant Governor of Jersey

"The Crown" is defined by the Law Officers of the Crown as the "Crown in right of Jersey".[52] The Queen's representative and adviser in the island is the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey. He is a point of contact between Jersey
Jersey
ministers and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government and carries out executive functions in relation to immigration control, deportation, naturalisation and the issue of passports.[53] Since September 2011, the incumbent Lieutenant Governor has been General Sir John McColl. Legal system[edit] Main article: Law of Jersey Jersey
Jersey
is a distinct jurisdiction for the purposes of conflict of laws, separate from the other Channel Islands, England
England
and Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland.[54] Jersey
Jersey
law has been influenced by several different legal traditions, in particular Norman customary law, English common law and modern French civil law.[55] Jersey's legal system is therefore described as 'mixed' or 'pluralistic', and sources of law are in French and English languages, although since the 1950s the main working language of the legal system is English. The principal court is the Royal Court, with appeals to the Jersey Court of Appeal and, ultimately, to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The Bailiff is head of the judiciary; the Bailiff and the Deputy Bailiff are appointed by the Crown. Other members of the island's judiciary are appointed by the Bailiff. Parishes[edit] Main article: Parishes of Jersey

The parishes of Jersey

Administratively, Jersey
Jersey
is divided into 12 parishes. All border on the sea. They were named after the Christian saints to whom their ancient parish churches were dedicated:

Grouville
Grouville
(historically Saint
Saint
Martin de Grouville; incorporating Les Minquiers) Saint
Saint
Brélade Saint
Saint
Clément Saint
Saint
Helier Saint
Saint
John Saint
Saint
Lawrence Saint
Saint
Martin (historically Saint
Saint
Martin le Vieux; incorporating Les Écréhous) Saint
Saint
Mary Saint
Saint
Ouen Saint
Saint
Peter Saint
Saint
Saviour Trinity

The parishes of Jersey
Jersey
are further divided into vingtaines (or, in St. Ouen, cueillettes), divisions that are historic. Today they are used chiefly for purposes of local administration and electoral constituency. The Connétable is the head of each parish, elected at a public election for a four-year term to run the parish and to represent the municipality in the Assembly of the States of Jersey. The Procureur du Bien Public (two in each parish) is the legal and financial representative of the parish (elected at a public election since 2003 in accordance with the Public Elections (Amendment) (Jersey) Law 2003; formerly an Assembly of Electors of each parish elected the Procureurs in accordance with the Loi (1804) au sujet des assemblées paroissiales). A Procureur du Bien Public
Procureur du Bien Public
is elected for three years as a public trustee for the funds and property of the parish and may contract when authorised by a Parish Assembly. The Parish Assembly is the decision-making body of local government in each parish; it consists of all entitled voters of the parish. Each parish elects its own force of Honorary Police
Honorary Police
consisting of Centeniers, Vingteniers and Constable's Officers. Centeniers are elected at a public election within each parish for a term of three years to undertake policing within the parish. The Centenier
Centenier
is the only officer authorised to charge and bail offenders. Formerly, the senior Centenier
Centenier
of each parish (entitled the Chef de Police) deputised for the Connétable in the States of Jersey when the Connétable was unable to attend a sitting of the States. This function has now been abolished. International relations[edit] Main article: External relations of Jersey

Jersey Airport
Jersey Airport
greets travellers with "Welcome to Jersey" sign in Jèrriais.

Although diplomatic representation is reserved to the Crown, Jersey has been developing its own international identity over recent years. It negotiates directly with foreign governments on matters within the competence of the States of Jersey. Jersey
Jersey
maintains the Bureau des Iles Anglo-Normandes in Caen, France, a permanent non-diplomatic representation. A similar office, the Maison de Normandie in St. Helier, represents the Conseil général of Manche
Manche
and the Regional Council of Normandy. It also houses the Consulate of France. In July 2009, a Channel Islands
Channel Islands
Tunnel was proposed to connect Jersey
Jersey
with Lower Normandy.[56] Jersey
Jersey
is a member of the British-Irish Council, the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Assemblée parlementaire de la Francophonie. Jersey
Jersey
wants to become a full member of the Commonwealth in its own right.[57] International identity[edit] In 2007, the Chief Minister and the UK Lord Chancellor
Lord Chancellor
signed an agreement[15] that established a framework for the development of the international identity of Jersey. In January 2011, the Chief Minister designated one of his assistant ministers as having responsibility for external relations; he is now often described as the island's 'foreign minister'.[58][59] Tax information exchange agreements (TIEAs) have been signed directly by the island with several countries.[60] Relationship with the European Union[edit] See also: Special
Special
member state territories and the European Union Jersey
Jersey
is neither a Member State nor an Associate Member of the European Union. It does, however, have a relationship with the EU governed by article 335(5)(c) TFEU giving effect to Protocol 3 to the UK’s Treaty of Accession in 1972.[61] However, Jersey
Jersey
does not appear on the list of European States and Territories outside the Union and the Communities prepared by the European Council and the Commission. This is a result of the manner of implementation of the Treaty arrangements under the Act of Accession in 1972. Jersey
Jersey
would have been fully within the European Communities like Gibraltar, being a European territory for whose external relations the United Kingdom was responsible, but that that is limited to the Protocol 3 arrangements under article 355 TFEU to reflect the then existing relationship with the United Kingdom. Under Protocol 3, Jersey
Jersey
is part of the European Union
European Union
Customs Union of the European Community. The common customs tariff, levies and other agricultural import measures apply to trade between the island and non-Member States. There is free movement of goods and trade between the island and Member States. EU rules on freedom of movement for workers do not apply in Jersey.[62] However, Article 4 of the Protocol requires the island's authorities to give the same treatment to all natural and legal persons of the Communities. In Pereira, the ECJ held that the scope of this article included any matter governed by the Treaties in a territory where the Treaties are fully applicable. The island is therefore within the scope of the Treaties to a limited extent, as a European Territory. To infer, as the French Ambassador and finance minister have attempted to argue, namely that the island is outside the European Union
European Union
and Communities without qualification is therefore simplistic, in law false. The German blacklisting of the island had to be hastily revoked when this was pointed out. As a result, Jersey
Jersey
is not part of the single market in financial services. It is not required to implement EU Directives on such matters as movement of capital, company law or money laundering. However, the island's close proximity (135 km south) and its close association with the financial sector of the U.K. has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years, with several mainline publications (e.g., The Wall Street Journal) labelling the island a tax haven.[63] British citizens who have only a connection to Jersey, and not with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or another member state of the European Union, are not considered by the Jersey
Jersey
States to be European Union
European Union
citizens.[64] They have 'Islander status' and their Jersey-issued British passports are endorsed with the words the holder is not entitled to benefit from EU provisions relating to employment or establishment.[65] However, it is not yet clear whether the citizenship rights in articles 18 and 21 TFEU are partly available to them as British Citizens, given the limited restriction of their rights under article 2 of the Protocol. That restriction on the exercise of certain freedoms does not apply to all Community or Union rights. The freedom of movement under the prior EC régime was and remains a separate set of rights from the Citizen rights under article 20 and 21 TFEU which include the right to move and reside. Those rights are primary citizenship rights, not a mere freedom. It might not need a Treaty change to perfect this, merely a preliminary ruling from the CJEU, and supplementary implementation measures from the Council, given the effective right of entrance and residence granted to EU nationals via Article 4 of the Protocol. Jersey
Jersey
residents presently do not have a right to vote in elections for the European Parliament. Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
jointly opened an office in Brussels
Brussels
in 2010 to promote their common interests with European Union
European Union
institutions.[66] The effect of the UK leaving the European Union
European Union
is uncertain. The UK have confirmed that the Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
position will be argued in the Brexit negotiations. Separation debate[edit] See also: Devolution in the United Kingdom
Devolution in the United Kingdom
and European microstates The question of an independent Jersey
Jersey
has been discussed from time to time in the Assembly of the States of Jersey. In 2005–08, a working group of the States of Jersey examined the options for independence, concluding that Jersey
Jersey
'is equipped to face the challenges of independence' but making no recommendations.[67] Proposals for Jersey independence continue to be discussed outside the States.[68][69] In October 2012, the Council of Ministers issued a "Common policy for external relations"[13] which noted "that it is not Government policy to seek independence from the United Kingdom, but rather to ensure that Jersey
Jersey
is prepared if it were in the best interests of islanders to do so". On the basis of the established principles the Council of Ministers decided to "ensure that Jersey
Jersey
is prepared for external change that may affect the island’s formal relationship with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and/or European Union". Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Jersey

Satellite view of Jersey

Bonne Nuit bay

Map of islands of Bailiwick of Jersey

Jersey
Jersey
is an island measuring 118.2 square kilometres[4] (66,436 vergées[4]  / 44.87 sq mi), including reclaimed land and intertidal zone. It lies in the English Channel, about 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) from the Cotentin Peninsula
Cotentin Peninsula
in Normandy, France, and about 87 nautical miles (161 km; 100 mi) south of Great Britain.[70] It is the largest and southernmost of the Channel Islands, with a maximum land elevation of 143 m (469 ft) above sea level. Climate[edit] The climate is temperate with mild winters and mild to warm summers.[71] The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
has a moderating effect on temperature in Jersey, as water has a much greater specific heat capacity than air and tends to heat and cool slowly throughout the year. This has a warming influence on coastal areas in winter and a cooling influence in summer. The highest temperature recorded was 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) on 9 August 2003, and the lowest temperature recorded was −10.3 °C (13.5 °F) on 5 January 1894. By comparison, higher temperatures are found in mainland United Kingdom, which achieved 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in Faversham, Kent
Kent
on 10 August 2003. The impact of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and coastal winds ensure that Jersey
Jersey
is slightly cooler than the southern and central parts of England
England
during the summer months. Snow falls rarely in Jersey; some years will pass with no snow fall at all. The terrain consists of a plateau sloping from long sandy bays in the south to rugged cliffs in the north. The plateau is cut by valleys running generally north-south. The following table contains the official Met Office station averages for 1981–2010 for Jersey, being located 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) from St. Helier.

Climate data for Jersey
Jersey
station, elevation 84 m, 1981–2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.0 (57.2) 18.0 (64.4) 20.3 (68.5) 25.0 (77) 28.0 (82.4) 33.0 (91.4) 33.9 (93) 36.0 (96.8) 30.2 (86.4) 26.0 (78.8) 21.0 (69.8) 16.0 (60.8) 36.0 (96.8)

Average high °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 8.4 (47.1) 10.4 (50.7) 12.5 (54.5) 15.8 (60.4) 18.4 (65.1) 20.4 (68.7) 20.6 (69.1) 18.7 (65.7) 15.4 (59.7) 11.7 (53.1) 9.2 (48.6) 14.2 (57.6)

Average low °C (°F) 4.3 (39.7) 3.8 (38.8) 5.3 (41.5) 6.5 (43.7) 9.3 (48.7) 11.8 (53.2) 13.9 (57) 14.3 (57.7) 12.9 (55.2) 10.6 (51.1) 7.5 (45.5) 5.0 (41) 8.8 (47.8)

Record low °C (°F) −10.3 (13.5) −9.0 (15.8) −3.3 (26.1) −1.6 (29.1) 0.0 (32) 5.9 (42.6) 9.0 (48.2) 7.7 (45.9) 6.0 (42.8) −2.6 (27.3) −3.0 (26.6) −4.0 (24.8) −10.3 (13.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 93.1 (3.665) 68.9 (2.713) 66.1 (2.602) 56.4 (2.22) 55.6 (2.189) 47.5 (1.87) 44.6 (1.756) 49.5 (1.949) 63.9 (2.516) 103.4 (4.071) 105.4 (4.15) 113.9 (4.484) 865.8 (34.087)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.6 91.6 134.0 196.5 236.7 245.4 252.7 235.3 184.6 118.8 79.9 63.2 1,904.8

Source #1: Met Office[72]

Source #2: Voodoo Skies[73]

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Jersey Jersey's economy is based on financial services (40% of GVA in 2012), tourism and hospitality (hotels, restaurants, bars, transport and communications totalling 8.4% of GVA in 2012), retail and wholesale (7% of GVA in 2012), construction (6.2% of GVA in 2012) and agriculture (1.3% of GVA in 2012).[4] Thanks to specialisation in a few high-return sectors, at purchasing power parity Jersey
Jersey
has high economic output per capita, substantially ahead of all of the world's large developed economies. Gross national income in 2009 was £3.7 billion (approximately £40,000 per head of population).[4] However, this is not indicative of each individual resident's purchasing power, and the actual standard of living in Jersey
Jersey
is comparable to that in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
outside central London. The island is recognised as one of the leading offshore financial centres. The growth of this sector however has not been without its controversies as Jersey
Jersey
has been characterised by critics and detractors as a place in which the "leadership has essentially been captured by global finance, and whose members will threaten and intimidate anyone who dissents."[44] In June 2005 the States introduced the Competition (Jersey) Law 2005[74] to regulate competition and stimulate economic growth. This competition law was based on that of other jurisdictions. Tourism supports not only hotels, but also retail and services: in 2015 there were 717,600 visitors spending £243 million.[75] Duty-free goods are available for purchase on travel to and from the island.

Aerial view of fields in Saint
Saint
Clement, Jersey

In 2009 57% of the Island's area was agricultural land (an increase on 2008). Major agricultural products are potatoes and dairy produce; agriculture's share of GVA increased 5% in 2009, a fifth successive year of growth.[4] Jersey cattle
Jersey cattle
are a small breed of cow widely known for its rich milk and cream; the quality of its meat is also appreciated on a small scale.[76][77] The herd total in 2009 was 5,090 animals.[4] Fisheries
Fisheries
and aquaculture make use of Jersey's marine resources to a total value of over £6 million in 2009.[4] Farmers and growers often sell surplus food and flowers in boxes on the roadside, relying on the honesty of customers to drop the correct change into the money box and take what they want. In the 21st century, diversification of agriculture and amendments in planning strategy have led to farm shops replacing many of the roadside stalls. 53,460 people were employed in Jersey
Jersey
as of December 2010: 24% in financial and legal services; 16% in wholesale and retail trades; 16% in the public sector; 10% in education, health and other private sector services; 10% in construction and quarrying; 9% in hotels, restaurants and bars.[4] Jersey
Jersey
along with Guernsey
Guernsey
has its own lottery called the Channel Islands Lottery that was launched in 1975. On 18 February 2005, Jersey
Jersey
was granted Fairtrade Island status.[78] Taxation[edit]

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Until the 20th century, the States relied on indirect taxation to finance the administration of Jersey. The levying of impôts (duties) different from those of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was granted by Charles II and remained in the hands of the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats until 1921 when that body's tax raising powers were transferred to the Assembly of the States, leaving the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats to serve simply as licensing bench for the sale of alcohol (this fiscal reform also stripped the Lieutenant-Governor of most of his effective remaining administrative functions). The Income Tax Law of 1928 introducing income tax was the first law drafted entirely in English. Income tax
Income tax
has been levied at a flat rate of 20% set by the occupying Germans during the Second World War. Because value added tax (VAT) has not been levied in the island, luxury goods have often been cheaper than in the UK or in France, providing an incentive for tourism from neighbouring countries. The absence of VAT has also led to the growth of the fulfilment industry, whereby low-value luxury items, such as videos, lingerie and contact lenses are exported, avoiding VAT on arrival and thus undercutting local prices on the same products. In 2005, the States of Jersey announced limits on licences granted to non-resident companies trading in this way. Low-value consignment relief provided the mechanism for VAT-free imports from the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
to the UK until 1 April 2012, at which time this policy of the UK government was binned. Although Jersey
Jersey
does not have VAT, the States of Jersey introduced a goods and services tax (GST) on 6 May 2008, at a standard rate of 3%. The rate was amended to 5% on 1 June 2011. Although GST is at 5%, shopping in Jersey
Jersey
is still far more expensive than in the UK. Food is not exempt, unlike with VAT. Jersey
Jersey
is not subject to European Union
European Union
fiscal legislation, and its "Zero/Ten" corporate tax legislation will be compliant with the Code of Conduct in business taxation as from the removal of the deemed distribution and attribution anti-avoidance legislation as of 31 December 2011, which was apparently criticised by certain unnamed members of the Code of Conduct Group, a subsidiary body of ECOFIN. The Code of Conduct Group,[79] at least in theory, keeps most of its documentation and discussion confidential. The European Commission
European Commission
has confirmed that the Code is not a legal instrument, and therefore is not legally binding, only becoming of limited "political" authority once a unanimous report has been adopted by the Group at the end of the Presidency concerned. Jersey
Jersey
is ranked as a tax haven by many organisations with the Financial Secrecy Index ranking Jersey
Jersey
as 16th, one rank behind the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as of 2015[update]. Currency[edit]

Twin cash machines at a bank that dispensed a choice of Bank of England
England
or Jersey
Jersey
banknotes. Since the intervention of the Treasurer of the States in 2005, cash machines generally (with the exception of those at the airport and Elizabeth Harbour) no longer dispense British notes.

Main article: Jersey
Jersey
pound

Jersey
Jersey
stamps commemorating the 150th anniversary of the birth of General William Mesny

Jersey
Jersey
issues its own postage stamps and Jersey
Jersey
banknotes and coins that circulate with UK coinage, Bank of England
England
notes, Scottish notes and Guernsey
Guernsey
currency within the island. Jersey
Jersey
currency is not legal tender outside Jersey: However, in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
it is acceptable tender[80] and can be surrendered at banks within that country in exchange for Bank of England-issued currency on a like-for-like basis. Coinage[edit] Designs on the reverse of Jersey
Jersey
coins:

  1p Le Hocq
Le Hocq
Tower (coastal defence)   2p L'Hermitage, site where St. Helier
Helier
lived   5p Seymour Tower (offshore defence) 10p La Pouquelaye de Faldouet (dolmen) 20p La Corbière
La Corbière
Lighthouse 50p Grosnez Castle
Grosnez Castle
(ruins)

The main currency of Jersey
Jersey
is the pound, although in many places the euro is accepted because of the location of the island. Pound coins are issued, but are much less widely used than pound notes. Designs on the reverse of Jersey pound
Jersey pound
coins include historic ships built in Jersey
Jersey
and a series of the twelve parishes' crests. The motto around the milled edge of Jersey pound
Jersey pound
coins is Insula Caesarea (Island of Jersey). Two pound coins are also issued, but in very small quantities. In July 2014, the Jersey
Jersey
Financial Services Commission approved the establishment of the world's first regulated Bitcoin
Bitcoin
fund, at a time when the digital currency was being accepted by some local businesses.[81] Demographics[edit]

Mont Orgueil
Mont Orgueil
was built in the 13th century after its split from Normandy.

Main article: Demographics of Jersey Censuses have been undertaken in Jersey
Jersey
since 1821. In the 2011 census, the total resident population was estimated to be 97,857, of whom 34% live in Saint
Saint
Helier, the island's only town.[82] Only half the island's population was born in Jersey; 31% of the population were born elsewhere in the British Isles, 7% in continental Portugal or Madeira, 8% in other European countries and 4% elsewhere.[83] The people of Jersey
Jersey
are often called Islanders or, in individual terms, Jerseyman or Jerseywoman. Some Jersey-born people identify as British.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1871 56,627 —    

1951 55,244 −2.4%

1961 59,489 +7.7%

1971 69,329 +16.5%

1981 76,050 +9.7%

1991 84,082 +10.6%

2001 87,186 +3.7%

2011 97,857 +12.2%

2014 100,080 +2.3%

Immigration[edit] Jersey
Jersey
belongs to the Common Travel Area[84] and the definition of "United Kingdom" in the British Nationality Act 1981 is interpreted as including the UK and the Islands together.[17] For immigration and nationality purposes, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
generally treats Jersey
Jersey
as though it were part of the UK. Jersey
Jersey
is constitutionally entitled to restrict immigration[85] by non-Jersey residents, but control of immigration at the point of entry cannot be introduced for British, certain Commonwealth and EEA nationals without change to existing international law.[86] Immigration is therefore controlled by a mixture of restrictions on those without residential status purchasing or renting property in the island and restrictions on employment. Migration policy is to move to a registration system to integrate residential and employment status.[86] Jersey
Jersey
maintains its own immigration[87] and border controls. United Kingdom
United Kingdom
immigration legislation may be extended to Jersey
Jersey
by order in council (subject to exceptions and adaptations) following consultation with Jersey
Jersey
and with Jersey's consent.[88] Although Jersey
Jersey
citizens are full British citizens, an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in European Union
European Union
states other than the UK is placed in the passports of British citizens connected solely with the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Isle of Man.[89] Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom, or who have lived in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
for five years, are not subject to this restriction. Historical large-scale immigration was facilitated by the introduction of steamships (from 1823). By 1840, up to 5,000 English people, mostly half-pay officers and their families, had settled in Jersey.[23] In the aftermath of 1848, Polish, Russian, Hungarian, Italian and French political refugees came to Jersey. Following Louis Napoléon's coup of 1851, more French proscrits arrived. By the end of the 19th century, well-to-do British families, attracted by the lack of income tax, were settling in Jersey
Jersey
in increasing numbers, establishing St Helier
Helier
as a predominantly English-speaking town. Seasonal work in agriculture had depended mostly on Bretons and mainland Normans from the 19th century. The growth of tourism attracted staff from the United Kingdom. Following liberation in 1945, agricultural workers were mostly recruited from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– the demands of reconstruction in mainland Normandy
Normandy
and Brittany employed domestic labour. Until the 1960s, the population had been relatively stable for decades at around 60,000 (excluding the Occupation years). Economic growth spurred immigration and a rise in population, which is now (2013) about 100,000. From the 1960s Portuguese workers arrived, mostly working initially in seasonal industries in agriculture and tourism. Immigration has helped give aspects of Jersey
Jersey
a distinct urban character, particularly in and around the parish of St Helier, which contributes much to ongoing debates between development and sustainability throughout the island.[90] Religion in Jersey[edit] Main article: Religion in Jersey Religion in Jersey
Religion in Jersey
has a complex history, drawn largely from different Christian denominations. In 2015, Jersey's first ever national survey of religion found that two fifths of Jersey
Jersey
people have no religion, with only small handfuls of Jersey
Jersey
people belonging to the non-Christian religions. In total, 54% said they had some form of religion, and 7% were not sure.Of those that specified a denomination of Christianity, equal proportions were ‘Catholic’ or ‘Roman Catholic’ (43%) as were ‘Anglican’ or ‘Church of England’ (44%). The remaining eighth (13%) gave another Christian denomination.[91] The established church is the Church of England, from 2015 under the See of Canterbury (previously under the Winchester diocese). In the countryside, Methodism
Methodism
found its traditional stronghold. A substantial minority of Roman Catholics can also be found in Jersey. There are two Catholic private combined primary and secondary schools: De La Salle College in Saint
Saint
Saviour is an all-boys school, and Beaulieu Convent School in Saint
Saint
Saviour is an all-girls school; and FCJ primary school in St. Saviour. A Catholic order of Sisters has a presence in school life. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Jersey

Jèrriais
Jèrriais
road sign ("The black road") in Saint
Saint
Ouen.

Until the 19th century, indigenous Jèrriais
Jèrriais
– a variety of Norman – was the language of the island, though French was used for official business. During the 20th century, British cultural influence saw an intense language shift take place and Jersey
Jersey
today is predominantly English-speaking.[20] Jèrriais
Jèrriais
nonetheless survives; around 2,600 islanders (three percent) are reckoned to be habitual speakers, and some 10,000 (12 percent) in all claim some knowledge of the language, particularly amongst the elderly in rural parishes. There have been efforts to revive Jèrriais
Jèrriais
in schools, and the highest number of declared Jèrriais
Jèrriais
speakers is in the capital.

Actress Lillie Langtry, nicknamed the Jersey
Jersey
Lily.

The dialects of Jèrriais
Jèrriais
differ in phonology and, to a lesser extent, lexis between parishes, with the most marked differences to be heard between those of the west and east. Many place names are in Jèrriais, and French and English place names are also to be found. Anglicisation of the place names increased apace with the migration of English people to the island. Some Neolithic
Neolithic
carvings are the earliest works of artistic character to be found in Jersey. Only fragmentary wall-paintings remain from the rich mediaeval artistic heritage, after the wholesale iconoclasm of the Calvinist Reformation
Reformation
of the 16th century. The island is particularly famous for the Battle of Flowers, a carnival held annually since 1902.[92] Other festivals include La Fête dé Noué[93] (Christmas festival), La Faîs'sie d'Cidre (cidermaking festival),[94] the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
air display, Jersey Live Music Festival, Branchage
Branchage
Film Festival, food festivals, and parish events. The island's patron saint is Saint
Saint
Helier.[95] Media[edit] Main article: Media of Jersey Broadcast[edit] Main article: Telecommunications in Jersey

A Channel Television crew interview the Bailiff of Jersey

BBC
BBC
Radio Jersey
Jersey
provides a radio service, and BBC
BBC
Channel Islands News with headquarters in Jersey
Jersey
provides a joint television news service with Guernsey. ITV Channel Television
ITV Channel Television
is a regional ITV franchise shared with the Bailiwick of Guernsey
Guernsey
but with its headquarters in Jersey. Channel 103
Channel 103
is a commercial radio station. Bailiwick Radio broadcasts two music services, Classics and Hits, online at bailiwickradio.com, Apple & Android apps and on TuneIn. Radio Youth FM is an internet radio station run by young people.[citation needed] Bailiwick Express is one of Jersey's digital online news sources.[citation needed] Daily newspaper[edit] Jersey
Jersey
has only one newspaper, the Jersey
Jersey
Evening Post, which is printed six days a week, and has been in publication since 1890. Music[edit]

The Band of the Island of Jersey
Jersey
play at many events[96]

The traditional folk music of Jersey
Jersey
was common in country areas until the mid-20th century. It cannot be separated from the musical traditions of continental Europe, and the majority of songs and tunes that have been documented have close parallels or variants, particularly in France. Most of the surviving traditional songs are in French, with a minority in Jèrriais. In contemporary music, Nerina Pallot
Nerina Pallot
has enjoyed international success. Music festivals include Jersey
Jersey
Live, Jersey
Jersey
Dead, Rock in the Park, Avanchi presents Jazz in July, the music section of the Jersey Eisteddfod and the Liberation Jersey
Jersey
Music Festival.[97] Cinema[edit] In 1909, T. J. West established the first cinema in the Royal Hall in St. Helier, which became known as West's Cinema in 1923 (demolished 1977). The first talking picture, The Perfect Alibi, was shown on 30 December 1929 at the Picture House in St. Helier. The Jersey
Jersey
Film Society was founded on 11 December 1947 at the Café Bleu, West's Cinema. The large Art Deco Forum Cinema was opened in 1935 – during the German occupation this was used for German propaganda films. The Odeon Cinema
Odeon Cinema
was opened 2 June 1952 and, was later rebranded in the early 21st century as the Forum cinema. Its owners, however, struggled to meet tough competition from the Cineworld Cinemas group, which opened a 10 screen multiplex on the waterfront centre in St. Helier
Helier
on reclaimed land in December 2002 and the Odeon closed its doors in late 2008. The Odeon is now a listed building.[98][99] Since 1997, Kevin Lewis (formerly of the Cine Centre and the New Forum) has arranged the Jersey
Jersey
Film Festival, a charity event showing the latest and also classic films outdoors in 35 mm on a big screen. The 2011 festival was held in Howard Davis Park, St Saviour, on the 13–19 August 2011.[100] First held in 2008, the Branchage
Branchage
Jersey
Jersey
International Film Festival[101] attracts filmmakers from all over the world. Food and drink[edit]

Jersey
Jersey
wonders, or mèrvelles, are a favourite snack consisting of fried dough, found especially at country fêtes. According to tradition, the success of cooking depends on the state of the tide.

Seafood has traditionally been important to the cuisine of Jersey: mussels (called moules in the island), oysters, lobster and crabs – especially spider crabs – ormers and conger. Jersey
Jersey
milk being very rich, cream and butter have played a large part in insular cooking. (See Channel Island milk) However, there is no indigenous tradition of cheese making, contrary to the custom of mainland Normandy, but some cheese is produced commercially. Jersey fudge, mostly imported and made with milk from overseas Jersey
Jersey
cattle herds, is a popular food product with tourists. Jersey Royal potatoes
Jersey Royal potatoes
are the local variety of new potato, and the island is famous for its early crop of Chats (small potatoes) from the south-facing côtils (steeply sloping fields). They were originally grown using vraic as a natural fertiliser giving them their own individual taste, only a small portion of those grown in the island still use this method. They are eaten in a variety of ways, often simply boiled and served with butter or when not as fresh fried in butter. Apples historically were an important crop. Bourdélots are apple dumplings, but the most typical speciality is black butter (lé nièr beurre), a dark spicy spread prepared from apples, cider and spices. Cider
Cider
used to be an important export. After decline and near-disappearance in the late 20th century, apple production is being increased and promoted. Besides cider, apple brandy is produced. Other production of alcohol drinks includes wine,[102] and in 2013 the first commercial vodkas made from Jersey Royal potatoes
Jersey Royal potatoes
were marketed.[103] Among other traditional dishes are cabbage loaf, Jersey
Jersey
wonders (les mèrvelles), fliottes, bean crock (les pais au fou), nettle (ortchie) soup, vraic buns. Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Jersey

A statue of Jersey
Jersey
golfer, Harry Vardon, stands at the entrance to the Royal Jersey
Jersey
Golf
Golf
Club

In its own right Jersey
Jersey
participates in the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
and in the biennial Island Games, which it first hosted in 1997 and more recently in 2015.[104] In sporting events in which Jersey
Jersey
does not have international representation, when the British Home Nations
Home Nations
are competing separately, islanders that do have high athletic skill may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations
Home Nations
– there are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent another Home Nation. Jersey
Jersey
is an associate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The Jersey cricket team plays in the Inter-insular match among others. The Jersey cricket team competed in the World Division 4, held in Tanzania
Tanzania
in October 2008, after recently finishing as runners-up and therefore being promoted from the World Division 5 held in Jersey. They also competed in the European Division 2, held in Guernsey
Guernsey
during August 2008. The youth cricket teams have been promoted to play in the European Division 1 alongside Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Guernsey. In two tournaments at this level Jersey
Jersey
have finished 6th. For horseracing, Les Landes
Les Landes
Racecourse can be found at Les Landes
Les Landes
in St. Ouen next to the ruins of Grosnez Castle. The Jersey Football Association
Jersey Football Association
supervises football in Jersey. The Jersey
Jersey
Football Combination has nine teams in its top division. Jersey national football team plays in the annual Muratti
Muratti
competition among others. Rugby union in Jersey comes under the auspices of the Jersey
Jersey
Rugby Association (JRA), which is a member of the Rugby Football Union
Rugby Football Union
of England. Jersey Reds
Jersey Reds
compete in the English rugby union system;[105] after four promotions in five seasons, the last three of which were consecutive, they competed in the second-level RFU Championship
RFU Championship
in 2012–13.[106] Jersey
Jersey
has two public indoor swimming pools. Swimming in the sea, windsurfing and other marine sports are practised. Jersey
Jersey
Swimming Club have organised an annual swim from Elizabeth Castle
Elizabeth Castle
to Saint Helier
Helier
Harbour for over 50 years. A round-island swim is a major challenge that a select number of swimmers have achieved. The Royal Channel Island Yacht Club is based in Jersey. There is one facility for extreme sports and some facilities for youth sports. Jersey
Jersey
has one un-roofed skateboarding park. Coastal cliffs provide opportunities for rock climbing. Two professional golfers from Jersey
Jersey
have won the Open Championship seven times between them; Harry Vardon
Harry Vardon
won six times and Ted Ray won once. Vardon and Ray also won the U.S. Open once each. Harry Vardon's brother, Tom Vardon, had wins on various European tours. Literature[edit]

Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
in exile, 1850s.

Wace, a Norman poet of the 12th century, is Jersey's earliest known author. Printing
Printing
arrived in Jersey
Jersey
only in the 1780s, but the island supported a multitude of regular publications in French (and Jèrriais) and English throughout the 19th century, in which poetry, most usually topical and satirical, flourished (see Jèrriais literature).The first Jèrriais
Jèrriais
book to be published was Rimes et Poésies Jersiaises de divers auteurs réunies et mises en ordre, edited by Abraham Mourant in 1865. Writers born in Jersey
Jersey
include Elinor Glyn, John Lemprière, Philippe Le Sueur Mourant, Robert Pipon Marett and Augustus Asplet Le Gros. Frederick Tennyson and Gerald Durrell were among authors who made Jersey
Jersey
their home. Contemporary authors based in Jersey
Jersey
include Jack Higgins. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Jersey Schools[edit] See also: List of schools in Jersey The States of Jersey provides education through state schools (including a fee-paying option at secondary level) and also supports private schools. The Jersey
Jersey
curriculum follows that of England.[21] It follows the National Curriculum although there are a few differences to adapt for the island,[107] for example all Year 4 students study a six-week Jersey
Jersey
Studies course.[108] Further and higher education[edit] Jersey
Jersey
has a college of further education and university centre, Highlands College. As well as offering part-time and evening courses, Highlands is also a sixth form provider, working alongside Hautlieu School which offers the only non-fee-paying sixth form, and works collaboratively with a range of organisations including the Open University, University of Plymouth
University of Plymouth
and London South Bank University. In particular students can study at Highlands for the two-year foundation degree in financial services and for a BSc in social sciences, both validated by the University of Plymouth. The Institute of Law is Jersey's law school, providing a course for students seeking to qualify as Jersey
Jersey
advocates and solicitors. It also provides teaching for students enrolled on the University of London LLB degree programme, via the International Programmes. The Institute of Law also runs a 'double degree' course: students can obtain the LLB from the University of London and a Licence en droit M1 from Toulouse 1 Capitol University; the two combine 4 years of studies in both English and French. The Open University
Open University
supports students in Jersey, but they pay higher fees than UK students. Private sector higher education providers include the Jersey
Jersey
International Business School. Environment[edit] Three areas of land are protected for their ecological or geological interest as Sites of Special
Special
Interest (SSI). Jersey
Jersey
has four designated Ramsar sites: Les Pierres de Lecq, Les Minquiers, Les Écréhous
Écréhous
and Les Dirouilles
Les Dirouilles
and the south east coast of Jersey
Jersey
(a large area of intertidal zone).[109] Jersey
Jersey
is the home of Durrell Wildlife Park
Durrell Wildlife Park
(formerly known as the Jersey
Jersey
Zoological Park) founded by the naturalist, zookeeper and author Gerald Durrell. Biodiversity[edit] Four species of small mammal are considered native:[110] the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), the Jersey
Jersey
bank vole (Myodes glareolus caesarius), the Lesser white-toothed shrew (Crocidura suaveolens) and the French shrew (Sorex coronatus). Three wild mammals are well-established introductions: the rabbit (introduced in the mediaeval period), the red squirrel and the hedgehog (both introduced in the 19th century). The stoat (Mustela erminea) became extinct in Jersey
Jersey
between 1976 and 2000. The Green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) is a protected species of reptile; Jersey
Jersey
is its only habitat in the British Isles.[111] The red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax became extinct in Jersey around 1900, when changes in farming and grazing practices led to a decline in the coastal slope habitat required by this species. Birds on the Edge, a project between States of Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust and Jersey
Jersey
National Trust, is working to restore Jersey's coastal habitats and reinstate the red-billed chough (and other bird species) to the island[112] Jersey
Jersey
is the only place in the British Isles
British Isles
where the agile frog Rana dalmatina is found.[113] The remaining population of agile frogs on Jersey
Jersey
is very small and is restricted to the south west of the island. The species is the subject of an ongoing programme to save it from extinction in Jersey
Jersey
via a collaboration between States of Jersey, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust
and Jersey
Jersey
Amphibian and Reptile Group (JARG), with support and sponsorship from several other organisations. The programme includes captive breeding and release, public awareness and habitat restoration activities.[114] Trees generally considered native are the alder (Alnus glutinosa), silver birch (Betula pendula), sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), hazel (Corylus avellana), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), aspen (Populus tremula), wild cherry (Prunus avium), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa), holm oak (Quercus ilex), oak (Quercus robur), sallow (Salix cinerea), elder (Sambucus nigra), elm ( Ulmus
Ulmus
spp.) and medlar (Mespilus germanica). Among notable introduced species, the cabbage palm (Cordyline australis) has been planted in coastal areas and may be seen in many gardens.[115] Notable marine species[116] include the ormer, conger, bass, undulate ray, grey mullet, ballan wrasse and garfish. Marine mammals include the bottlenosed dolphin[117] and grey seal.[118] Historically the island has given its name to a variety of overly-large cabbage, the Jersey
Jersey
cabbage, also known as Jersey
Jersey
kale or cow cabbage.[119] Japanese Knotweed Fallopia japonica is an invasive species that threatens Jersey's biodiversity.[120] It is easily recognisable and has hollow stems with small white flowers that are produced in late summer.[121] Other non-native species on the island include the Colorado beetle, burnet rose and oak processionary moth.[120] Emergency services[edit] Emergency services[122] are provided by the States of Jersey Police with the support of the Honorary Police
Honorary Police
as necessary, States of Jersey Ambulance Service,[123] Jersey
Jersey
Fire and Rescue Service[124] and the Jersey
Jersey
Coastguard.[125] The Jersey Fire and Rescue Service
Jersey Fire and Rescue Service
and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution
Royal National Lifeboat Institution
operate an inshore rescue and lifeboat service; Channel Islands
Channel Islands
Air Search provides rapid response airborne search of the surrounding waters.[126] The States of Jersey Fire Service was formed in 1938 when the States took over the Saint Helier
Saint Helier
Fire Brigade, which had been formed in 1901. The first lifeboat was equipped, funded by the States, in 1830. The RNLI established a lifeboat station in 1884.[127] Border security and customs controls are undertaken by the States of Jersey Customs and Immigration Service. Jersey
Jersey
has adopted the 112 emergency number alongside its existing 999 emergency number. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Jersey See also[edit]

Channel Islands
Channel Islands
portal Jersey
Jersey
portal Normandy
Normandy
portal

Outline of Jersey

Bibliography of Jersey

Geology of Jersey Jersey
Jersey
Post Jersey
Jersey
Telecom

Haut de la Garenne Living Legend (attraction) Transport in Jersey Victoria College, Jersey Royal Militia of the Island of Jersey

Footnotes and references[edit]

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Jersey
Bailiff William Bailhache
William Bailhache
sworn in". BBC. Retrieved 6 February 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i " Jersey
Jersey
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Jersey
facts and figures". Retrieved 18 May 2016.  ^ "Measuring Jersey's Economy" (PDF). 28 September 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.  ^ Filling Gaps in the Human Development Index
Human Development Index
Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine., United Nations ESCAP, February 2009 ^ " Jersey
Jersey
rejects time-zone change". BBC
BBC
News. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2008.  ^ https://www.gov.je/Leisure/Jersey/Pages/Profile.aspx ^ "Where is Jersey". Jersey
Jersey
Tourism. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2006.  ^ "Les Pierres de Lecq
Pierres de Lecq
(the Paternosters), Jersey
Jersey
Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar)". Protected Planet. Retrieved 8 July 2012. [dead link] ^ House of Commons Justice Committee. Crown dependencies. 8th Report of Session 2009–10 (HC 56-1 ed.). The Stationery Office Ltd. ISBN 978-0-215-55334-8.  ^ a b "COMMON POLICY FOR EXTERNAL RELATIONS" (PDF). States of Jersey. Retrieved 8 December 2012.  ^ "The British Monarchy: Channel Islands". Royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ a b "Framework for developing the international identity of Jersey" (PDF). Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "Civil Unreported Templates". Statesassembly.gov.je. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ a b "British Nationality Act 1981". Legislation, UK, Acts. Office of Public Sector Information. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 14 September 2009. the Islands” means the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man; [...] the United Kingdom” means Great Britain, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and the Islands, taken together;  ^ "WRITTEN QUESTION P-3620/02 by Wolfgang Ilgenfritz (NI) to the Commission. Position of Jersey
Jersey
in the EU". EUR-Lex. Retrieved 2 November 2016.  ^ "Jersey's relationship with the UK and EU". Gov.je. Retrieved 2 November 2016.  ^ a b "Facts about Jersey". Gov.je. 30 November 2015.  ^ a b "Understanding the curriculum". Gov.je. 30 November 2015.  ^ Dominique Fournier, Wikimanche. ^ a b Marguerite Syvret; Joan Stevens (1998). Balleine's History of Jersey. La Société Jersiaise. ISBN 1-86077-065-7.  ^ "The Duke of York's Release to John Lord Berkeley, and Sir George Carteret, 24th of June, 1664". avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 22 September 2011.  ^ "So what's all this stuff about Nova Caesarea??". avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 22 September 2011.  ^ "Jersey", Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names. John Everett-Heath. Oxford University Press 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Jersey
Jersey
Library. 6 October 2006 [1] ^ Lepelley, René (1999). Noms de lieux de Normandie et des îles Anglo-Normandes. Paris: Bonneton. ISBN 2862532479.  ^ "Old Norse Words in the Norman Dialect". Viking
Viking
Network.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
pair in 30-year search for Iron Age
Iron Age
coins". Bbc.co.uk. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
pair find more than 60 Iron Age
Iron Age
coins". Bbc.co.uk. 6 February 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "Countryside Character Appraisal – Character Area A1: North Coast Heathland". States of Jersey. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2006.  ^ "A Short Constitutional History of Jersey". Voisin & Co. 18 May 1999. Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2006.  ^ Liddicoat, Anthony (1 August 1994). A Grammar of the Norman French of the Channel Islands. Walter de Gruyter. p. 6. ISBN 3-11-012631-1.  ^ Liddicoat, Anthony (1 August 1994). A Grammar of the Norman French of the Channel Islands. Walter de Gruyter. p. 6. ISBN 3-11-012631-1.  ^ Syvret, Marguerite. Balleine’s History of Jersey. The History Press. ISBN 978-1860776502.  ^ Ommer, Rosemary E. (1991). From Outpost to Outport. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 0-7735-0730-2.  ^ Weeks, Daniel J. (1 May 2001). Not for Filthy Lucre's Sake. Lehigh University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-934223-66-1.  ^ Cochrane, Willard W. (30 September 1993). The Development of American Agriculture. University of Minnesota Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-8166-2283-3.  ^ Syvret and Stevens. Balleine's History of Jersey. Phillimore. ISBN 1-86077-065-7.  ^ Ommer, Rosemary E. (1991). From Outpost to Outport. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-7735-0730-2.  ^ Bellows, Tony. "What was the "Occupation" and why is "Liberation Day" celebrated in the Channel Islands?". Société Jersiaise. Retrieved 18 August 2013.  ^ " States of Jersey (Miscellaneous Provisions) Law 2011". Jerseylaw.je. 2 August 2011. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ " States of Jersey Law 2005, Article 1". Jerseylaw.je. 5 May 2006. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ a b Shaxson, N. (2011). Treasure islands: Tax havens and the men who stole the world. London: The Bodley Head. ^ " States of Jersey Law 2005, Article 18". Jerseylaw.je. 5 May 2006. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ " States of Jersey Law 2005, Article 24". Jerseylaw.je. 5 May 2006. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ States of Jersey Official Report, 3 May 2011, 5.1. Statement by the Chief Minister regarding the appointment of a new Chief Executive to the Council of Ministers. ^ " States of Jersey Law 2005, Article 3". Jerseylaw.je. 5 May 2006. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ House of Commons, Justice Committee (23 March 2010). Crown dependencies (PDF). 8th Report of Session 2009–10. London: The Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-215-55334-8.  ^ Royal Commission on the Constitution 1969–1973 (1973). Report. Part XI of Volume 1. London.  ^ Jersey
Jersey
Law Review. "Lé Rouai, Nouot' Duc". Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.  ^ "Public Hearing – Review of the Roles of the Crown Officers" (PDF). 20 July 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2011.  ^ Office of the Lieutenant Governor. "Lieutenant-Governor". Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2011.  ^ Collins of Mapesbury, Lord; More; McLean; Briggs; Harris; McLachlan (2010). Dicey, Morris & Collins on the Conflict of Laws (14th ed.). London: Sweet & Maxwell. ISBN 978-1-84703-461-8.  ^ See generally S Nicolle (2009). The Origin and Development of Jersey law: an Outline Guide (5th ed.). St Helier: Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
Law Review. ISBN 978-0-9557611-3-3.  and "Study Guide on Jersey Legal System and Constitutional Law". Jersey: Institute of Law. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013.  ^ "Jersey- France
France
tunnel plan talks". BBC
BBC
News. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2013.  ^ Jersey
Jersey
Evening Post, 23 September 2006 ^ "Meet our new foreign minister « This Is Jersey". Thisisjersey.com. Archived from the original on 17 January 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "A new role of great importance". Thisisjersey.com. 17 January 2011. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "TAX INFORMATION EXCHANGE AGREEMENTS (TIEAs)" (PDF). Retrieved 6 November 2011.  ^ Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Article 355(5)(c) TFEU states "the Treaties shall apply to the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
only to the extent necessary to ensure the implementation of the arrangements for those islands set out in the Treaty concerning the accession of new Member States to the European Economic Community and to the European Atomic Energy Community signed on 22 January 1972". ^ "''Rui Alberto Pereira Roque v His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor of Jersey'', Case C-171/96 (European Court of Justice)". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ Sesit, M (17 September 1996). "Offshore Hazard: Isle of Jersey Proves Less Than a Haven to Currency Investors". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ States of Jersey (4 February 2008). "Status of Channel Islands
Channel Islands
in the European Union" (PDF). Retrieved 20 December 2011.  ^ States of Jersey. "Islander status". Retrieved 23 August 2011.  ^ " Channel Islands
Channel Islands
appoint representative in Brussels", BBC
BBC
News, 25 January 2011  ^ "Second Interim Report of the Constitution Review Group". Statesassembly.gov.je. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ "Legal ideas of political importance". Thisisjersey.com. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "Sovereignty or dependency on agenda at conference". Thisisjersey.com. 17 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ Geographically it is not part of the British Isles. As of 15 October 2006, the States of Jersey indicates that the island is situated "only 22 km off the northwest coast of France
France
and 140 km south of England". ^ "CIA – The World Factbook
The World Factbook
– Jersey". Central Intelligence Agency. 5 October 2006. Retrieved 7 October 2006.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
Climate Normals 1981–2010". Met Office. May 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
Climate Extremes". Voodoo Skies. October 2015. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 8 October 2015.  ^ "Competition (Jersey) Law 2005" (PDF). Jcra.je. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Jersey, States of. "Tourism statistics". www.gov.je. Retrieved 2017-10-18.  ^ Davenport, Philippa (20 May 2006). "Jersey's cash cow". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 October 2006.  ^ Witmer, Jason (11 June 2004). "CROPP contracts brings profitability to Ohio grass-based, organic dairies". The Rodale Institute. Retrieved 7 October 2006.  ^ "Island achieves Fairtrade status". BBC
BBC
News. 24 February 2005. Retrieved 6 October 2006.  ^ ec.europa.eu: Taxation and Customs Union – Harmful tax competition – Code of Conduct ^ Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Lords, Westminster (6 December 2001). "Lords Hansard text for 6 Dec 2001 (211206-28)". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ " Jersey
Jersey
approve Bitcoin
Bitcoin
fund launch on island". BBC
BBC
news. Retrieved 10 July 2014.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
Census 2011 Bulletin no 1" (PDF). States of Jersey. December 2011.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
Census 2011 Bulletin no 2" (PDF). States of Jersey. January 2012.  ^ "Visas / entry clearances / work permit issue". Home Affairs, Customs & Immigration, Immigration. States of Jersey. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2009. Passengers arriving from outside of the Common Travel Area
Common Travel Area
(United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and the Isle of Man) will pass through an Immigration control.  ^ gov .je
.je
– Summary Policy Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b gov .je
.je
– Migration Monitoring and Regulation Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ gov .je
.je
– Immigration Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Lords, Westminster. "Answer by Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, Home Office, (Lord West of Spithead) in UK House of Lords 18 January 2010". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2011. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ gov .je
.je
– Passports – I have an observation in my passport that says – the holder is not entitled to benefit from EC Provisions relating to employment and settlement – what does that mean? Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Johnson, Henry (2016) Encountering Urbanization on Jersey: Development, Sustainability, and Spatiality in a Small Island Setting. Urban Island Studies. ^ Jersey
Jersey
Annual Social Survey: 2015 (PDF). States of Jersey. p. 8. Retrieved 2 December 2015.  ^ "The Jersey
Jersey
Battle of Flowers". Jersey
Jersey
Battle of Flowers Association. 2005. Archived from the original on 25 August 2006. Retrieved 15 October 2006.  ^ "La Fête dé Noué". Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ "La Faîs'sie d'Cidre". Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ Falle, Samuel. " Saint Helier
Saint Helier
Saint
Saint
Hélyi – Saint
Saint
Hélier". Geraint Jennings, Société Jersiaise. Archived from the original on 14 December 2004. Retrieved 15 October 2006.  ^ "Band of the Island of Jersey". Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ "Liberation Jersey
Jersey
Music Festival". Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ "Historic Document Reference : HE0024". Mygov.je. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "Former Odeon Cinema
Odeon Cinema
Building sold to Freedom Church Jersey". Archived from the original on 2 December 2012.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
Film Festival". Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ " Branchage
Branchage
Film Festival". Archived from the original on 15 September 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.  ^ "La Mare Wine Estate". Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ "Double vodka on the Rock". Jersey
Jersey
Evening Post. 1 June 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ " Island Games
Island Games
Jersey
Jersey
2015 Bid Home". Jersey2015.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
Rugby Football Club". Jrfc.je. Retrieved 26 April 2012.  ^ Pryor, Tim (23 April 2012). " Jersey
Jersey
promoted: The rise and rise of an island side". BBC
BBC
Radio Jersey. BBC
BBC
Sport. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ Jersey, States of. "Understanding the curriculum". www.gov.je. Retrieved 2017-07-17.  ^ "L'Office du Jèrriais". www.jerriais.org.je. Retrieved 2017-07-17.  ^ "Protected Coastlines (Ramsar)". States of Jersey www.gov.je. 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.  ^ Species Based Research Projects – The Jersey
Jersey
Mammal Survey Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Biodiversity Action Plan Archived 7 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Birds on the Edge Project". Retrieved 28 June 2016.  ^ "Agile frog protection plans". States of Jersey www.gov.je. 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.  ^ "Agile frog". Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2016.  ^ Trees in Jersey, The Jersey
Jersey
Association of Men of the Trees, Jersey 1997, ISBN 0-9530979-0-0 ^ "A-Z of Fish". Jersey.com. 21 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ [2] Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3] Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Giant cabbage «  Jersey
Jersey
Evening Post". Jerseyeveningpost.com. Retrieved 3 June 2014.  ^ a b Barnsley, S; Cary, E; Pienkowski, M; Wensink, C (2016). Measures of performance by 2016 of UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies in implementing the 2001 Environment Charters or their equivalents and moving towards the Aichi Targets and Sustainable Development Targets (PDF) (First ed.). UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum. pp. 97, 480. ISBN 978-1-911097-03-7. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ "Japanese knotweed". gov.je. Department of the Environment, States of Jersey. Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ [4] Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Contacts". Gov.je. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
Fire and Rescue Service". Gov.je. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ " Jersey
Jersey
Coastguard". Portofjersey.je. Archived from the original on 2 June 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ Ivor Bisson (3 February 2011). "CI Air Search Home page". Ci-airsearch.com. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ "St Helier
Helier
History". Rnli.org.uk. 14 December 1982. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of Jersey

Balleine's History of Jersey, Marguerite Syvret and Joan Stevens (1998) ISBN 1-86077-065-7 Jersey
Jersey
Through the Centuries, Leslie Sinel, Jersey
Jersey
1984, ISBN 0-86120-003-9 A Biographical Dictionary of Jersey, G.R. Balleine

Archaeology[edit]

The Archaeology of the Channel Islands. Vol. 2: The Bailiwick of Jersey
Jersey
by Jacquetta Hawkes (1939) The Prehistoric Foundations of Europe
Europe
to the Mycenean Age, 1940, C. F. C. Hawkes Jersey
Jersey
in Prehistory, Mark Patton, 1987 The Archaeology and Early History of the Channel Islands, Heather Sebire, 2005. Dolmens of Jersey: A Guide, James Hibbs (1988). A Guide to The Dolmens of Jersey, Peter Hunt, Société Jersiaise, 1998. Statements in Stone: Monuments and Society in Neolithic
Neolithic
Brittany, Mark Patton, 1993 Hougue Bie, Mark Patton, Warwick Rodwell, Olga Finch, 1999 The Channel Islands, An Archaeological
Archaeological
Guide, David Johnston, 1981 The Archaeology of the Channel Islands, Peter Johnston, 1986

Cattle[edit]

One Hundred Years of the Royal Jersey
Jersey
Agricultural and Horticultural Society 1833–1933. Compiled from the Society's Records, by H.G. Shepard, Secretary. Eric J. Boston. Jersey
Jersey
Cattle, 1954

Religion[edit]

The Channel Islands
Channel Islands
under Tudor Government, A.J. Eagleston Reformation
Reformation
and Society in Guernsey, D.M. Ogier International Politics and the Establishment of Presbyterianism in the Channel Islands: The Coutances Connection, C.S.L. Davies Religion, History and G.R. Balleine: The Reformation
Reformation
in Jersey, by J. St John Nicolle, The Pilot Magazine The Reformation
Reformation
in Jersey: The Process of Change over Two centuries, J. St John Nicolle The Chroniques de Jersey
Jersey
in the light of contemporary documents, BSJ, AJ Eagleston The Portrait of Richard Mabon, BSJ, Joan Stevens

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