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Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
(/bəˈhɑːʊˌlɑː/; Arabic: بهاء الله‎, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (Persian: میرزا حسین‌علی نوری‎), was the founder of the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith. He claimed to be the prophetic fulfilment of Bábism, a 19th-century outgrowth of Shaykhism,[1] and, in a broader sense to be a Manifestation of God. He also claimed he was the fulfillment of the eschatological expectations of Islam, Christianity, and other major religions.[2] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
became a follower of the Báb
Báb
in Persia
Persia
in 1845. Three years after the Báb
Báb
was executed, he was exiled to Baghdad
Baghdad
(then a part of the Ottoman Empire), where in 1863 he proclaimed the Bahá'í Faith when he declared himself He whom God shall make manifest, a messianic figure in Babi theology. Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
based this announcement on a vision of the Maid of Heaven he claimed to have had while imprisoned in the Síyáh-Chál
Síyáh-Chál
in Tehran, Persia.[3] He would be further exiled to Edirne
Edirne
and ultimately to the prison city of Acre, Palestine (present-day Israel), where he died. He wrote many religious works, most notably the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, the Kitáb-i-Íqán, and the Hidden Words. Bahá'u'lláh's teachings focus on the unity of God, religion, and mankind. Similar to other monotheistic religions, God is considered the source of all created things. Religion, according to Bahá'u'lláh, is renewed periodically by Manifestations of God, people who are made perfect through divine intervention and whose teachings are the sources of the major world religions throughout history. Bahá'ís view Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
as the first of these teachers whose mission includes the spiritual unification of the entire planet through the eradication of racism and nationalism. Bahá'u'lláh's teachings include the need for a world tribunal to adjudicate disputes between nations, a uniform system of weights and measures, and an auxiliary language that could be spoken by all the people on earth. Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
also taught that the cycles of revelatory renewal will continue in the future, with Manifestations of God
Manifestations of God
appearing every thousand years or so. Bahá'u'lláh's eldest son, `Abdu'l-Bahá, was appointed his successor.

Contents

1 Early and family life 2 Bábí movement

2.1 Acceptance of the Báb 2.2 Síyáh-Chál

3 Baghdad

3.1 Kurdistan 3.2 Return to Baghdad 3.3 Declaration in the Garden of Ridvan

4 Imprisonment

4.1 Constantinople 4.2 Adrianople 4.3 Writings and letters to the leaders of the world 4.4 Acre

5 Final years 6 Claims 7 Succession 8 Works 9 Photographs and imagery 10 See also 11 References

11.1 Footnotes

12 Explanatory notes 13 Works cited 14 External links

Early and family life[edit] Main article: Bahá'u'lláh's family

A depiction of Mírzá Buzurg, the father of Bahá'u'lláh

Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was born on 12 November 1817, in Tehran, the capital of Persia, present-day Iran. Bahá'í
Bahá'í
authors state that his ancestry can be traced back to Abraham
Abraham
through Abraham's wife Keturah,[4] to Zoroaster
Zoroaster
and to Yazdgerd III, the last king of the Sassanid Empire,[5] and also to Jesse.[6][7] According to the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
author John Able, Bahá'ís also consider Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
to have been "descended doubly, from both Abraham
Abraham
and Sarah, and separately from Abraham
Abraham
and Keturah."[8] His mother was Khadíjih Khánum and his father was Mírzá Buzurg. Bahá'u'lláh's father served as vizier to Imám-Virdi Mírzá, the twelfth son of Fat′h Ali Shah
Shah
Qajar. Mírzá Buzurg
Mírzá Buzurg
was later appointed governor of Burujird and Lorestan,[9] a position that he was stripped of during a government purge when Muhammad Shah
Shah
came to power. After the death of his father, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was asked to take a government post by the new vizier Hajji Mirza
Mirza
Aqasi, but declined.[10] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
had three wives. He married his first wife Ásíyih Khánum, the daughter of a nobleman, in Tehran
Tehran
in 1835, when he was 18 and she was 15.[11] She was given the title of The Most Exalted Leaf and Navváb.[12] His second wife was his widowed cousin Fátimih Khánum. The marriage took place in Tehran
Tehran
in 1849 when she was 21 and he was 32.[11] She was known as Mahd-i-`Ulyá. His third wife was Gawhar Khánum and the marriage occurred in Baghdad
Baghdad
sometime before 1863.[11] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
declared Ásíyih Khánum
Ásíyih Khánum
his "perpetual consort in all the worlds of God", and her son `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
as his vicar.[13] He had 14 children, four daughters and ten sons, five of whom he outlived.[14] Bahá'ís regard Ásíyih Khánum
Ásíyih Khánum
and her children Mírzá Mihdí, Bahíyyih Khánum
Bahíyyih Khánum
and `Abdu'l-Bahá' to be the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
holy family.[15] Bábí movement[edit] Main article: Bábism In 1844, a 25-year-old man from Shiraz, Siyyid Mírzá `Alí-Muḥammad, claimed to be the promised redeemer (or Mahdi
Mahdi
and Qaim) of Islam, taking the title of the Báb, or the "Gate".[16] The resulting Bábí movement quickly spread across the Persian Empire, attracting widespread opposition from the Islamic
Islamic
clergy. The Báb himself was executed in 1850 by a firing squad in the public square of Tabriz
Tabriz
at the age of 30.[16] The Báb
Báb
claimed no finality for his revelation.[17] In his writings, he alluded to a Promised One, most commonly referred to as "Him whom God shall make manifest". According to the Báb, this personage, promised in the sacred writings of previous religions, would establish the kingdom of God on the Earth;[16][18] several of the Báb's writings state the coming of Him whom God shall make manifest would be imminent.[19] The Báb
Báb
constantly entreats his believers to follow Him whom God shall make manifest when he arrives.[17] The Báb
Báb
also eliminated the institution of successorship or vicegerency to his movement, and stated that no other person's writings would be binding after his death until Him whom God shall make manifest had appeared.[19] Acceptance of the Báb[edit] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
first heard of the Báb
Báb
when he was 27, and received a visitor sent by the Báb, Mullá Husayn, telling him of the Báb
Báb
and his claims. Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
became a Bábí and helped to spread the new movement, especially in his native province of Núr, where he became recognized as one of its most influential believers.[14][20] His notability as a local gave him many openings, and his trips to teach the religion were met with success, even among some of the religious class. He also helped to protect fellow believers, such as Táhirih, for which he was temporarily imprisoned in Tehran
Tehran
and punished with bastinado or foot whipping.[14] Bahá'u'lláh, in the summer of 1848, also attended the conference of Badasht in the province of Khorasan, where 81 prominent Bábís met for 22 days; at that conference where there was a discussion between those Bábís who wanted to maintain Islamic
Islamic
law and those who believed that the Báb's message began a new dispensation, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
took the pro-change side, which eventually won out. It is at this conference that Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
took on the name Bahá.[14] When violence started between the Bábís and the Qajar government in the later part of 1848, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
tried to reach the besieged Bábís at the Shaykh Tabarsi in Mazandaran, but was arrested and imprisoned before he could get there.[14] The following years until 1850 saw the Bábís being massacred in various provinces after the Báb
Báb
publicly made his claim of being the Manifestation of God.[14] Síyáh-Chál[edit] After the Báb
Báb
was executed in 1850, a group of Tehran
Tehran
Bábís, headed by a Bábí known as Azim, who was previously a Shaykhi cleric, plotted an assassination plan against the Shah
Shah
Nasser-al-Din Shah, in retaliation for the Báb's execution.[21] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
condemned the plan; however, any moderating influence that he may have had was diminished in June 1851 when he went into exile to Baghdad
Baghdad
at the chief minister's request, returning only after Amir Kabir's fall from power.[14][21] On 15 August 1852, the radical group of Bábís attempted the assassination of the Shah
Shah
and failed.[14] The group of Bábís linked with the plan, were rounded up and executed, but notwithstanding the assassins' claim that they were working alone, the entire Bábí community was blamed, precipitating violent riots against the Bábí community that were encouraged and orchestrated by the government.[21] During this time many Bábís were killed, and many more, including Bahá'u'lláh, were imprisoned in the Síyáh-Chál
Síyáh-Chál
("black pit"), an underground dungeon of Tehran.[22] According to Bahá'u'lláh, it was during his imprisonment in the Síyáh-Chál
Síyáh-Chál
that he had several mystical experiences, and received a vision of a maiden from God, through whom he received his mission as a messenger of God and as the one whose coming the Báb
Báb
had prophesied.[14][22] The confession of the would-be assassin had exonerated the Bábí leaders, and in the context of the continuing mass executions of Babis, the ambassador of Russia
Russia
requested that Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and other persons apparently unconnected with the conspiracy be spared. After he had been in the Síyáh-Chál
Síyáh-Chál
for four months Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was in fact finally released, on condition he left Iran. Declining an offer of refugee status in Russia, he chose exile in Iraq
Iraq
(then part of the Ottoman Empire); in 1853 Bahá'u'lláh and his family, accompanied by a member of the Shah's bodyguard and a representative of the Russian embassy, travelled from Persia, arriving in Baghdad
Baghdad
on 8 April 1853.[14][23][24][25] Baghdad[edit]

Bahá'u'lláh's passport, dated January 1853

The Bab had appointed Mírzá Yahyá (later known as Subh-i-Azal) as the leader after himself. Mírzá Yahyá had gone into hiding after the assassination attempt on the Shah, and after Bahá'u'lláh's exile to Baghdad, he chose to join his brother there.[23] At the same time, an increasing number of Bábís considered Baghdad
Baghdad
the new center for leadership of the Bábí religion, and a flow of pilgrims started going there from Persia. Mírzá Yahyá's leadership was controversial. He generally absented himself from the Bábí community, spending his time in Baghdad
Baghdad
in hiding and disguise; on several occasions he went so far as to publicly disavow allegiance to the Báb.[10][26][27] Mírzá Yahyá gradually alienated himself from a large number of the Bábís, who started giving their allegiance to other claimants.[26] During the time that Mírzá Yahyá remained in hiding, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
performed much of the daily administration of Bábí affairs.[10] In contrast to Mírzá Yahyá, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was outgoing and accessible and he was seen by an increasing number of Bábís as a religious leader, rather than just an organizer, and became their center of devotion.[28] This was increasingly resented by Mírzá Yahyá, who began trying to discredit Bahá'u'lláh,[28] thus driving many people away from the religion.[10] Tensions in the community mounted, and in 1854 Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
decided to leave the city to pursue a solitary life.[28] Kurdistan[edit] On 10 April 1854, without telling anyone of his intention or destination, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
left his family to the care of his brother Mirza
Mirza
Musa and traveled with one companion to the mountains of Kurdistan, northeast of Baghdad, near the city of Sulaymaniyah.[10][28] He later wrote that he left so as to avoid becoming a source of disagreement within the Bábí community, and that his "withdrawal contemplated no return".[28][29] For two years, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
lived alone in the mountains of Kurdistan.[22] He originally lived as a hermit, dressed like a dervish and used the name Darvish Muhammad-i-Irani.[28][30] At one point someone noticed his penmanship, which brought the curiosity of the instructors of the local Sufi orders.[10] As he began to take guests, he became noted for his learning and wisdom. Shaykh `Uthmán, Shaykh `Abdu'r-Rahmán, and Shaykh Ismá'íl, leaders of the Naqshbandíyyih, Qádiríyyih, and Khálidíyyih Orders respectively, began to seek his advice.[31] It was to the second of these that the Four Valleys was written. Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
wrote several other notable books during this time.[22] In Baghdad, given the lack of firm and public leadership by Mirza Yahya, the Babi community had fallen into disarray.[10] Some Babis, including Bahá'u'lláh's family, began searching for Bahá'u'lláh, and when news of a man living in the mountains under the name of Darvish Muhammad spread to neighboring areas, Bahá'u'lláh's family begged him to come back to Baghdad.[10] On 19 March 1856, after two years in Kurdistan
Kurdistan
he returned to Baghdad.[28] Return to Baghdad[edit]

Map of Bahá'u'lláh's banishments

When Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
returned to Baghdad
Baghdad
he saw that the Bábí community had become disheartened and divided.[28] During Bahá'u'lláh's absence, it had become alienated from the religion because Mirza
Mirza
Yahya had continued his policy of militancy and had been unable to provide effective leadership.[28] Mirza
Mirza
Yahya had married the widow of the Báb
Báb
against the Báb's clear instructions;[10] dispatched followers to the province of Nur for the second attempt on the life of the Shah;[32] and instigated violence against prominent Bábís who had challenged his leadership.[28] After his return to Baghdad, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
tried to revive the Bábí community, mostly through correspondence, writing extensively to give the Bábís a new understanding of the Bábí religion,[28] while keeping his perceived station as the one promised by the Báb
Báb
and a Manifestation of God
Manifestation of God
hidden. He was soon recognized by the Bábís, as well as government authorities, as the foremost Bábí leader, and there was a growing number of people joining the Bábí movement.[28] He also gained sympathy from government officials and Sunni clerics.[28] Bahá'u'lláh's rising influence in the city, and the revival of the Persian Bábí community, gained the attention of his enemies in Islamic
Islamic
clergy and the Persian government.[33] The Persian government asked the Ottoman government to extradite Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
to Persia, but the Ottoman government refused and instead chose to move Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
from the sensitive border region to Constantinople.[28] Declaration in the Garden of Ridvan[edit] On 21 April 1863, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
left Baghdad
Baghdad
and entered the Najibiyyih gardens, now the location of Baghdad
Baghdad
Medical City and known to Bahá'ís as the Garden of Ridván. Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and those accompanying him stayed in the garden for twelve days before departing for Constantinople.[34] It was during this time that Bahá'u'lláh declared to a small group of his companions his perceived mission and station as a Messenger of God.[22] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
declared himself He whom God shall make manifest, a messianic figure in the religion of Bábism. Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
based this announcement on an experience he had previously while imprisoned in the Síyáh-Chál
Síyáh-Chál
in Tehran
Tehran
where he is said to have had a vision of the Maid of Heaven. Bahá'ís regard this period with great significance and celebrate the twelve days that Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
spent in this Garden as the festival of Ridván.[34] He referred to the period of messianic secrecy between when he claimed to have seen the Maiden of Heaven in the Síyáh-Chál
Síyáh-Chál
and his declaration as the ayyam-i butun ("Days of Concealment"). Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
stated that this period was a "set time of concealment".[35] The declaration in the Garden of Ridván
Ridván
was the beginning of a new phase in the Bábí community which led to the emergence of the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
as a distinctive movement separate from Bábísm.[36] Imprisonment[edit] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was given an order to relocate to the Ottoman capital of Constantinople. Although not a formal prisoner yet, the forced exile from Baghdad
Baghdad
was the beginning of a long process which would gradually move him into further exiles and eventually to the penal colony of Acre, Palestine (now in Israel). Constantinople[edit] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
travelled from Baghdad
Baghdad
to Constantinople
Constantinople
between 3 May and 17 August 1863, accompanied by a large group including family members and followers. During the trip, he was treated with respect in the towns he visited, and when he reached Constantinople, he was treated as a government guest.[36] Why the Ottoman authorities did not permit his extradition to Persia, but instead invited him to come to Constantinople, is unclear. The reason may have been political because Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was viewed as a person of influence. After three and a half months in Constantinople, he was ordered to depart for Adrianople. The reason for this further move is also unclear. It may have been due to pressure from the Persian ambassador, combined with Bahá'u'lláh's refusal to work with the Ottoman authorities.[36] Adrianople[edit]

`Abdu'l-Bahá' in Adrianople
Adrianople
with his brothers and companions of Bahá'u'lláh. He is third from the left in the front row.

From 1 to 12 December 1863, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and his family traveled to Adrianople. Unlike his travel to Constantinople, this journey was in the nature of an exile.[36] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
stayed in Adrianople
Adrianople
for four and a half years, and was the clear leader of the newly established Bábí community there.[36][37] Bahá'u'lláh's growing preeminence in the Bábí community and in the city at large led to a final breach between Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and Mirza
Mirza
Yahya.[36] In 1865, Mirza Yahya was accused of plotting to kill Bahá'u'lláh.[38] In contemporary accounts, Mirza
Mirza
Yahya is reported to have tried to have Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
assassinated by a local barber. The barber, Muhammad `Alí of Isfahán, apparently refused and spread word of the danger around the community. Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
is reported to have counseled "on all patience, quietude and gentleness".[39] This pattern was repeated when, according to the personal account of Ustád Muhammad-`Alíy-i Salmání, Mirza
Mirza
Yahya attempted to persuade him likewise to murder Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
in the bath.[40] Eventually Mirza
Mirza
Yahya attempted to poison Bahá'u'lláh, an act that left him gravely ill for a time, and left him with a shaking hand for the rest of his life.[38][41][42][43][44] After this event in 1866, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
made his claim to be He whom God shall make manifest public,[26] as well as making a formal written announcement to Mirza
Mirza
Yahya referring to his followers for the first time as the "people of Bahá".[38] After his public announcement, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
secluded himself in his house and instructed the Bábís to choose between himself and Mirza
Mirza
Yahya.[38] Bahá'u'lláh's claims threatened Mirza
Mirza
Yahya's position as leader of the religion since it would mean little to be leader of the Bábís if Him whom God shall make manifest were to appear and start a new religion.[10] Mirza
Mirza
Yahya responded by making his own claims, but his attempt to preserve the traditional Bábísm was largely unpopular, and his followers became the minority.[26] In 1867, Mirza
Mirza
Yahya challenged Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
to a test of the divine will in a local mosque in Adrianople,[38] such that "God would strike down the impostor." Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
agreed, and went to the Sultan Selim mosque at the appointed time, but Mirza
Mirza
Yahya lost credibility when he failed to show up.[38][45][46] Eventually Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was recognized by the vast majority of Bábís as "He whom God shall make manifest" and his followers began calling themselves Bahá'ís.[10] Writings and letters to the leaders of the world[edit]

The house where Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
stayed in Adrianople

During his time in Adrianople, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
wrote a great deal. One of the main themes during this time was the proclamation of his claimed mission; he instructed some of his followers to take his claims to Bábís in Iran
Iran
and Iraq
Iraq
who had not heard of his statements, as well as asking the Bahá'ís to be united and detached from the world.[47] He also started to write about distinctive Bahá'í
Bahá'í
beliefs and practices. Also, while in Adrianople, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
proclaimed the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith further by addressing tablets to the kings and rulers of the world asking them to accept his revelation, renounce their material possessions, work together to settle disputes, and endeavour toward the betterment of the world and its peoples. His first letter was sent to Sultan Abdülaziz
Abdülaziz
of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and his ministers, which was followed by the Tablet of the Kings which was a general address to all rulers.[47] In that latter letter the rulers of the earth were asked to listen to Bahá'u'lláh's call, and cast away their material possessions, and since they were given the reins of government that they should rule with justice and protect the rights of the downtrodden. He also told the rulers to reduce their armaments and reconcile their differences.[47] The Christian monarchs were also asked to be faithful to Jesus' call to follow the promised "Spirit of Truth."[47] Later when Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was in Acre, he continued writing letters to the leaders of the world including:[48]

Pope Pius IX Napoleon III, Emperor of France Alexander II, Tsar of Russia Wilhelm I, King in Prussia Queen Victoria, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria-Hungary Sultan ‘Abdu’l-‘Azíz of the Ottoman Empire Násiri’d-Dín Sháh of the Persian Empire Rulers of America and the Presidents of the republics therein

Acre[edit]

Prison in Acre in which Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was imprisoned

With the Bábí community now irrevocably divided, the followers of Mirza
Mirza
Yahya tried to discredit Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
to the Ottoman authorities, accusing him of causing agitation against the government.[49] While an investigation cleared Bahá'u'lláh, it did bring to the attention of the government that Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and Mirza Yahya were propagating religious claims, and, fearing that this might cause future disorder, they decided to again exile the 'Bábí' leaders.[49] A royal command was issued in July 1868 condemning the Bábís to perpetual imprisonment and isolation in far-flung outposts of the Ottoman Empire — Famagusta, Cyprus
Cyprus
for Mirza
Mirza
Yahya and his followers, and Acre, in Ottoman Palestine, for Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and his followers.[49] The Bahá'ís, including Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and his family, left Adrianople on 12 August 1868, and, after a journey by land and sea through Gallipoli
Gallipoli
and Egypt, arrived in Acre on 31 August and were confined in the barracks of the city's citadel.[49] The inhabitants of Acre were told that the new prisoners were enemies of the state, of God and his religion, and that association with them was strictly forbidden. The first years in Acre imposed very harsh conditions with many becoming sick, and eventually three Bahá'ís dying.[49] Dr. Thomas Chaplin, director of a British Hospital in Jerusalem[50] visited Bahá'u'lláh in April 1871 and sent a letter to the editor printed in The Times
The Times
in October.[51] This seems to be the first extended commentary on Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
in western newspapers.[52] It was also a very trying time for Bahá'u'lláh, whose son, Mirzá Mihdí, died at the age of twenty-two when he fell through a skylight while pacing back and forth in prayer and meditation. After some time, relations between the prisoners and officials and the local community improved, so that the conditions of the imprisonment were eased and eventually, after the Sultan's death, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was allowed to leave the city and visit nearby places. From 1877 until 1879 Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
lived in the house of Mazra'ih.[49] Final years[edit]

Mansion of Bahjí

The shrine near Acre, where Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
is buried

The final years of Bahá'u'lláh's life (1879–1892) were spent in the Mansion of Bahjí, just outside Acre, even though he was still formally a prisoner of the Ottoman Empire. During his years in Acre and Bahjí, since `Abdu'l-Bahá, his eldest son, had taken care of the organizational work, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was able to devote his time to writing, and he produced many volumes of work including the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, his book of laws.[53] His other works included letters outlining his vision for a united world, as well as the need for ethical action; he also composed many prayers.[53] In 1890, the Cambridge
Cambridge
orientalist Edward Granville Browne
Edward Granville Browne
had an interview with Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
in this house. After this meeting he wrote his famous pen-portrait of Bahá'u'lláh:

In the corner where the divan met the wall sat a wondrous and venerable figure, crowned with a felt head-dress of the kind called táj by dervishes (but of unusual height and make), round the base of which was wound a small white turban. The face of him on whom I gazed I can never forget, though I cannot describe it. Those piercing eyes seemed to read one's very soul; power and authority sat on that ample brow; while the deep lines on the forehead and face implied an age which the jet-black hair and beard flowing down in indistinguishable luxuriance almost to the waist seemed to belie. No need to ask in whose presence I stood, as I bowed myself before one who is the object of a devotion and love which kings might envy and emperors sigh for in vain![53][54]

On 9 May 1892, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
contracted a slight fever which grew steadily over the following days, abated, and then finally resulted in his death on 29 May 1892. He was buried in the shrine located next to the Mansion of Bahjí.[55] Claims[edit] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
stated that he was a messenger of God, and he used the term Manifestation of God
Manifestation of God
to define the concept of an intermediary between humanity and God.[56] In the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
writings, the Manifestations of God
Manifestations of God
are a series of interrelated personages who speak with a divine voice and who reflect the attributes of the divine into the human world for the progress and advancement of human morals and civilization.[56][57] The Manifestations of God, as explained by Bahá'u'lláh, are not incarnations of God, but have a two-fold station; one which is the divine in that they reveal God's attributes, but not God's essence, and one which is human in that they represent the physical qualities of common man, and have human limitations.[56][58] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
wrote that God will never manifest his essence into the world.[56] In Bahá'u'lláh's writings he writes in many styles including cases where he speaks as if he was instructed by God to bring a message; in other cases he writes as though he is speaking as God directly.[59][60] Some have interpreted Bahá'u'lláh's writing style to conclude that Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
had claimed divinity.[61] Bahá'u'lláh, however, states himself that the essence of God will never descend into the human world.[56] Statements where Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
speaks with the voice of God are meant that he is not actually God, but that he is speaking with the attributes of God.[56] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
declared, as the most recent Manifestation of God, that he was the "Promised One" of all religions, fulfilling the messianic prophecies found in world religions.[2] He stated that his claims to being several messiahs converging in one person were the symbolic, rather than literal, fulfilment of the messianic and eschatological prophecies found in the literature of the major religions.[2] Bahá'u'lláh's eschatological claims constitute six distinctive messianic identifications: from Judaism, the incarnation of the "Everlasting Father" from the Yuletide prophecy of Isaiah 9:6, the "Lord of Hosts"; from Christianity, the "Spirit of Truth" or Comforter predicted by Jesus in his farewell discourse of John 14–17 and the return of Christ
Christ
"in the glory of the Father"; from Zoroastrianism, the return of Shah
Shah
Bahram Varjavand, a Zoroastrian messiah predicted in various late Pahlavi texts; from Shi'a Islam
Islam
the return of the Third Imam, Imam Husayn; from Sunni
Sunni
Islam, the return of Jesus (Isa);[62] and from Bábism, He whom God shall make manifest.[2] While Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
did not himself directly claim to be either the Hindu or Buddhist messiah, he did so in principle through his writings.[2] Later, `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
stated that Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was the Kalki avatar, who in the classical Hindu Vaishnavas tradition is the tenth and final Avatar
Avatar
(great incarnation) of Vishnu
Vishnu
who will come to end The Age of Darkness and Destruction.[2] Bahá'ís also believe that Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
is the fulfilment of the prophecy of appearance of the Maitreya
Maitreya
Buddha, who is a future Buddha who will eventually appear on earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma.[63][64] Bahá'ís believe that the prophecy that Maitreya
Maitreya
will usher in a new society of tolerance and love has been fulfilled by Bahá'u'lláh's teachings on world peace.[63] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
is believed to be a descendant of a long line of kings in Persia
Persia
through Yazdgerd III, the last monarch of the Sasanian Dynasty;[6] he also asserted to be a descendant of Abraham
Abraham
through his third wife Keturah.[65] Succession[edit] After Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
died on 29 May 1892, the Will and Testament of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
named his son `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
as Centre of the Covenant, successor and interpreter of Bahá'u'lláh's writings,[66][67] and the appointment was readily accepted by almost all Bahá'ís, since the appointment was written and unambiguous, and `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
had proved himself a capable and devoted assistant.[68] However, the appointment given to `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
was a cause of jealousy within Bahá'u'lláh's family. Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
had also stated that another one of his sons Mírzá Muhammad `Alí
Mírzá Muhammad `Alí
was to be subordinate and second in rank after `Abdu'l-Bahá.[68] Mírzá Muḥammad `Alí, however, insisted that `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
was exceeding his powers, and started a rebellion, at first covert, and then public to discredit `Abdu'l-Bahá. Mírzá Muḥammad `Alí's actions, however, were rejected by the majority of the Bahá'ís.[68] Due to this conflict, `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
later ex-communicated his brother as a covenant-breaker. The conflict was not long lived; after being alienated by the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
community, Muhammad Ali died in 1937 with a handful of followers. Works[edit] Main article: List of writings of Bahá'u'lláh Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
wrote many books, tablets and prayers, of which only a fraction have been translated into English.[69] There have been 15,000 works written by him identified; many of these are in the form of short letters, or tablets, to Bahá'ís,[69] but he also wrote larger pieces including the Book of Certitude, the Hidden Words
Hidden Words
and the Gems of Divine Mysteries.[33] The total volume of his works are more than 70 times the size of the Qur'an and more than 15 times the size of the combined Old and New Testaments of the Bible.[70][71][72] The books and letters written by Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
cover religious doctrine, the proclamation of his claims, social and moral teachings as well as Bahá'í
Bahá'í
laws; he also wrote many prayers.[69] Jináb-i-Fádil-i-Mázindarání, analyzing Baha'u'llah's writings, states that he wrote in the different styles or categories including the interpretation of religious scripture, the enunciation of laws and ordinances, mystical writings, writings about government and world order, including letters to the kings and rulers of the world, writings about knowledge, philosophy, medicine, and alchemy, writings calling for education, good character and virtues, and writing about social teachings.[73] All of his works are considered by Bahá'ís to be revelation, even those that were written before his announcement of his prophetic claim.[69][74] Some of his better known works that have been translated into English include Gleanings, the Hidden Words, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas
Kitáb-i-Aqdas
and the Kitáb-i-Íqán. Photographs and imagery[edit]

Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
in 1868. The inscription lists his Persian name: Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí

There are two known photographs of Bahá'u'lláh, both taken at the same occasion in 1868 while he was in Adrianople
Adrianople
(present-day Edirne). The one where he looks at the camera was taken for passport purposes and is reproduced in William Miller's book on the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith. Copies of both pictures are at the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
World Centre, and one is on display in the International Archives building, where the Bahá'ís view it as part of an organized pilgrimage. Outside of this experience Bahá'ís prefer not to view his photos in public, or even to display any of them in their private homes,[75] and Bahá'í
Bahá'í
institution strongly suggests to use an image of Bahá'u'lláh's burial shrine instead.[76] Bahá'u'lláh's image is not in itself offensive to Bahá'ís. However, Bahá'ís are expected to treat the image of any Manifestation of God
Manifestation of God
with extreme reverence. According to this practice, they avoid depictions of Jesus or of Muhammad, and refrain from portraying any of them in plays and drama.[77] Copies of the photographs are displayed on highly significant occasions, such as six conferences held in October 1967 commemorating the hundredth anniversary of Bahá'u'lláh's writing of the Suriy-i-Mulúk
Suriy-i-Mulúk
(Tablet to the Kings), which Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi
describes as "the most momentous Tablet revealed by Bahá'u'lláh".[78] After a meeting in Adrianople, the Hands of the Cause
Hands of the Cause
traveled to the conferences, "each bearing the precious trust of a photograph of the Blessed Beauty (Bahá'u'lláh), which it will be the privilege of those attending the Conferences to view."[79] The official Bahá'í
Bahá'í
position on displaying the photograph of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
is:

There is no objection that the believers look at the picture of Bahá'u'lláh, but they should do so with the utmost reverence, and should also not allow that it be exposed openly to the public, even in their private homes. — From a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi
to an individual believer, 6 December 1939[80]

While the above passage clarifies that it is considered disrespectful to display his photograph to the public, regarding postings on other websites the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
World Centre has written:

For Bahá'ís, the photograph of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
is very precious and it should not only be viewed but also handled with due reverence and respect, which is not the case here [on a non- Bahá'í
Bahá'í
web site]. Thus, it is indeed disturbing to Bahá'ís to have the image of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
treated in such a disrespectful way. However, as the creator of the site is not a Bahá'í, there is little, if anything, that can be done to address this matter. We hope these comments have been of assistance." — Office for Public Information, 4 September 1999, Photo of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
on Web Site[81]

See also[edit]

Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
portal

Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh Comparison of the founders of religious traditions List of founders of major religions Bahá'í
Bahá'í
orthography

References[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ Smith 2008, p. 5 ^ a b c d e f Buck 2004, pp. 143–178 ^ Zarandi, Nabil. The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl’s Narrative of the Early Days of the Bahá’í Revelation
Revelation
(1932 ed.). US: US Bahá’í Publishing Trust. pp. 595–651.  ^ Hatcher & Martin 1998, pp. 130–131 ^ Balyuzi 1985, pp. 309–312 ^ a b Balyuzi 2000, pp. 9–12 ^ Effendi 1944, p. 94 ^ Able, John (2011). Apocalypse Secrets: Baha'i Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. McLean, Virginia: John Able Books Ltd. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-9702847-5-4.  ^ Balyuzi 2000, pp. 11 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cole, Juan. "A Brief Biography of Baha'u'llah". Archived from the original on 10 July 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-22.  ^ a b c Taherzadeh 2000, pp. 20–22 ^ Taherzadeh 1976, p. 13 ^ Effendi 1944, p. 108 ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cole, Juan (1989). "Baha'-allah". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Taherzadeh 2000, p. 22 ^ a b c MacEoin, Dennis (1989). "Bāb, Sayyed `Ali Mohammad Sirazi". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ a b Browne 1889, p. 339 ^ Farah 1970, pp. 242–249 ^ a b Saiedi 2008, p. 344 ^ Balyuzi 2000, pp. 35–37 ^ a b c Smith 2008, pp. 14–15 ^ a b c d e Hutter, Manfred (2005). "Bahā'īs". In Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia of Religion. 2 (2nd ed.). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 737–740. ISBN 0-02-865733-0.  ^ a b Smith 2008, p. 16 ^ Effendi 1944, p. 109 ^ Nabíl-i-Zarandí (1932) [1890]. "Chapter XXVI Attempt on the Shah's Life, and its Consequences". In Shoghi Effendi
Shoghi Effendi
(translator). The Dawn-Breakers: Nabíl’s Narrative (Hardcover ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Publishing Trust. p. 650. ISBN 0-900125-22-5.  ^ a b c d MacEoin, Dennis (1989). "Azali Babism". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Barrett 2001, p. 246 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Smith 2008, p. 17 ^ Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
2003, p. 160 ^ Balyuzi 2000, p. 116 ^ Balyuzi 2000, p. 118 ^ Smith 1987, p. 60 ^ a b "The Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith". Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. 1988. ISBN 0-85229-486-7.  ^ a b Smith, Peter (2000). "Ridvan". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 296–297. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  ^ Buck 1998 ^ a b c d e f Smith 2008, p. 23 ^ Anthony A. Reitmayer, Anthony A. (compiler) (1992). Adrianople — Land of Mystery. Istanbul, Turkey: Bahai Publishing Trust. ASIN: B0006F2TSA.  ^ a b c d e f Smith 2008, p. 24 ^ Browne 1918, p. 17 [1] ^ Salmání 1982, p. 51 [2] ^ Browne 1918, p. 16 [3] ^ Cole, J.R.I. (2002). "Bahá'u'lláh's Surah of God: Text, Translation, Commentary". Translations of Shaykhi, Babi and Bahá'í Texts. 6 (1).  ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland p.296 ^ Holy People of the World, Phyllis G. Jestice p.101 ^ Browne 1918, p. 18 [4] ^ Salmání 1982, pp. 94–95 [5] ^ a b c d Smith 2008, pp. 24–25 ^ Smith 2008, pp. 28–29 ^ a b c d e f Smith 2008, p. 26 ^ Lev, Efraim; Yaron Perry (September 2004). "Dr Thomas Chaplin, Scientist and Scholar in Nineteenth-Century Palestine". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 136 (2): 151–162. doi:10.1179/003103204x4067. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ "The Babs of Persia", The Times, London, 5 Oct, 1871, p. 8, 3rd column down from top ^ Moojan Momen (1981) [1977]. The Bábí and Bahá'í
Bahá'í
religions 1844–1944: some contemporary western accounts. G. Ronald. pp. xv, xvi, 4, 11, 26–38, 62–5, 83–90, 100–104. ISBN 978-0-85398-102-2.  ^ a b c Smith 2008, pp. 27–28 ^ Edward Granville Browne
Edward Granville Browne
in the introduction to "A Traveller's Narrative". Cambridge. 1891. Retrieved 2006-06-22. , p.XXXIX-XL. ^ Balyuzi 2000, p. 328 ^ a b c d e f Cole, Juan (1982). "The Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Writings". Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Studies. monograph 9: 1–38.  ^ Smith 2008, p. 109 ^ Smith 2008, p. 107 ^ Esslemont 1980, p. 41 ^ Esslemont 1980, p. 45 ^ Stockman, Robert (2012). The Baha’i Faith: A Guide For The Perplexed. A & C Black. p. 28.  ^ Momen 2000, pp. 32–136 ^ a b Momen 1995, pp. 50–52 ^ Fozdar 1976 ^ Sears 2002 ^ Bausani, Alessandro (1989). "'Abd-al-Bahā' : Life and work". Encyclopædia Iranica.  ^ Momen 2004, pp. 97–98 ^ a b c Smith 2008, pp. 43–44 ^ a b c d Smith, Peter (2000). "Bahá'u'lláh, writings of". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 79–80. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  ^ BWNS. "A new volume of Bahá'í
Bahá'í
sacred writings, recently translated and comprising Bahá'u'lláh's call to world leaders, is published". Retrieved 2006-11-24.  ^ Archives Office at the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
World Centre, Haifa, Israel. " Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Archives — Preserving and safeguarding the Sacred Texts". Retrieved 2006-11-24. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Universal House of Justice. "Numbers and Classifications of Sacred Writings texts". Retrieved 2006-11-24.  ^ Fádil-i-Mázindarání 1967, p. 453 ^ Smith 2008, pp. 18–19 ^ Office for Public Information. "Photographs of Bahá'u'lláh; William Miller". Retrieved 2014-09-29.  ^ United States Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Office of Communications. "Publication of Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Photos" (PDF). bahai.us. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-19.  ^ Hornby 1983, pp. 99–100 ^ Effendi 1944, p. 171 ^ Universal House of Justice
Universal House of Justice
1996, p. 105 ^ Hornby 1983, p. 540 ^ Office for Public Information. "Photograph of Baha'u'llah on Website". Retrieved 2014-09-29. 

Explanatory notes[edit]

^ As an aristocrat, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
was titled Mírzá upon his birth signifying him as the son of a nobleman.

Works cited[edit]

Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
(2003) [1862]. Kitáb-i-Íqán: The Book of Certitude. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Publishing Trust. ISBN 1-931847-08-8.  Balyuzi, H.M. (1985). Eminent Bahá'ís in the time of Bahá'u'lláh (PDF). Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-152-3.  Balyuzi, Hasan (2000). Bahá'u'lláh, King of Glory. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-328-3.  Browne, E.G. (1918). Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press.  Browne, Edward G. (1889). "Bábism". Religious Systems of the World: A Contribution to the Study of Comparative Religion. London: Swann Sonnenschein.  Buck, Christopher (2004). "The eschatology of Globalization: The multiple-messiahship of Bahā'u'llāh revisited". In Sharon, Moshe. Studies in Modern Religions, Religious Movements and the Bābī-Bahā'ī Faiths. Boston: Brill. pp. 143–178. ISBN 90-04-13904-4.  Buck, Christopher (June 1998). "The Kitab-i Iqan: An Introduction to Baha'u'llah's Book of Certitude". Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies. 2 (5).  Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-020-9.  Esslemont, J.E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.  Farah, Caesar E. (1970). Islam: Beliefs and Observances. Woodbury, NY: Barron's Educational Series.  Fozdar, Jamshed K. (1976). Buddha Maitrya-Amitabha Has Appeared. New Delhi, Indi: Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Publishing Trust. ISBN 81-85091-83-8.  Fádil-i-Mázindarání, Asadu'lláh (1967). Asráu'l-Áthár, Vol.I. Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Publishing Trust, Tehran. p. 453.  Hatcher, W.S.; Martin, J.D. (1998). The Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith: The Emerging Global Religion. Wilmette, IL: Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-264-3.  Hornby, Helen, ed. (1983). Lights of Guidance: A Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Reference File. Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Publishing Trust, New Delhi, India. ISBN 81-85091-46-3.  Momen, Moojan (1995). Buddhism
Buddhism
And The Baha'i Faith: An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith for Theravada Buddhists. Oxford: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-384-4.  Momen, Moojan (2000). Islam
Islam
and the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-446-8.  Momen, Moojan (2004). "Baha'i Faith and Holy People". In Jestice, Phyllis G. Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, volume 3. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-355-6.  Saiedi, Nader (2008). Gate of the Heart. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 978-1-55458-035-4.  Salmání, Ustád Muhammad-`Alíy-i (1982). My Memories of Bahá'u'lláh. Kalimát Press, Los Angeles, USA.  Sears, William (2002) [1961]. Thief in the Night. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-008-X.  Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.  Smith, Peter (1987). The Bábí & Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Religions: From Messianic Shí'ism to a World Religion. Cambridge: The University Press. p. 60. ISBN 0-521-30128-9.  Taherzadeh, Adib (2000). The Child of the Covenant. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-439-5.  Taherzadeh, A. (1976). The Revelation
Revelation
of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad
Baghdad
1853–63. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-270-8.  Universal House of Justice
Universal House of Justice
(1996). Marks, Geoffry W, ed. Messages from the Universal House of Justice
Universal House of Justice
1963–86. Wilmette, IL: Baha'i Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-239-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bahá'u'lláh.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Bahá'u'lláh

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Bahá'u'lláh

BBC Religion and Ethics Special: Bahá'í. The Life of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
– A Photographic Narrative Light to the World, a film about the life of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
and the impact of his teachings Bahá'u'lláh: Manifestation of God, biography from bahai.org A Brief Biography of Baha'u'llah, from University of Michigan Department of History. The Works of Bahá'u'lláh, Writings of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
in English, Persian and Arabic Works by Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
at Internet Archive Works by Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 88702713 LCCN: n79055250 ISNI: 0000 0001 0815 4117 GND: 118505920 SELIBR: 180095 SUDOC: 028415051 BNF: cb12025450q (data) NLA: 36031949 NDL: 00462646 NKC: jn20000700099 RLS: 000078

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