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Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
(Urdu: بہاولپُور ‬‎; Punjabi, بہاولپور‬), is a city located in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
is the 12th largest city in Pakistan
Pakistan
with an estimated population of 798,509.[3] Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
forms part of the region of southern Punjab - a distinct region historically influenced the ancient cultural centres of Multan
Multan
and Uch
Uch
Sharif.[4] Founded in 1748, Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
was the capital of the former princely state of Bahawalpur, ruled by ruling Abbasi family of Nawabs until 1955. The Nawabs left a rich architectural legacy, and Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
is now known for its monuments dating from that period.[5] The city also lies at the edge of the Cholistan Desert, and serves as the gateway to the nearby Lal Suhanra National Park.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early 1.2 Founding 1.3 Princely state 1.4 Modern

2 Economy 3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

4 Civic administration 5 Sports 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

History[edit] Main article: Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
(princely state)

The Noor Mahal
Noor Mahal
was the seat of the city's ruling Nawabs.

Darbar Mahal
Darbar Mahal
was built by Nawab
Nawab
Bahawal Khan V
Bahawal Khan V
in 1905 as a palace for his wife.[6]

Early[edit] The area known as Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
was home to various ancient societies. The Bahwalpur region contains ruins from the Indus Valley Civilisation, as well as ancient Buddhist sites such as the nearby Patan minara.[7] British archaeologist Sir Alexander Cunningham identified the Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
region as home of the Yaudheya kingdoms of the Mahābhārata.[8][9] Prior to the establishment of Bahawalpur, the region's major city was the holy city of Uch Sharif
Uch Sharif
- a regional metropolitan centre between the 12th and 17th centuries that it is renowned for its collection of historic shrines dedicated to Muslim
Muslim
mystics from the 12-15th centuries built in the region's vernacular style.[10] Founding[edit] Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
was founded in 1748 by Nawab
Nawab
Bahawal Khan I,[11] after migrating to the region around Uch
Uch
from Shikarpur, Sindh.[12] Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
replaced Derawar as the clan's capital city.[13] The city had initially flourished as a trading post on trade routes between Afghanistan and central India.[14] In 1785, the Durrani commander Sirdar Khan attacked Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
city and destroyed many of its buildings on behalf of Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhora of Sindh.[15] Bahawalpur's ruling family, along with nobles from nearby Uch, were forced to take refuge in the Derawar Fort, where they successfully repulsed attacks.[15] The attacking Durrani force accepted 60,000 rupees as nazrana tribute, though Bahawal Khan later had to seek refuge in the Rajput
Rajput
states as the Afghan Durranis occupied Derawar Fort.[15] Bahawal Khan returned to conquer the fort by way of Uch, and re-established control of Bahawalpur.[15] Princely state[edit]

The ruling Abbasi family regarded the nearby Derawar Fort
Derawar Fort
as a traditional bastion of their power.

Bahawalpur's central library dates from the princely state period.

The princely state of Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
was founded in 1802 by Nawab
Nawab
Mohammad Bahawal Khan II after the break-up of the Durrani Empire, and was based in the city. In 1807, Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
laid siege to the fort in Multan, prompting refugees to seek safety in Bahawalpur in the wake of his marauding forces that began to attack the countryside around Multan.[15] Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
eventually withdrew the siege, and gifted the Nawab
Nawab
of Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
some gifts as the Sikh forces retreated.[15] Bahalwapur offered an outpost of stability in the wake of crumbling Mughal rule and declining power of Khorasan's monarchy.[15] The city became a refuge for prominent families from affected regions, and also saw an influx of religious scholars escaping the consolidation of Sikh power in Punjab.[15] Fearing an invasion from the Sikh
Sikh
Empire,[16] Nawab
Nawab
Mohammad Bahawal Khan III signed a treaty with the British on 22 February 1833, guaranteeing the independence of the Nawab
Nawab
and the autonomy of Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
as a princely state. The treaty guaranteed the British a friendly southern frontier during their invasion of the Sikh Empire.[16] Trade routes had shifted away from Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
by the 1830s, and British visitors to the city noted several empty shops in the city's bazaar.[14] The population at this time was estimated to be 20,000,[14] and was noted to be made up primarily of low-caste Hindus.[14] Also in 1833, the Sultej and Indus Rivers were opened to navigation, allowing goods to reach Bahawalpur.[15] By 1845, newly opened trade routes to Delhi re-established Bahawalpur as a commercial centre.[15] The city was known in the late 19th century as a centre for the production of silk goods, lungis, and cotton goods.[17] The city's silk was noted to be of higher quality than silk works from Benares
Benares
or Amritsar.[14]

Sadeq Mohammad Khan V
Sadeq Mohammad Khan V
served as the last Nawab
Nawab
of Bahawalpur.

An 1866 crisis over succession to the Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
throne markedly increased British influence in the princely state.[18] Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
was constituted as a municipality in 1874.[19] The city's Noor Mahal palace was completed in 1875.[13] In 1878, Bahawalpur's 4,285 foot long Empress Bridge was opened as the only rail crossing over the Sultej River.[13] Bahawalpur's Sadiq Egerton College was founded in 1886.[13] Bahalwapur's Nawabs celebrated the Golden Jubillee of Queen Victoria in 1887 in a state function at the Noor Mahal
Noor Mahal
palace.[17] Two hospitals were established in the city in 1898.[13] In 1901, the population of the city was 18,546.[13] Bahawalpur's Islamia University was founded as Jamia Abbasia in 1925. At the outbreak of World War II
World War II
in 1939, Bahawalpur's Nawab
Nawab
was the first ruler of a princely state to offer his full support and resources of the state towards the crown's war efforts.[20] Modern[edit] British Princely states were given the option to join either Pakistan or India
India
upon withdrawal of British suzerainty in August 1947. The city and princely state of Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
acceded to Pakistan
Pakistan
on 7 October 1947 under Nawab
Nawab
Sadiq Muhammad Khan Abbasi V Bahadur.[21] Following independence, the city's minority Hindu
Hindu
and Sikh
Sikh
communities largely migrated to India
India
en masse, while Saraiki Muslim
Muslim
refugees from became India
India
settled in the city and surrounding region. The city's Quaid-e-Azam Medical College
Quaid-e-Azam Medical College
was founded in 1971. While much of southern Punjab's Saraiki population in Multan
Multan
support the Pakistan Peoples Party, the region around Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
is known for its support of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Muslim
Muslim
League.[22] Economy[edit]

Fareed Gate

Alluvial plains
Alluvial plains
form much of the immediate region around Bahawalpur.

The main crops for which Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
is recognised are cotton, sugarcane, wheat, sunflower seeds, rape/mustard seed and rice. Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
mangoes, citrus, dates and guavas are some of the fruits exported out of the country. Vegetables include onions, tomatoes, cauliflower, potatoes and carrots. Being an expanding industrial city, the government has revolutionised and libertised various markets allowing the caustic soda, cotton ginning and pressing, flour mills, fruit juices, general engineering, iron and steel re-rolling mills, looms, oil mills, poultry feed, sugar, textile spinning, textile weaving, vegetable ghee and cooking oil industries to flourish.[23] Demographics[edit] In 2007, the city's population was estimated to have risen to 798,509 from 403,408 in 1998.[3] No census has been conducted in Pakistan since 1998, although one will be completed in 2017. The Bakhri are a clan found in the Shabr Farid ilaqa of Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
claiming Rajput origin. They were previously converted to Islam but fearing to return to their Hindu
Hindu
roots they settled down in Multan
Multan
as weavers.[24] Religion[edit]

The Darbar Mahal
Darbar Mahal
mosque was built in an exuberant style.

Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
emerged as a centre of Chisti Sufism following the establishment of a khanqa by Noor Muhammad Muharvi in the mid 18th century.[25] Deobandi
Deobandi
Islamism was established in the Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
area during colonial times in an effort to counter the strong Sufi influence in the area. After Partition, a number of Deobandi institutions from Jalandhar
Jalandhar
and Ludhiana
Ludhiana
areas relocated to Pakistani Punjab, including to the cities of Multan
Multan
and Bahawalpur. In recent years, there have been a growing number of Deobandi
Deobandi
institutions, from which jihadis recruit a considerable number of militants to fight in Afghanistan and Kashmir.[26] There are 500 to 1000 madrassas in Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
belonging to Deobandi and Ahl-e-Hadith
Ahl-e-Hadith
orientations, many of which teach a violent version of Islam to children.[27] Maulana Masood Azhar, founder of Jaish-e-Mohammad, was born in Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
in 1968. He established a 4.5 acre walled complex outside the city that serves as a headquarters for JeM.[27] Civic administration[edit] Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
was announced as one of six cities in Punjab whose security would be improved by the Punjab Safe Cities Authority. 5.6 billion Rupees have been allocated for the project,[28] which will be modeled along the lines of the Lahore
Lahore
Safe City
City
project in which 8,000 CCTV cameras were installed throughout the city at a cost of 12 billion rupees to record and send images to Integrated Command and Control Centres.[29] Sports[edit] Bahawal Stadium
Bahawal Stadium
is the multipurpose stadium, home to Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
Stags. It hosted a sole international match, a test match between Pakistan and India
India
in 1955. See also[edit]

Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
Museum Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
Zoo List of educational institutions in Bahawalpur List of people from Bahawalpur

References[edit]

^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 14 April 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-17.  ^ http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/pco/index.html ^ a b Bahawalpur: Area & Population Archived 9 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Official Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
Government Website, Retrieved 2009-09-17 ^ Vandal, Sajida. "Cultural Expression of South Punjab" (PDF). UNESCO - Islamabad. Retrieved 4 February 2018.  ^ Dar, Shujaat Zamir (2007). Sights in the Sands of Cholistan: Bahawalpur's History and Architecture. Oxford University Press.  ^ "A century later, Bahawalpur's Darbar Mahal
Darbar Mahal
stands tall - The Express Tribune". 21 April 2017.  ^ Auj, Nūruzzamān (1987). Ancient Bahawalpur. Caravan Book Centre.  ^ Gupta, Parmanand (1989). Geography from Ancient Indian Coins & Seals. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 9788170222484.  ^ North Indian Inscriptions volume III: Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings. p. 23.  ^ "UNESCO Office in Bangkok: Uch
Uch
Monument". www.unescobkk.org. Retrieved 2018-01-26.  ^ Wright, Arnold, ed. (1922). Indian States: A Biographical, Historical, and Administrative Survey. Asian Educational Services. p. 145. ISBN 9788120619654.  ^ Gilmartin, David (2015-06-05). Blood and Water: The Indus River Basin in Modern History. Univ of California Press. ISBN 9780520285293.  ^ a b c d e f Cotton, James Sutherland; Burn, Sir Richard; Meyer, Sir William Stevenson (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
... Clarendon Press.  ^ a b c d e The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British India and Its Dependencies. Black, Parbury, & Allen. 1838.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Álī, Shahāmat (1848). The History of Bahawalpur: With Notices of the Adjacent Countries of Sindh, Afghanistan, Multan, and the West of India. James Madden.  ^ a b Burki, Shahid Javed (2015-03-19). Historical Dictionary of Pakistan. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442241480.  ^ a b bahādur.), Muḥammad Laṭīf (Saiyid, khān (1891). History of the Panjáb from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. Calcutta Central Press Company, limited.  ^ Minahan, James (2012). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598846591.  ^ " Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
Pakistan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-01-26.  ^ Javaid, Umbreen (2004). Politics of Bahawalpur: From State to Region, 1947-2000. Classic.  ^ Christopher Buyers, Royal Ark website. "Bahawalpur: The Abbasi Dynasty". Archived from the original on 15 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-13.  ^ Bianchi, Robert (2004-09-09). Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 9780195171075.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 2009-09-17.  ^ Denzil Ibbetson, K.C.S.I. (1911). A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West frontier province: a-k, volume 2. p. 93.  ^ Jones, Justin; Qasmi, Ali Usman (2015-04-13). The Shi‘a in Modern South Asia: Religion, History and Politics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781316338872.  ^ Talbot 2015, p. 6. ^ a b Shah, Saeed (13 September 2009). "Terror group builds big base under Pakistani officials' noses". McClatchy newspapers. Retrieved 2 October 2016.  ^ "After Lahore, six others to become 'safer cities'". Express Tribune. 20 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.  ^ "Punjab Safe City
City
Project inaugurated". Dawn. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Moj, Muhammad (2015), The Deoband Madrassah Movement: Countercultural Trends and Tendencies, Anthem Press, ISBN 978-1-78308-389-3  Talbot, Ian (2015), "Introduction", in Roger D. Long; Gurharpal Singh; Yunas Samad; Ian Talbot, State and Nation-Building in Pakistan: Beyond Islam and Security, Routledge, pp. 1–, ISBN 978-1-317-44820-4  Zahab, Mariam Abou; Roy, Olivier (2004) [first published in French in 2002]. Islamist Networks: The Afghan- Pakistan
Pakistan
Connection. Translated by King, John. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85065-704-0. 

External links[edit]

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v t e

Neighbourhoods of Bahawalpur

Administrations: Bahawalpur Division
Bahawalpur Division
and Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
District

Tehsils

Ahmadpur East Bahawalpur Hasilpur Khairpur Tamiwali Yazman Fort Abbas

Cities

Ahmadpur East Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur
(capital) Cholistan Desert Hasilpur Khairpur Tamiwali Uch Yazman Kotla Musa Khan

Towns and councils

Basti Babbar Basti Dhandlah Basti Nari Dadwala Faqirwali Ganehar Head Rajkan Jamalpur Khosa Kot Sabzal Mianwala Kariya Muhammadgarh Najwaniwala

Villages

Boharwala Channan Pir Khanqah
Khanqah
Sharif

Website: Bahawalpur District
Bahawalpur District
at NRB

v t e

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Attock Bahawalpur Burewala Chakwal Chiniot Faisalabad Gujar Khan Gujranwala Gujrat Jhang Jhelum Kasur Kharian Lahore** Mianwali Multan Murree Rahim Yar Khan Rawalpindi Sadiqabad Sahiwal Sargodha Sheikhupura Sialkot Taxila Toba Tek Singh

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Badin Hyderabad Jacobabad Karachi** Khairpur Larkana Mirpurkhas Nawabshah Sukkur Thatta

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& FATA

Abbottabad Bannu Battagram Chitral Charsada D.I.Khan Haripur Kohat Mansehra Mardan Nowshera Peshawar** Swat Swabi Timergara Tank

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