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Baibars
Baibars
or Baybars (Arabic: الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري‎, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt
Sultan of Egypt
in the Mamluk
Mamluk
Bahri dynasty. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
of King Louis IX of France. He also led the vanguard of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260,[1] which marked the first substantial defeat of the Mongol army and is considered a turning point in history.[2] The reign of Baibars
Baibars
marked the start of an age of Mamluk
Mamluk
dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean and solidified the durability of their military system. He managed to pave the way for the end of the Crusader presence in the Levant
Levant
and reinforced the union of Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
as the region's pre-eminent Muslim state, able to fend off threats from both Crusaders and Mongols, and even managed to subdue the kingdom of Makuria, which was famous for being unconquerable by previous Muslim empire invasion attempts. As Sultan, Baibars
Baibars
also engaged in a combination of diplomacy and military action, allowing the Mamluks of Egypt
Egypt
to greatly expand their empire.

Contents

1 Name 2 Early life 3 Rise to power 4 Sultan of Egypt

4.1 Campaign against the Crusaders 4.2 Diplomacy with Golden Horde 4.3 Continued campaign against Crusaders 4.4 Campaign against Makuria 4.5 Campaign against the Mongols

5 Death 6 Family 7 Assessment 8 Legacy

8.1 Military legacy 8.2 Culture and science

9 In fiction 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Name[edit] His name was derived from Kipchak Turkic bay ("chief") + bars ("panther").[3] Early life[edit] Baibars
Baibars
was a Cuman born in the Dasht-i Kipchak, between the Edil (Volga) and Yaiyk (Ural) rivers.[4][5][6][7][8][9] There is a discrepancy in Ibn Taghrībirdī's dating of his birth, since he says it took place in 625 AH (12 December 1227–29 November 1228) and also that Baibars
Baibars
was about 24 years old in 1247, which would put his birth closer to 1223. He belonged to the Barli tribe. According to a fellow Cuman and eyewitness, Badr al-Din Baysari, the Barli fled the armies of the Mongols, arranging to settle in the Second Bulgarian Empire. They crossed the Black Sea
Black Sea
from either Crimea
Crimea
or Alania, where they had settled in the meantime, to Bulgaria about 1242. After a time, the Bulgarians turned on the Cumans
Cumans
and attacked them. Baysari and Baibars were among the captives and were sold into slavery in the Sultanate of Rum at the slave market in Sīwās. He was sold at Aleppo
Aleppo
to 'Alā’ al-Dīn Īdīkīn al-Bunduqārī, an Egyptian of high rank, who brought him to Cairo. In 1247, al-Bunduqārī was arrested and the sultan of Egypt, As-Salih Ayyub, confiscated his slaves, including Baibars.[10] Baibars
Baibars
was described as fair-skinned in contrast to the "swarthy" skin of the native Egyptians,[11] broadfaced with small eyes, very tall which was typical in both Arabic and European descriptions of Turkic men, and had a cataract in one of his eyes. Rise to power[edit]

The Mamluks under Baibars
Baibars
(yellow) fought off the Franks and the Mongols
Mongols
during the Ninth Crusade.

Baibars
Baibars
was a commander of the Mamluks under the Ayyubids. He may have been involved in the significant victory of the Egyptian army at the Battle of La Forbie, east of Gaza in 1244 in the aftermath of the Sixth Crusade. In around 1250 he defeated the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
of Louis IX of France. He was also involved in the Battle of Al Mansurah, where he employed an ingenious strategy in ordering the opening of a gate to let the crusader knights enter the town; the crusaders rushed into the town that they thought was deserted to find themselves trapped inside. They were besieged from all directions by the Egyptian forces and the town population, and suffered heavy losses. Robert of Artois, who took refuge in a house,[12][13] and William of Salisbury were both killed, along with most of the Knights Templar. Only five Templar
Templar
Knights escaped alive.[14] Baibars
Baibars
was still a commander under Sultan Qutuz
Qutuz
at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, when he decisively defeated the Mongols. After the battle, Sultan Qutuz
Qutuz
(aka Koetoez) was assassinated while on a hunting expedition. It was said that Baibars
Baibars
was involved in the assassination because he expected to be rewarded with the governorship of Aleppo
Aleppo
for his military success, but Qutuz, fearing his ambition, refused to give him the post.[15] Baibars
Baibars
succeeded Qutuz
Qutuz
as Sultan of Egypt.[16] Sultan of Egypt[edit] Once Baibars
Baibars
had ascended to the Sultanate, his authority was soon confirmed without any serious resistance, except from Sinjar al-Halabi, another Mamluk
Mamluk
amir who was popular and powerful enough to claim Damascus. Also, the threat from the Mongols
Mongols
was still serious enough to be considered as a threat to Baibars' authority. However, Baibars
Baibars
first chose to deal with Sinjar,[clarification needed] and marched on Damascus. At the same time the princes of Hama
Hama
and Homs proved able to defeat the Mongols
Mongols
in the First Battle of Homs, which lifted the Mongol threat for a while. On 17 January 1261, Baibars' forces were able to rout the troops of Sinjar outside Damascus, and pursued the attack to the city, where the citizens were loyal to Sinjar and resisted Baibars, although their resistance was soon crushed. After suppressing the revolt of Sinjar, Baibars
Baibars
then managed to deal with the Ayyubids, while quietly eliminating the prince of Kerak. Ayyubids such as Al-Ashraf Musa, Emir of Homs
Homs
and the Ayyubid
Ayyubid
Emir Dynasty
Dynasty
of Hama
Hama
(presumably Al-Afdal Muhammad), who had earlier staved off the Mongol threat, were permitted to continue their rule in exchange for their recognizing Baibars' authority as Sultan.[17] After the Abbasid caliphate
Abbasid caliphate
in Iraq was overthrown by the Mongols
Mongols
in 1258 when they conquered and sacked Baghdad, the Sunni Muslim world lacked a caliph, a theoretically supreme leader who had sometimes used his office to endow distant Muslim rulers with legitimacy by sending them writs of investiture. Thus, when the Abbasid refugee Abu al-Qasim Ahmad, the uncle of the last Abbasid caliph al-Musta‘sim, arrived in Cairo
Cairo
in 1261, Baibars
Baibars
had him proclaimed caliph as al-Mustansir II and duly received investiture as sultan from him. Unfortunately, al-Mustansir II was killed by the Mongols
Mongols
during an ill-advised expedition to recapture Baghdad from the Mongols
Mongols
later in the same year. In 1262, another Abbasid, allegedly the great-great-great grandson of the Caliph
Caliph
al-Mustarshid, Abu al-‘Abbas Ahmad, who had survived from the defeated expedition, was proclaimed caliph as al-Hakim I, inaugurating the line of Abbasid caliphs of Cairo
Cairo
that continued as long as the Mamluk
Mamluk
sultanate, until 1517. Like his unfortunate predecessor, al-Hakim I also received the formal oath of alliegance of Baibars
Baibars
and provided him with legitimation. While most of the Muslim world did not take these caliphs seriously, as they were mere instruments of the sultans, they still lent a certain legitimation as well as a decorative element to their rule. [17] Campaign against the Crusaders[edit] Further information: Siege of Antioch (1268) As sultan, Baibars
Baibars
engaged in a lifelong struggle against the Crusader kingdoms in Syria, in part because the Christians had aided the Mongols. He started with the Principality of Antioch, which had become a vassal state of the Mongols
Mongols
and had participated in attacks against Islamic targets in Damascus
Damascus
and Syria. In 1263, Baibars
Baibars
laid siege to Acre, the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, although the siege was abandoned when he sacked Nazareth
Nazareth
instead.[18] He used siege engines to defeat the Crusaders in battles such as the Fall of Arsuf from March 21 to April 30. After breaking into the town he offered free passage to the defending Knights Hospitallers if they surrendered their formidable citadel. The Knights accepted Baibars' offer but were enslaved anyway.[19] Baibars
Baibars
razed the castle to the ground.[20] He next attacked Athlith
Athlith
and Haifa, where he captured both towns after destroying the crusaders' resistance, and razed the citadels.[21] In the same year Baibars
Baibars
laid siege to the fortress of Safad, held by the Templar
Templar
knights, which had been conquered by Saladin
Saladin
in 1188 but returned to the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Kingdom of Jerusalem
in 1240. Baibars
Baibars
promised the knights safe passage to the Christian town of Acre if they surrendered their fortress. Badly outnumbered, the knights agreed.On capturing Safed, Baibars
Baibars
did not raze the fortress to the ground but fortified and repaired it instead, as it was strategically situated and well constructed. He installed a new governor in Safed, with the rank of Wali[22] Later, in 1266, Baibars
Baibars
invaded the Christian country of Cilician Armenia which, under King Hethum I, had submitted to the Mongol Empire. After defeating the forces of Hethum I
Hethum I
in the Battle of Mari, Baibars
Baibars
managed to ravage the three great cities of Mamistra, Adana and Tarsus, so that when Hetoum arrived with Mongol troops, the country was already devastated. Hetoum had to negotiate the return of his son Leo by giving control of Armenia's border fortresses to the Mamluks. In 1269, Hetoum abdicated in favour of his son and became a monk, but he died a year later.[23] Leo was left in the awkward situation of keeping Cilicia as a subject of the Mongol Empire, while at the same time paying tribute to the Mamluks.[24] This isolated Antioch and Tripoli, led by Hethum's son-in-law, Prince Bohemond VI. After successfully conquering Cilicila, Baibars
Baibars
in 1267 settled his unfinished business with Acre, and continued the extermination of remaining crusader garrisons in the following years. In 1268, he besieged Antioch, capturing the city on 18 May. Baibars had promised to spare the lives of the inhabitants, but he broke his promise and had the city razed, killing or enslaving much of the population after the surrender.[25] prompting the fall of the Principality of Antioch. The massacre of men, women, and children at Antioch "was the single greatest massacre of the entire crusading era."[26] Priests had their throats slit inside their churches, and women were sold into slavery.[27] Then he continued to Jaffa, which belonged to Guy, the son of John of Ibelin. Jaffa fell to Baibars
Baibars
on 7 March after twelve hours of fighting; most of Jaffa's citizens were slain, but Baibars
Baibars
allowed the garrison to go unharmed.[28] After this he conquered Ashkalon
Ashkalon
and Caesarea. Diplomacy with Golden Horde[edit] In some time around October to November 1267, or about 666 Safar of Hijra year, Baibars
Baibars
wrote condolences and congratulations to the new Khan of the Golden Horde, Mengu-Timur, to urge him to fight Abaqa. Despite the failure to incite infighting between the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and Ilkhanate, Baibars
Baibars
continued to conduct warm correspondence with the Golden Horde, particularly with Mengu Timur's general Noqai, who unlike Mengu Timur was very cooperative with Baibars. It is theorized that this intimacy was not only due to the religious connection (as Noqai was a Muslim, unlike his Khan), but also because Noqai was not really fond of Mengu-Timur. However, Baibars
Baibars
was pragmatic in his approach and did not want to become involved in complicated intrigue inside the Golden Horde, so instead he stayed close to both Mengu Timur and Noqai[29] Continued campaign against Crusaders[edit] Further information: Fall of Krak des Chevaliers In 1271, after Baibars
Baibars
captured the smaller castles in the area, including Chastel Blanc, he besieged Krak des Chevaliers castle, held by the Hospitallers, on 30 March. Peasants who lived in the area had fled to the castle for safety and were kept in the outer ward. As soon as Baibars
Baibars
arrived he began erecting mangonels, powerful siege weapons which he would turn on the castle. According to Ibn Shaddad, two days later the first line of defences was captured by the besiegers; he was probably referring to a walled suburb outside the castle's entrance.[30] After a lull of ten days, the besiegers conveyed a letter to the garrison, supposedly from the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller
Hospitaller
in Tripoli, which granted permission for them to surrender. The garrison capitulated and the Sultan spared their lives.[30] The new owners of the castle undertook repairs, focused mainly on the outer ward.[31] The Hospitaller
Hospitaller
chapel was converted to a mosque and two mihrabs were added to the interior.[32] Baibars
Baibars
then turned his attention to Tripoli, but he interrupted his siege there to call a truce in May 1271. The fall of Antioch had led to the brief Ninth Crusade, led by Prince Edward of England, who arrived in Acre in May 1271 and attempted to ally himself with the Mongols
Mongols
against Baibars. So Baibars
Baibars
declared a truce with Tripoli, as well as with Edward, who was never able to capture any territory from Baibars
Baibars
anyway. According to some reports, Baibars
Baibars
tried to have Edward assassinated with poison, but Edward survived the attempt and returned home in 1272. Campaign against Makuria[edit] Further information: Kingdom of Makuria
Makuria
§ Decline In 1272 the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan invaded the Kingdom of Makuria, after its King David I had raided the Egyptian city of Aidhab, initiating several decades of intervention by the Mamlukes in Nubian affairs.[33] Hostilities toward the dying Christian kingdom were sidelined as Baibars' invasion of Makuria
Makuria
continued for four years until, by 1276, Baibars
Baibars
had completed his conquest of Nubia, Including the Medieval lower Nubia
Nubia
which ruled by Banu Kanz. Under the terms of settlement, the Nubians were now subjected to paying jizya tribute, and in return they were allowed to keep their religion, being protected under Islamic law as 'People of the Book'; they were also allowed to continue being governed by a king from the native royal family, although this king was chosen personally by Baibars, namely a Makurian noble named Shakanda.[34] In practice this was reducing Makuria
Makuria
to a vassal kingdom,[35] effectively ending Makuria's status as an independent kingdom Campaign against the Mongols[edit]

v t e

Mamluk-Ilkhanid War

Ain Jalut 1st Homs Ninth Crusade Elbistan 2nd Homs Wadi al-Khazandar Marj al-Saffar

In 1277, Baibars
Baibars
invaded the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm, then controlled by the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
Mongols. He defeated a Mongol army at the Battle of Elbistan and captured the city of Kayseri. Baibars
Baibars
himself went with a few troops to deal with the Mongol right flank that was pounding his left wing.[36] Baibars
Baibars
ordered a force from the army from Hama
Hama
to reinforce his left. The large Mamluk
Mamluk
numbers were able to overwhelm the Mongol force, who instead of retreating dismounted from their horses. Some Mongols
Mongols
were able to escape and took up positions on the hills. Once they became surrounded they once again dismounted, and fought to the death.[36][37] During the celebration of victory, Baybars said that "How can I be happy. Before I had thought that I and my servants would defeat the Mongols, but my left wing was beaten by them. Only Allah helped us".[38] The possibility of a new Mongol army convinced Baibars
Baibars
to return to Syria, since he was far away from his bases and supply line. As the Mamluk
Mamluk
army returned to Syria
Syria
the commander of the Mamluk
Mamluk
vanguard, Izz al-Din Aybeg al-Shaykhi, deserted to the Mongols. Pervâne
Pervâne
sent a letter to Baibars
Baibars
asking him to delay his departure. Baibars
Baibars
chastised him for not aiding him during the Battle of Elbistan. Baibars
Baibars
told him he was leaving for Sivas to mislead Pervâne
Pervâne
and the Mongols
Mongols
as to his true destination. Baibars
Baibars
also sent Taybars al-Waziri with a force to raid the Armenian town of al-Rummana, whose inhabitants had hidden[clarification needed] the Mongols
Mongols
earlier. Death[edit] Baibars
Baibars
died in Damascus
Damascus
on 1 July 1277. His demise has been the subject of some academic speculation. Many sources agree that he died from drinking poisoned kumis that was intended for someone else. Other accounts suggest that he may have died from a wound while campaigning, or from illness.[39] He was buried in the Az-Zahiriyah Library
Az-Zahiriyah Library
in Damascus.[40] Family[edit] Baibars
Baibars
married several women and had seven daughters and three sons. Two of his sons, al-Said Barakah and Solamish, became sultans. Assessment[edit]

the lion passant was the heraldic blazon of Baibars
Baibars
from 1260

As the first Sultan of the Bahri Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty, Baibars
Baibars
made the meritocratic ascent up the ranks of Mamluk
Mamluk
society. He took final control after the assassination of Sultan Sayf al Din Qutuz, but before he became Sultan he was the commander of the Mamluk
Mamluk
forces in the most important battle of the Middle Ages, repelling a Mongol force at the legendary Battle of Ain Jalut
Battle of Ain Jalut
in 1260.[41] Although in the Muslim world he has been considered a national hero for centuries, and in Egypt, Syria
Syria
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
is still regarded as such, Sultan Baibars
Baibars
was reviled in the Christian world of the time for his seemingly unending victorious campaigns. A Templar
Templar
knight who fought in the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
lamented:

Rage and sorrow are seated in my heart...so firmly that I scarce dare to stay alive. It seems that God wishes to support the Turks to our loss...ah, lord God...alas, the realm of the East has lost so much that it will never be able to rise up again. They will make a Mosque of Holy Mary's convent, and since the theft pleases her Son, who should weep at this, we are forced to comply as well...Anyone who wishes to fight the Turks is mad, for Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ
does not fight them any more. They have conquered, they will conquer. For every day they drive us down, knowing that God, who was awake, sleeps now, and Muhammad
Muhammad
waxes powerful.[42]

Baibars
Baibars
also played an important role in bringing the Mongols
Mongols
to Islam. He developed strong ties with the Mongols
Mongols
of the Golden Horde and took steps for the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
Mongols
Mongols
to travel to Egypt. The arrival of the Mongol's Golden Horde
Golden Horde
to Egypt
Egypt
resulted in a significant number of Mongols
Mongols
accepting Islam.[43] Legacy[edit] Further information: Seventh Crusade, Ninth Crusade, and Battle of Ain Jalut Military legacy[edit] Baibars
Baibars
was a popular ruler in the Muslim World who had defeated the crusaders in three campaigns, and the Mongols
Mongols
in the Battle of Ain Jalut which many scholars deem of great macro-historical importance. In order to support his military campaigns, Baibars
Baibars
commissioned arsenals, warships and cargo vessels. He was also arguably the first to employ explosive hand cannons in war, at the Battle of Ain Jalut.[44][45] His military campaign also extended into Libya
Libya
and Nubia. Culture and science[edit] Further information: Islam
Islam
and cats He was also an efficient administrator who took interest in building various infrastructure projects, such as a mounted message relay system capable of delivery from Cairo
Cairo
to Damascus
Damascus
in four days. He built bridges, irrigation and shipping canals, improved the harbours, and built mosques. He was a patron of Islamic science, such as his support for the medical research of his Arab physician, Ibn al-Nafis.[46] As a testament of a special relationship between Islam and cats, Baibars
Baibars
left a cat garden in Cairo
Cairo
as a waqf, providing the cats of Cairo
Cairo
with food and shelter.[47] Its legacy of domesticated cats in Cairo
Cairo
is still seen to this day.[48] His memoirs were recorded in Sirat al-Zahir Baibars ("Life of al-Zahir Baibars"), a popular Arabic romance recording his battles and achievements. He has a heroic status in Kazakhstan, as well as in Egypt
Egypt
and Syria. Al-Madrassa al-Zahiriyya is the school built adjacent to his Mausoleum in Damascus. The Az-Zahiriyah library
Az-Zahiriyah library
has a wealth of manuscripts in various branches of knowledge to this day. The library and Mausoleum are being reconstructed by a Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
government fund.[citation needed] In 2009, a copy of Sultan Beibars' Mausoleum in Damascus
Damascus
was to be built in Kazakhstan.[citation needed] In fiction[edit]

Baibars
Baibars
figures prominently in the story "The Sowers of the Thunder" by Robert E. Howard. While liberties are taken with history for the sake of the tale, and many characters and events are purely imaginary, his character is fairly close to the folkloric depiction and the general flow of history is respected. Baibars
Baibars
is the main character of a novel "Yemshan" by Russian-Kazakh writer Moris Simashko (Moris Davidovich Shamas) Baibars
Baibars
is one of the main characters of Robyn Young's books, Brethren (starting shortly before he becomes Sultan) and Crusade. Baibars
Baibars
is the main character of Jefferson Cooper's (Gardner Fox) 1957 novel, The Swordsman According to Harold Lamb, Haroun of Baghdad in the Arabian Nights was really Baibars
Baibars
of Cairo.[49] Baibars
Baibars
is one of the central characters in Lebanese- American author Rabih Alameddine's The Hakawati. Baibars
Baibars
is one of the characters in The Children of the Grail books by Peter Berling. Sultan Beybars – movie shot in 1989 by Kazakh National Cinema Studio "Kazakh Film" Султан Бейбарс — художественный телефильм 1989 года Qahira ka Qaher (A Warrior of Egypt) Real biography of Sultan, written by historian Muazam Javed Bukhari Baibars
Baibars
is a central character in "The Saracen" – Novel by Robert Shea, 1989 Historic Fiction.

See also[edit]

Ablaq Bahri dynasty Cumania Cuman people Kipchak people Mosque
Mosque
of al-Zahir Baybars Sirat al-Zahir Baibars

References[edit]

^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Macropædia, H.H. Berton Publisher, 1973–1974, p.773/vol.2 ^ The history of the Mongol conquests, By J. J. Saunders, pg. 115 ^ Heghnar Zeitlian Watenpaugh (2004). The Image Of An Ottoman City: Imperial Architecture And Urban Experience In Aleppo
Aleppo
In The 16th And 17th Centuries. BRILL. p. 198. ISBN 90-04-12454-3.  ^ Al-Maqrizi, from the Berish tribe that currently lives in the Western part of Kazakhstan, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, p.520/vol.1 ^ Ibn Taghri, al-Nujum al-Zahirah Fi Milook Misr wa al-Qahirah, Year 675H /vol.7 ^ Abu al-Fida, The Concise History of Humanity, Tarikh Abu al-Fida pp.71-87/ year 676H ^ Ibn Iyas , Badai Alzuhur Fi Wakayi Alduhur, abridged and edited by Dr. M. Aljayar, Almisriya Lilkitab, Cairo
Cairo
2007, ISBN 977-419-623-6 , p.91 ^ Baibars
Baibars
in Concise Britannica Online, web page ^ Brief Article in Columbia Encyclopedia, web page ^ Dimitri Korobeinikov (2008), "A Broken Mirror: The Kıpçak World in the Thirteenth Century", in Florin Curta; Roman Kovalev, The Other Europe in the Middle Ages: Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, and Cumans, Leiden: Brill, pp. 379–412 . ^ Maalouf, Amin (1984). The crusades through Arab eyes. Saqi Books. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-86356-023-1.  ^ Lord of Joinville, 110, part II. ^ Asly, p. 49. Skip Knox, Egyptian Counter-attack, The Seventh Crusade. ^ According to Matthew Paris, only 2 Templars, 1 Hospitaller
Hospitaller
and one ‘contemptible person’ escaped. Matthew Paris, LOUIS IX`S CRUSADE, p. 14/ Vol. 5. ^ The story of the involvement of Baibars
Baibars
in the assassination was told by different historians in different ways. In one account the assassins killed Qutuz
Qutuz
while he was giving a hand to Baibars ( Al-Maqrizi and Ibn-Taghri). In another, from an Ayyubid
Ayyubid
source, Qutuz was giving a hand to someone when Baibars
Baibars
struck his back with a sword (Abu-Al-Fida). A third account mentioned that Baibars
Baibars
tried to help Qutuz
Qutuz
against the assassins (O. Hassan). According to Al-Maqrizi, the Emirs who struck Qutuz
Qutuz
were Badr ad-Din Baktut, Emir Ons, and Emir Bahadir al-Mu'izzi. (Al-Maqrizi, p.519/vol.1) ^ MacHenry, Robert. The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 1993. Baibars ^ a b Runciman, Steven (1987). A History of the Crusades: The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades quoting Magrisi Sultans, I, i, p. 116; Abu al Fida pp. 145–50; Bar Hebraeus p. 439. p. 316.  ^ Dalrymple, William (3 April 1989). "In Xanadu". Penguin Books India. Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ Rodney Stark, 'God's Battalions', 2009, p. 230 ^ The Crusaders in the East quoting El-Aini ii. 220; Makrizi i, ii. 8. 1987. p. 338.  ^ The Crusaders in the East quoting El-Aini ii. 220; Makrizi i, ii. 8. 1987. p. 338.  ^ Winter, Michael; Levanoni, Amalia (3 April 2018). "The Mamluks in Egyptian and Syrian Politics and Society". BRILL. Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ Claude Mutafian, p.60 ^ Bournotian, A Concise History of the Armenian People, p. 101 ^ Hudson Institute > American Outlook > American Outlook Article Detail Archived 29 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Thomas F. Madden, The Concise History of the Crusades (3rd ed. 2014), p. 168 ^ Madden, supra at 168. ^ The Later Crusades, 1189–1311. Univ of Wisconsin Press. 1969. p. 557. ISBN 9780299048440.  ^ F. Broadbridge, Anne (2008). Kingship and Ideology in the Islamic and Mongol Worlds Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. p. 59. ISBN 9780521852654.  ^ a b King 1949, pp. 88–92 ^ King 1949, p. 91 ^ Folda, French & Coupel 1982, p. 179 ^ Howard, Jonathan (2011). The Crusades: A History of One of the Most Epic Military Campaigns of All Time.  ^ El Hareir, Mbaye, Idris , Ravane (2011). The Spread of Islam Throughout the World. p. 300.  ^ Hopkins.Peter (3 June 2014). "Kenana Handbook Of Sudan". Routledge. Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ a b Ibn Taghri, Al-Zahir Baibars ^ Al-Maqrizi,p. 99/vol.2 ^ Reuven Amitai Press, Mamluk
Mamluk
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External links[edit]

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Baibars
Baibars
article from Encyclopedia of the Orient Baibars
Baibars
in Concise Britannica online Al-Madrassa al-Zahiriyya and Baybars Mausoleum Brief Article in Columbia Encyclopedia Extensive Arabic Article on Baybars Brief Biography Levtzion, Nehemia; Pouwels, Randall, eds. (2000), The History of Islam in Africa, Ohio University Press, ISBN 0821444611 

Baibars Bahri dynasty Cadet branch of the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate Born: 19 July 1223 Died: 1 July 1277

Regnal titles

Preceded by Saif ad-Din Qutuz Sultan of Egypt
Sultan of Egypt
and Syria 24 October 1260 – 1 July 1277 Succeeded by Al-Said Barakah

v t e

Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultans of Cairo

Salihi Mamluks

Izz ad-Din Aybak
Aybak
(1250–1257) Nur ad-Din Ali (1257–1259) Sayf ad-Din Qutuz
Qutuz
(1259–1260)

Bahri dynasty

Rukn ad-Din Baybars (1260–1277) Nasir ad-Din Barakah (1277–1279) Badr ad-Din Salamish (1279) Sayf ad-Din Qalawun (1279–1290) Salah ad-Din Khalil (1290–1293) Nasir ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
(1293–1294) Zayn ad-Din Kitbugha (1294–1296) Husam ad-Din Lajin
Lajin
(1296–1299) Nasir ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
(1299–1309) Rukn ad-Din Baybars al-Jashnakir (1309–1310) Nasir ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
(1310–1341) Sayf ad-Din Abu Bakr (1341) Ala'a ad-Din Kujuk (1341–1342) Shihab ad-Din Ahmad (1342) Imad ad-Din Abu'l Fida Isma'il (1342–1345) Sayf ad-Din Sha'ban (1345–1346) Sayf ad-Din Hajji (1346–1347) Badr ad-Din Hasan (1347–1351) Salah ad-Din Salih (1351–1354) Badr ad-Din Hasan (1354–1361) Salah ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
(1361–1363) Zayn ad-Din Sha'ban (1363–1377) Ala'a ad-Din Ali (1377–1381) Salah ad-Din Hajji (1381–1382)

Burji dynasty

Sayf ad-Din Barquq
Barquq
(1382–1389) Sayf ad-Din Hajji (1389–1390) Sayf ad-Din Barquq
Barquq
(1390–1399) Nasir ad-Din Faraj (1399–1405) Izz ad-Din Abd al-Aziz (1405) Nasir ad-Din Faraj (1405–1412) Al-Musta'in Billah (1412) Shaykh al-Mahmudi (1412–1421) Ahmad (1421) Sayf ad-Din Tatar (1421) An-Nasir ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
(1421–1422) Sayf ad-Din Barsbay
Barsbay
(1422–1438) Jamal ad-Din Abu al-Mahasin Yusuf (1438) Sayf ad-Din Jaqmaq (1438–1453) Fakhr ad-Din Uthman (1453) Sayf ad-Din Inal
Sayf ad-Din Inal
(1453–1461) Shihab ad-Din Ahmad (1461) Sayf ad-Din Khushqadam (1461–1467) Sayf ad-Din Yalbay (1467) Timurbugha (1467–1468) Sayf ad-Din Qa'itbay (1468–1496) Muhammad
Muhammad
(1496–1498) Abu Sa'id Qansuh (1498–1500) Abu al-Nasir Janbalat (1500–1501) Sayf ad-Din Tumanbay (1501) Qansuh al-Ghawri (1501–1516) Tumanbay II (1516–1517)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 23581685 LCCN: n85197862 ISNI: 0000 0001 0598 1299 GND: 118665839 SUDOC: 030151694 BNF:

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