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The Bahri dynasty
Bahri dynasty
or Bahriyya Mamluks (Arabic: المماليك البحرية‎, translit. al-Mamalik al-Bahariyya) was a Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate from 1250 to 1382. They followed the Ayyubid dynasty, and were succeeded by a second Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty, the Burji dynasty. Their name "Bahriyya" means 'of the river', referring to the location of their original settlement on Al-Rodah Island
Al-Rodah Island
in the Nile
Nile
(Nahr al-Nil) in Medieval Cairo[4] at the castle of Al-Rodah which was built by the Ayyubid
Ayyubid
Sultan as-Salih Ayyub[5][6]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Development

1.1.1 Tatars

1.2 Dissolution

2 Military organization 3 List of Bahri Sultans 4 See also 5 References

History[edit] See also: Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate (Cairo) The Mamluks formed one of the most powerful and wealthiest empires of the time, lasting from 1250 to 1517 in Egypt, North Africa, and the Levant—Near East. Development[edit] In 1250, when the Ayyubid
Ayyubid
sultan as-Salih Ayyub died, the Mamluks he had owned as slaves murdered his son and heir al-Muazzam Turanshah, and Shajar al-Durr
Shajar al-Durr
the widow of as-Salih became the Sultana of Egypt. She married the Atabeg (commander in chief) Emir
Emir
Aybak
Aybak
and abdicated, Aybak
Aybak
becoming Sultan. He ruled from 1250 to 1257.[7][8] The Mamluks consolidated their power in ten years and eventually established the Bahri dynasty. They were helped by the Mongols' sack of Baghdad
Baghdad
in 1258, which effectively destroyed the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphate. Cairo
Cairo
became more prominent as a result and remained a Mamluk
Mamluk
capital thereafter. The Mamluks were powerful cavalry warriors mixing the practices of the Turkic steppe peoples from which they were drawn and the organizational and technological sophistication and horsemanship of the Arabs. In 1260 the Mamluks defeated a Mongol army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in present-day Israel
Israel
and eventually forced the invaders to retreat to the area of modern-day Iraq.[9] The defeat of the Mongols at the hands of the Mamluks enhanced the position of the Mamluks in the southern Mediterranean basin.[10][11] Baibars, one of the leaders at the battle, became the new Sultan after the assassination of Sultan Qutuz
Qutuz
on the way home.[12][13] In 1250 Baibars
Baibars
was one of the Mamluk
Mamluk
commanders who defended Al Mansurah[14] against the Crusade knights of Louis IX of France, who was later definitely defeated, captured in Fariskur and ransomed.[15] Baibars
Baibars
had also taken part in the Mamluk
Mamluk
takeover of Egypt. In 1261, after he became a Sultan, he established a puppet Abbasid caliphate
Abbasid caliphate
in Cairo,[16] and the Mamluks fought the remnants of the Crusader states in Palestine until they finally captured Acre in 1291.[17] Tatars[edit] Many Tatars
Tatars
settled in Egypt
Egypt
and were employed by Baibars.[18][19] He defeated the Mongols
Mongols
at the battle of Elbistan[20] and sent the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph with only 250 men to attempt to retake Baghdad, but was unsuccessful. In 1266 he devastated Cilician Armenia
Cilician Armenia
and in 1268 he recaptured Antioch from the Crusaders.[21][22] In addition, he fought the Seljuks,[23] and Hashshashin; he also extended Muslim power into Nubia[19] for the first time, before his death in 1277. Sultan Qalawun
Qalawun
defeated a rebellion in Syria that was led by Sunqur al-Ashqar in 1280,[24][25] and also defeated another Mongol invasion in 1281 that was led by Abaqa
Abaqa
outside Homs.[26] After the Mongol threat passed he recaptured Tripoli from the Crusaders in 1289.[27] His son Khalil captured Acre, the last Crusader city, in 1291.[28][29]

Territory of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in 1389

The Mongols
Mongols
renewed their invasion in 1299,[30] but were again defeated in 1303.[31][32] The Egyptian Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultans entered into relations with the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
who converted to Islam[33] and established a peace pact with the Mongols[34] in 1322. Sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad
Al-Nasir Muhammad
married a Mongol princess in 1319. His diplomatic relations were more extensive than those of any previous Sultan, and included Bulgarian, Indian, and Abyssinian potentates, as well as the pope, the king of Aragon and the king of France.[35] Al-Nasir Muhammad
Al-Nasir Muhammad
organized the re-digging of a canal in 1311 which connected Alexandria
Alexandria
with the Nile.[34] He died in 1341. Dissolution[edit] The constant changes of sultans that followed led to great disorder in the provinces. Meanwhile, in 1349 Egypt
Egypt
and the Levant
Levant
in general were introduced to Black Death, which is said to have carried off many lives of the inhabitants.[36][37] In 1382 the last Bahri Sultan Hajji II was dethroned and the Sultanate was taken over by the Circassian Emir
Emir
Barquq. He was expelled in 1389 but returned to power in 1390, setting up the succeeding Burji dynasty.[38] Military organization[edit] On a general level, the military during the Bahri dynasty
Bahri dynasty
can be divided into several aspects 1.Mamluks : the core of both the political and military base, these slave soldiers were further divided into Khassaki (comparable to imperial guards), Royal Mamluks ( Mamluks directly under the command of the Sultan) and regular Mamluks (usually assigned to local Amirs). 2.Al-Halqa : the primarily free born professional forces, they are also directly under the sultan's command. 3.Wafidiyya : These are Turks and Mongols
Mongols
that migrated to the dynasty's border after the Mongol invasion, typically given land grants in exchange for military service, they are well regarded forces. 4.Other levies : Primarily Bedouin
Bedouin
tribes, but also on different occasions also different groups of Turkomans and other settled Arabs. List of Bahri Sultans[edit]

Titular Name(s) Personal Name Reign

al-Malikah Ismat ad-Din Umm-Khalil الملکہ عصمہ الدین أم خلیل Shajar al-Durr شجر الدر 1250–1250

al-Malik al-Mu'izz Izz al-Din Aybak
Aybak
al-Jawshangir al-Turkmani al-Salihi الملک المعز عز الدین أیبک الترکمانی الجاشنکیر الصالحی Izz-ad-Din Aybak عز الدین أیبک 1250–1257

Sultan Al-Ashraf سلطان الاشرف Muzaffar-ad-Din Musa مظفر الدین موسی 1250–1252

Sultan Al-Mansur سلطان المنصور Nur ad-Din Ali نور الدین علی 1257–1259

Sultan Al-Muzaffar سلطان المظفر Sayf ad-Din Qutuz سیف الدین قطز 1259–1260

Sultan Abul-Futuh – سلطان ابو الفتوح Al-Zahir - الظاہر Al-Bunduqdari - البندقداری Rukn-ad-Din Baibars
Baibars
I رکن الدین بیبرس 1260–1277

Sultan Al-Sa'id Nasir-ad-Din سلطان السعید ناصر الدین Muhammad Barakah Khan محمد برکہ خان 1277–1279

Sultan Al-Adil سلطان العادل Badr-al-Din Solamish بدر الدین سُلامش 1279

Al-Mansur – المنصور Al-Alfi - الالفی As-Salehi - الصالحی Sayf-ad-Din Qalawun سیف الدین قلاوون 1279–1290

Sultan Al-Ashraf سلطان الاشرف Salah-ad-Din Khalil صلاح الدین خلیل 1290–1293

Al-Nasir الناصر Nasir-ad-Din Muhammad ناصر الدین محمد 1293–1294 (first reign)

Al-Adil Al-Turki Al-Mughli العادل الترکی المغلی Zayn-ad-Din Kitbugha زین الدین کتبغا 1294–1297

Al-Mansur المنصور Husam-ad-Din Lachin حسام الدین لاچین 1297–1299

Al-Nasir الناصر Nasir-ad-Din Muhammad ناصر الدین محمد 1299–1309 (Second reign)

Sultan Al-Muzaffar Al-Jashankir سلطان المظفرالجاشنکیر Rukn-ad-Din Baibars
Baibars
II رکن الدین بیبرس 1309

Al-Nasir الناصر Nasir-ad-Din Muhammad ناصر الدین محمد 1309–1340 (Third reign)

Al-Mansur المنصور Sayf-ad-Din Abu-Bakr سیف الدین أبو بکر 1340–1341

Al-Ashraf الأشرف Ala-ad-Din Kujuk علاء الدین کجک 1341–1342

Sultan Al-Nasir سلطان الناصر Shihab-ad-Din Ahmad شھاب الدین أحمد 1342

Sultan As-Saleh سلطان الصالح Imad-ad-Din Ismail عماد الدین إسماعیل 1342–1345

Sultan Al-Kamil سلطان الکامل Sayf-ad-Din Shaban I سیف الدین شعبان اول 1345–1346

Sultan Al-Muzaffar سلطان المظفر Sayf-ad-Din Hajji I سیف الدین حاجی اول 1346–1347

Al-Nasir Abu Al-Ma'ali الناصر أبو المعالی Badr-ad-Din Al-Hasan بدر الدین الحسن 1347–1351 (first reign)

Sultan As-Saleh سلطان الصالح Salah-ad-Din bin Muhammad صلاح الدین بن محمد 1351–1354

Al-Nasir Abu Al-Ma'ali Nasir-ad-Din الناصر أبو المعالی ناصر الدین Badr-ad-Din Al-Hasan بدر الدین الحسن 1354–1361 (second reign)

Al-Mansur المنصور Salah-ad-Din Muhammad صلاح الدین محمد 1361–1363

Al-Ashraf Abu Al-Ma'ali الأشرف أبو المعالی Zayn-ad-Din Shaban II زین الدین شعبان ثانی 1363–1376

Al-Mansur المنصور Ala-ad-Din Ali علاء الدین علی 1376–1382

Sultan As-Saleh سلطان الصالح Salah-ad-Din Hajji II صلاح الدین حاجی ثانی 1382 Sumit Bahri بحري سميت

Al-Zahir الظاہر Sayf-ad-Din Barquq سیف الدین برقوق 1382–1389

Sultan As-Saleh Al-Muzaffar Al-Mansur سلطان الصالح المظفر المنصور Salah-ad-Din Hajji II صلاح الدین حاجی ثانی 1389

Burji dynasty
Burji dynasty
takes over Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
under Sayf-ad-Din Barquq
Barquq
in 1389–90 C.E.

Yellow shaded row signifies nominal rule of Ayyubid
Ayyubid
dynasty under Sultan Al-Ashraf Muzaffar-ad-Din Musa 1250–1254.

Silver shaded row signifies interruption in the rule of Bahri dynasty by Burji dynasty.

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bahri dynasty.

Turkic peoples Timeline of Turks (500-1300) List of Turkic dynasties and countries Aybak History of Arab Egypt Mamluk Qala'un Mosque Shajar al-Durr List of Sunni Muslim dynasties

References[edit]

^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.  ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.  ^ There is another theory about the origin of the name which states that they were called 'Bahariyya' because they came by sea or from over sea. (Shayyal, 110/vol.2 ) ^ (Al-Maqrizi, p. 441/vol.1 ) - (Abu Al-Fida, pp.66-87/ Year 647H - Death of as-Sailih Ayyub) - (Ibn Taghri/vol.6 - Year 639H ) ^ After the Castle of al- Rodah was built, As-Salih moved with his Mamluks to it and lived there. (Al-Maqrizi, p.405/vol. 1 ). Later, the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultans lived at the Citadel of the Mountain which was situated on the Muqatam Mountain in Cairo
Cairo
(Al-Maqrizi, al-Mawaiz, p. 327/vol.3 ) where the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
Mosque of Muhammad Ali
and the remains of the 12th century Saladin Citadel of Cairo
Cairo
stand now. ^ (Al-Maqrizi pp. 444-494. vol/1 ) (Abu Al-Fida, pp.66-87/ Years 647H - 655H ) (Ibn Taghri/vol.6 - Year 646H ) ^ See also Shajar al-Durr
Shajar al-Durr
and Aybak
Aybak
. ^ Abu Al-Fida, pp.66-87/ Taking of Aleppo's Castle by the Mongols
Mongols
and new events in the Levant. ^ Shayyal, p. 123/vol.2 ^ The victory of the Mamluks against the Mongols
Mongols
brought an end to the Ayyubid's claim in Egypt
Egypt
and the Levant
Levant
. Ayyubid
Ayyubid
Emirs recognized the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan as their sovereign. (Shayyal, p.126/vol.2 ) ^ (Al-Maqrizi, p.519/vol.1 ) - (Ibn Taghri/ vol.7 ) ^ Qutuz
Qutuz
was assassinated near al-Salihiyah, Egypt. Those murdered him were emir Badr ad-Din Baktut, emir Ons and emir Bahadir al-Mu'izzi. (Al-Maqrizi, p. 519/vol.1 ) ^ See Battle of Al Mansurah
Battle of Al Mansurah
. ^ See Battle of Fariskur ^ Sultan Baibars
Baibars
recognized the Sovereignty of Abu al-Qasim Ahmad as the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph in Cairo
Cairo
only in religious matters after a few Bedouins witnessed before the supreme judge of Egypt
Egypt
that he was the son of the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph Al-Zahir Billah. The Caliph took the name al-Mustansir Billah. (Shayyal, p. 132/vol.2 ) - (Ibn Taghri/ vol.7 ) - (Abu Al-Fida, pp.66-87/ Murder of al-Malik al-Nasir Yusuf) . Though the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphs in Cairo
Cairo
during the Mamluk
Mamluk
era legitimated the sovereignty of the Mamluks' Sultans, the Caliphs were actually powerless. However, contrary to the Ayyubids
Ayyubids
who were to some degree dependent on the Abbasid
Abbasid
Chaliph in Baghdad, the fact that the Chaliph lived in Cairo
Cairo
gave the Mamluks independency and full freedom of action. ^ See al-Ashraf Khalil ^ In 1262, during the reign of Sultan Baibars, many Tartars from the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
tribe escaped from Hulagu to Egypt
Egypt
and were followed later by other Tartars. Baibars
Baibars
welcomed the Tartars and employed them in the army. They had their own army unit which was called al-Firqah al-Wafidiyah (the arrivals unite). Throughout the Mamluk
Mamluk
era, the Wafidiyya (arriving Tartars) were free men and the Mamluk
Mamluk
system did not apply to them. Baibars
Baibars
resided the Tartars in Cairo
Cairo
and gave them various official posts. The largest group of Tartars immigrated to Egypt
Egypt
in 1296 during the reign of Sultan Kitbugha
Kitbugha
who was himself of Mongol origin. They resided at the district of al-Hisiniyah in Cairo and many of their women married Mamluk
Mamluk
Emirs. (Shayyal, p. 144/vol. 2) ^ a b Ibn Taghri/ vol. 7 ^ (Abu Al-Fida, pp. 66–87/Year 675H- Al-Malik Al-Zahir entering land of the Roum) - (Ibn Taghri/ vol. 7) ^ (Abu Al-Fida, pp. 66-87/ Soldiers entering the land of the Armenians) - (Ibn Taghri/ vol. 7) ^ Cilician Armenia
Cilician Armenia
was devastated by Sultan Baibars's commander Qalawun
Qalawun
upon the Battle of Mari
Battle of Mari
in 1266. The Principality of Antioch was destroyed by Sultan Baibars
Baibars
in 1268. ^ Baibars
Baibars
defeated both the Seljuks and the Mongols
Mongols
at the battle of Elbistan. (Shayyal, p. 138/vol. 2) ^ Abu Al-Fida, pp. 66–87/ Year 697H. ^ Shams ad-Din Sunqur al-Ashqar was a prominent emir and one of the most devoted Bahri emirs since the days of Sultan Baibars. He was taken prisoner by the Armenians and was freed in exchange for Leo the son of King Hethum I, King of Armenia
Hethum I, King of Armenia
who was captured during the invasion of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
in 1266. During the reign of Baibars' son Solamish, he was the deputy of the Sultan in Damascus. During the reign of Qalawun, Sunqur al-Ashqar proclaimed himself a Sultan while in Damascus, taking the royal name al-Malik al-Kamil. Mongols[edit] Sultan Sunqur al-Ashqar fought a few battles against Sultan Qalawun's Emirs but was pardoned later after he joined Qalawun's army against the Mongols. (Al-Maqrizi, p. 51, 121, 127, 131-133, 145/vol. 2 )

^ (Abu Al-Fida, pp.66-87/ Year 688H ) - (Shayyal, p. 165/vol.2 ) ^ (Abu Al-Fida, pp. 66-87/ 688HYear) - (Shayyal, 168/vol. 2 ) ^ Abu Al-Fida, pp. 66-87/ Year 690H ^ See Al-Ashraf Khalil
Al-Ashraf Khalil
. ^ Abu Al-Fida, pp. 66–87/ Year 699H ^ Abu Al-Fida, pp. 66-87/ Year 702H ^ See Battle of Shaqhab ^ Sultan Baibars
Baibars
sent his first emissaries to Berke Khan
Berke Khan
the ruler of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in 1261. (Shayyal, p. 141/vol2) ^ a b Shayyal, p. 187/vol. 2 ^ Shayyal, pp. 187–188 /vol.2 ^ Shayyal, p.194/vol.2 ^ The Black Death
Black Death
probably began in Central Asia and spread to Europe by the late 1340s. The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated at 75 million people; there were an estimated 25-50 million deaths in Europe. - (/ Article Black Death.) ^ Al-Maqrizi, pp.140-142/vol.5

Abu al-Fida, The Concise History of Humanity. Al-Maqrizi, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, Dar al-kotob, 1997. Idem in English: Bohn, Henry G., The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings, Chronicles of the Crusades, AMS Press, 1969. Al-Maqrizi, al-Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar, Matabat aladab, Cairo
Cairo
1996, ISBN 977-241-175-X Idem in French: Bouriant, Urbain, Description topographique et historique de l'Egypte, Paris 1895. Ayalon, D.: The Mamluk
Mamluk
Military Society. London, 1979. Ibn Taghri, al-Nujum al-Zahirah Fi Milook Misr wa al-Qahirah, al-Hay'ah al-Misreyah 1968 Idem in English: History of Egypt, by Yusef. William Popper, translator Abu L-Mahasin ibn Taghri Birdi, University of California Press 1954. Shayyal, Jamal, Prof. of Islamic history, Tarikh Misr al-Islamiyah (History of Islamic Egypt), dar al-Maref, Cairo
Cairo
1266, ISBN 977-02-5975-6 www.SumitBahri.com: website

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