Bahawalpur (Urdu: بہاولپُور ; Punjabi,
بہاولپور), is a city located in the Punjab province of
Bahawalpur is the 12th largest city in
Pakistan with an
estimated population of 798,509.
Bahawalpur forms part of the
region of southern Punjab - a distinct region historically influenced
the ancient cultural centres of
Founded in 1748,
Bahawalpur was the capital of the former princely
state of Bahawalpur, ruled by ruling Abbasi family of Nawabs until
1955. The Nawabs left a rich architectural legacy, and
now known for its monuments dating from that period. The city also
lies at the edge of the Cholistan Desert, and serves as the gateway to
the nearby Lal Suhanra National Park.
1.3 Princely state
4 Civic administration
6 See also
9 External links
Bahawalpur (princely state)
Noor Mahal was the seat of the city's ruling Nawabs.
Darbar Mahal was built by
Bahawal Khan V
Bahawal Khan V in 1905 as a palace for
The area known as
Bahawalpur was home to various ancient societies.
The Bahwalpur region contains ruins from the Indus Valley
Civilisation, as well as ancient Buddhist sites such as the nearby
Patan minara. British archaeologist Sir Alexander Cunningham
Bahawalpur region as home of the Yaudheya kingdoms of
Prior to the establishment of Bahawalpur, the region's major city was
the holy city of
Uch Sharif - a regional metropolitan centre between
the 12th and 17th centuries that it is renowned for its collection of
historic shrines dedicated to
Muslim mystics from the 12-15th
centuries built in the region's vernacular style.
Bahawalpur was founded in 1748 by
Nawab Bahawal Khan I, after
migrating to the region around
Uch from Shikarpur, Sindh.
Bahawalpur replaced Derawar as the clan's capital city. The city
had initially flourished as a trading post on trade routes between
Afghanistan and central India.
In 1785, the Durrani commander Sirdar Khan attacked
and destroyed many of its buildings on behalf of Mian Abdul Nabi
Kalhora of Sindh. Bahawalpur's ruling family, along with nobles
from nearby Uch, were forced to take refuge in the Derawar Fort, where
they successfully repulsed attacks. The attacking Durrani force
accepted 60,000 rupees as nazrana tribute, though Bahawal Khan later
had to seek refuge in the
Rajput states as the Afghan Durranis
occupied Derawar Fort. Bahawal Khan returned to conquer the fort
by way of Uch, and re-established control of Bahawalpur.
The ruling Abbasi family regarded the nearby
Derawar Fort as a
traditional bastion of their power.
Bahawalpur's central library dates from the princely state period.
The princely state of
Bahawalpur was founded in 1802 by
Bahawal Khan II after the break-up of the Durrani Empire, and was
based in the city. In 1807,
Ranjit Singh of the
Sikh Empire laid siege
to the fort in Multan, prompting refugees to seek safety in Bahawalpur
in the wake of his marauding forces that began to attack the
countryside around Multan.
Ranjit Singh eventually withdrew the
siege, and gifted the
Bahawalpur some gifts as the Sikh
Bahalwapur offered an outpost of stability in the wake of crumbling
Mughal rule and declining power of Khorasan's monarchy. The city
became a refuge for prominent families from affected regions, and also
saw an influx of religious scholars escaping the consolidation of Sikh
power in Punjab.
Fearing an invasion from the
Nawab Mohammad Bahawal
Khan III signed a treaty with the British on 22 February 1833,
guaranteeing the independence of the
Nawab and the autonomy of
Bahawalpur as a princely state. The treaty guaranteed the British a
friendly southern frontier during their invasion of the Sikh
Trade routes had shifted away from
Bahawalpur by the 1830s, and
British visitors to the city noted several empty shops in the city's
bazaar. The population at this time was estimated to be
20,000, and was noted to be made up primarily of low-caste
Hindus. Also in 1833, the Sultej and Indus Rivers were opened to
navigation, allowing goods to reach Bahawalpur.
By 1845, newly opened trade routes to Delhi re-established Bahawalpur
as a commercial centre. The city was known in the late 19th
century as a centre for the production of silk goods, lungis, and
cotton goods. The city's silk was noted to be of higher quality
than silk works from
Benares or Amritsar.
Sadeq Mohammad Khan V
Sadeq Mohammad Khan V served as the last
Nawab of Bahawalpur.
An 1866 crisis over succession to the
Bahawalpur throne markedly
increased British influence in the princely state.
constituted as a municipality in 1874. The city's Noor Mahal
palace was completed in 1875. In 1878, Bahawalpur's 4,285 foot
long Empress Bridge was opened as the only rail crossing over the
Sultej River. Bahawalpur's Sadiq Egerton College was founded in
1886. Bahalwapur's Nawabs celebrated the Golden Jubillee of Queen
Victoria in 1887 in a state function at the
Noor Mahal palace. Two
hospitals were established in the city in 1898. In 1901, the
population of the city was 18,546.
Islamia University was founded as Jamia Abbasia in 1925.
At the outbreak of
World War II
World War II in 1939, Bahawalpur's
Nawab was the
first ruler of a princely state to offer his full support and
resources of the state towards the crown's war efforts.
British Princely states were given the option to join either Pakistan
India upon withdrawal of British suzerainty in August 1947. The
city and princely state of
Bahawalpur acceded to
Pakistan on 7 October
Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan Abbasi V Bahadur. Following
independence, the city's minority
Sikh communities largely
India en masse, while Saraiki
Muslim refugees from became
India settled in the city and surrounding region. The city's
Quaid-e-Azam Medical College
Quaid-e-Azam Medical College was founded in 1971. While much of
southern Punjab's Saraiki population in
Multan support the Pakistan
Peoples Party, the region around
Bahawalpur is known for its support
Alluvial plains form much of the immediate region around Bahawalpur.
The main crops for which
Bahawalpur is recognised are cotton,
sugarcane, wheat, sunflower seeds, rape/mustard seed and rice.
Bahawalpur mangoes, citrus, dates and guavas are some of the fruits
exported out of the country. Vegetables include onions, tomatoes,
cauliflower, potatoes and carrots. Being an expanding industrial city,
the government has revolutionised and libertised various markets
allowing the caustic soda, cotton ginning and pressing, flour mills,
fruit juices, general engineering, iron and steel re-rolling mills,
looms, oil mills, poultry feed, sugar, textile spinning, textile
weaving, vegetable ghee and cooking oil industries to flourish.
In 2007, the city's population was estimated to have risen to 798,509
from 403,408 in 1998. No census has been conducted in Pakistan
since 1998, although one will be completed in 2017. The Bakhri are a
clan found in the Shabr Farid ilaqa of
Bahawalpur claiming Rajput
origin. They were previously converted to Islam but fearing to return
Hindu roots they settled down in
Multan as weavers.
Darbar Mahal mosque was built in an exuberant style.
Bahawalpur emerged as a centre of Chisti Sufism following the
establishment of a khanqa by Noor Muhammad Muharvi in the mid 18th
Deobandi Islamism was established in the
during colonial times in an effort to counter the strong Sufi
influence in the area. After Partition, a number of Deobandi
Ludhiana areas relocated to Pakistani
Punjab, including to the cities of
Multan and Bahawalpur. In recent
years, there have been a growing number of
Deobandi institutions, from
which jihadis recruit a considerable number of militants to fight in
Afghanistan and Kashmir.
There are 500 to 1000 madrassas in
Bahawalpur belonging to Deobandi
Ahl-e-Hadith orientations, many of which teach a violent version
of Islam to children.
Maulana Masood Azhar, founder of Jaish-e-Mohammad, was born in
Bahawalpur in 1968. He established a 4.5 acre walled complex outside
the city that serves as a headquarters for JeM.
Bahawalpur was announced as one of six cities in Punjab whose security
would be improved by the Punjab Safe Cities Authority. 5.6 billion
Rupees have been allocated for the project, which will be modeled
along the lines of the
City project in which 8,000 CCTV
cameras were installed throughout the city at a cost of 12 billion
rupees to record and send images to Integrated Command and Control
Bahawal Stadium is the multipurpose stadium, home to
It hosted a sole international match, a test match between Pakistan
India in 1955.
List of educational institutions in Bahawalpur
List of people from Bahawalpur
^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 April 2006.
^ a b Bahawalpur: Area & Population Archived 9 November 2010 at
the Wayback Machine. Official
Bahawalpur Government Website, Retrieved
^ Vandal, Sajida. "Cultural Expression of South Punjab" (PDF). UNESCO
- Islamabad. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
^ Dar, Shujaat Zamir (2007). Sights in the Sands of Cholistan:
Bahawalpur's History and Architecture. Oxford University Press.
^ "A century later, Bahawalpur's
Darbar Mahal stands tall - The
Express Tribune". 21 April 2017.
^ Auj, Nūruzzamān (1987). Ancient Bahawalpur. Caravan Book
^ Gupta, Parmanand (1989). Geography from Ancient Indian Coins &
Seals. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170222484.
^ North Indian Inscriptions volume III: Inscriptions of the Early
Gupta Kings. p. 23.
^ "UNESCO Office in Bangkok:
Uch Monument". www.unescobkk.org.
^ Wright, Arnold, ed. (1922). Indian States: A Biographical,
Historical, and Administrative Survey. Asian Educational Services.
p. 145. ISBN 9788120619654.
^ Gilmartin, David (2015-06-05). Blood and Water: The Indus River
Basin in Modern History. Univ of California Press.
^ a b c d e f Cotton, James Sutherland; Burn, Sir Richard; Meyer, Sir
William Stevenson (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of
India ... Clarendon
^ a b c d e The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British India
and Its Dependencies. Black, Parbury, & Allen. 1838.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Álī, Shahāmat (1848). The History of
Bahawalpur: With Notices of the Adjacent Countries of Sindh,
Afghanistan, Multan, and the West of India. James Madden.
^ a b Burki, Shahid Javed (2015-03-19). Historical Dictionary of
Pakistan. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442241480.
^ a b bahādur.), Muḥammad Laṭīf (Saiyid, khān (1891). History
of the Panjáb from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time.
Calcutta Central Press Company, limited.
^ Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific:
An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598846591.
Bahawalpur Pakistan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved
^ Javaid, Umbreen (2004). Politics of Bahawalpur: From State to
Region, 1947-2000. Classic.
^ Christopher Buyers, Royal Ark website. "Bahawalpur: The Abbasi
Dynasty". Archived from the original on 15 November 2007. Retrieved
^ Bianchi, Robert (2004-09-09). Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics
in the Islamic World. Oxford University Press, USA.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 September 2010.
^ Denzil Ibbetson, K.C.S.I. (1911). A glossary of the tribes and
castes of the Punjab and North-West frontier province: a-k, volume 2.
^ Jones, Justin; Qasmi, Ali Usman (2015-04-13). The Shi‘a in Modern
South Asia: Religion, History and Politics. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 9781316338872.
^ Talbot 2015, p. 6.
^ a b Shah, Saeed (13 September 2009). "Terror group builds big base
under Pakistani officials' noses". McClatchy newspapers. Retrieved 2
^ "After Lahore, six others to become 'safer cities'". Express
Tribune. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
^ "Punjab Safe
City Project inaugurated". Dawn. 12 October 2016.
Retrieved 23 February 2017.
Moj, Muhammad (2015), The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural
Trends and Tendencies, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-389-3
Talbot, Ian (2015), "Introduction", in Roger D. Long; Gurharpal Singh;
Yunas Samad; Ian Talbot, State and Nation-Building in Pakistan: Beyond
Islam and Security, Routledge, pp. 1–,
Zahab, Mariam Abou; Roy, Olivier (2004) [first published in French in
2002]. Islamist Networks: The Afghan-
Pakistan Connection. Translated
by King, John. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers.
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