The BAGMATI RIVER runs through the
Kathmandu Valley of
Kathmandu from Patan . It is considered holy by both Hindus
and Buddhists . A number of
Hindu temples are located on its banks.
The importance of Bagmati also lies in the fact that Hindus are
cremated on the banks of this holy river, and Kirants are buried in
the hills by its side. According to the Nepalese
Hindu tradition, the
dead body must be dipped three times into the
Bagmati River before
cremation, so that the reincarnation cycle may be ended. The chief
mourner (usually the first son) who lights the funeral pyre must take
a holy river-water bath immediately after cremation. Many relatives
who join the funeral procession also take a bath in the Bagmati River
or sprinkle the holy water on their bodies at the end of cremation.
Bagmati River purifies the people spiritually.
* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 4 Flood
* 5 Shrines
* 6 Notes
* 7 References
* 7.1 Citations
* 7.2 Bibliography
* 8 External links
A view of
Bagmati River at
Sundarijal Bagmati River,
Bagmati River is considered the source of Nepalese civilization
and urbanization. The river has been mentioned as Vaggumuda
Vinaya Pitaka and Nandabagga. It has
also been mentioned as Bahumati (बाहुमति) in Battha
Majjhima Nikaya . An inscription dated AD 477 describes
the river as Bagvati parpradeshe (वाग्वति
पारप्रदेशे) and subsequently in Gopalraj
Vanshavali . View of
Bagmati River from
Sundarijal , Kathmandu,
The Chobar gorge cuts through the Mahabharat Range, also called the
Lesser Himalaya. This 2,000-to-3,000-meter (6,600 to 9,800 ft) range
is the southern limit of the "middle hills" across Nepal, an important
cultural boundary between distinctive Nepali and more Indian cultures
and languages, as well as a major geological feature.
The basin of the Bagmati River, including the
Kathmandu Valley, lies
between the much larger Gandaki basin to the West and the Kosi Basin
to the east. These adjacent basins extend north of the main Himalayan
range and cross it in tremendous gorges, in fact, the Arun tributary
of the Kosi extends far into Tibet. The smaller Bagmati rises some
distance south of the Himalaya. Without glacial sources, its flow is
more dependent on rainfall, becoming very low during the hot season
(April to early June), then peaking during the monsoon season
(mid-June to mid-August). In these respects, the Bagmati system
resembles the (West) Rapti system lying between the Gandaki basin and
the Karnali basin in the far west of Nepal.
The Bagmati originates where three headwater streams converge at
Bāghdwār (Nepali : बाघद्वार, "
Tiger Gate"), where
the water flows out through a gargoyle shaped like a tiger 's mouth.
This lies above the southern edge of the Shivapuri Hills about 15
kilometers (9 mi) northeast of Kathmandu. Here the Bagmati is wide and
swift with a high load of suspended solids , giving it a grey
appearance. The river flows southwest about 10 km (6 mi) through
terraced rice fields in the
Resistant rock strata interrupt the flow in places, including at
Pashupatinath Temple . Beyond the temple, the river flows south until
joined by the larger west-flowing Monahara River, then turns west
itself. After entering Kathmandu's urban area more tributaries enter:
relatively unpolluted Dhobī Kholā and sewage-laden Tukucha Khola.
Then the river bends south and the Vishnumati enters from the right
at Teku Dovan. The Vishnumati also rises in the Shivapuri Hills, some
6 kilometers (4 mi) west of the Bagmati's source. It flows south past
Nagarjun Hill and Forest Reserve, Swayambhu Stupa and Durbar Square in
Kathmandu. As it passes the centre of Kathmandu, this tributary
becomes heavily polluted and choked with trash.
Flowing generally south although with many curves, the Bagmati
reaches the edge of the
Kathmandu Valley and enters Chobar Gorge near
the Dakshinkali temple complex. The gorge cuts through the Mahabharat
Range or Lesser Himalaya. The Bagmati also crosses the lower Sivalik
Hills before reaching the
Terai , then crosses into
It flows across
Bihar districts Sitamarhi , Sheohar , Muzaffarpur and
Khagaria . As it flows to
Bihar the river is full with silt load and
is notorious for changing its course and braids into many branches one
of such branch joins Burhi
Gandak river near Begusarai and the
combined river drains into Ganga east of Begusarai while the main
channel runs east to drain into Koshi at Badlaghat. However in past
the river had a different course and used to drain directly into the
Ganges. In Swasthani Bratakatha of
Skanda Purana , Bagmati's present
northern tributary was regarded as main channel called Sali river
which was a tributary of the Gandak and it is obvious since Manohara
river, the present day Sali river is larger than Bagmati at their
Bagmati River contains large amounts of untreated sewage, and
large levels of pollution of the river exist due primarily to the
region's large population. Many residents in
Kathmandu empty personal
garbage and waste into the river. In particular the Hanumante khola,
Dhobi khola, Tukucha khola and Bishnumati khola are the most polluted.
Attempts are being made to monitor the
Bagmati River system and
restore its cleanliness. These include "pollution loads modification,
flow augmentation and placement of weirs at critical locations".
In May 18, 2013, under the initiative of former chief secretary Leela
mani Poudyal, The Bagmati Mega Clean Up Campaign was started. The
organizations such as Acetravels.com, Jivan Bigyan, Gayetri Pariyar,
etc have active participation since its beginning and till now it is
recorded to have around 950 plus organizations. Every Saturday, Gurkha
Nepal Police and General Public gather to clean the waste and
sewage from the river. The Friends of the Bagmati is an organisation
set up in November 2000. According to its website, its aim is "to
reverse the degradation of the Bagmati river." In 2014, Bagmati River
is claimed to be almost pure after a long effort of 14 years.
Flood in a Bagmati river at
There is no effect of flood in most of the areas that it touches, but
it has caused widespread sufferings to the people in
northern districts of
Bihar . In 1993, people have seen the worst
destruction by this river. Poor water management, lack of proper
weather forecasting and awareness were the main cause of mass
* GOKARNESHWOR -
Gokarneshwor Mahadev temple stands the banks of the
Bagmati River, built in 1582. In late August or early September people
go to this temple to bathe and make offerings in honor of their
fathers, living or dead, on a day called
Gokarna Aunsi also known as
"Kushi Aausi" (worshipping for the eternal peace of Father).
* GUHYESHWARI TEMPLE -
Guhyeshwari Temple , the Temple of
Guhyeshwari lies about 1 km east of
Pashupatinath Temple and is
located near the banks of the Bagmati River. The temple name
originates from the Sanskrit words Guhya (Secret) and Ishwari
(Goddess). In Lalitha Sahasranama the 707th name of Goddess is
mentioned as Guhyarupini (The form of Goddess is beyond human
perception and it is secret. Another argument is that it is the secret
16th syllable of the Shodashi Mantra) (LS 137th verse: Sarasvati
shastramayi Guhaamba guhyaruupini). It is believed that Sati Devi's
corpse's parts fell in different region when
Shiva took it and roamed
around the world in sorrow.
* TEMPLE OF PASHUPATINATH - The Temple of Pashupatinath , dedicated
Shiva , stands on an outcrop above the river north of Kathmandu.
It is considered to be one of the holy places of
* KOTESHWOR MAHADEV -
Koteshwor Mahadev temple at Koteshwor is also
a major holy place located in bank of Bagmati River. According to a
popular legend, the
Shiva Lingam here is believed to be one of the 64
* SHANKHAMUL - Near the
Koteshwor Mahadev Temple is a place known as
Shankhamul . Shankhamul is one of the twelve “most-sacred”
confluences in the
Kathmandu valley as defined in the numerous
chronicles that document the history and legends about the Kathmandu
valley. At Shankhamul , the
Bagmati River that flows south from the
Pashupati temple complex, and all the rivers that flow from the
eastern part of the valley including the
Manohara River merge.
* KALMOCHAN TEMPLE - Kalmochan temple, dedicated to the
Lord Vishnu the preserver, was a part of the Thapathali Durbar complex
in bank of Bagmati River. It was built in early 18th century outside
the walls. Built in Moghul Kathmandu-Gothic architecture style and has
Mughal art and Nepali art . Also known as Janga Hiranya Hemnarayan
mandir. It is located at kalmochan ghat in Thapathali . It was built
by Rana prime minister
Jung Bahadur Rana
Jung Bahadur Rana .
* TRIPURESHWOR TEMPLE - The temple of Tripureshwor Mahadev near the
Kalmochan Ghat, is the largest temple in
Kathmandu Valley , built by
Lalit Tripura Sundari Devi in the nineteenth century (around 1875
B.S), it has three roofs—the upper two crafted of metal, while the
bottom one is of baked terracota—and sits on a raised platform. The
temple was made in the memory of her husband, King Rana Bahadur Shah
for his eternal bliss and for the goodwill of her nation. It was
probably the last major temple in the tiered style.
* PACHALI BHAIRAV - It was the Thakuri king Gunakamadev (924–1008
A.D.) who established the worship of Pachali Bhairav . The god is very
much associated with the founding of
Kathmandu , because it was King
Gunakamadev who is traditionally believed to have founded both the
city and the festival of Bhairav which is located in the bank of
* TEKU DOVAN - One of the 12 sacred Tirthas in the
Ghats are Places for Ritual Bathing and Cremation at or near Rivers.
Gyan Tirtha at the Confluence of
Bagmati River and
Bishnumati River .
* SUNDHARI GHAT - Sundhari Ghat is lies in the bank of Bagmati River
* JAL BINAYAK TEMPLE -
Jal Binayak Temple is a
Hindu Temple of Lord
Ganesh located in the Chobhar , central part of
Kathmandu District ,
Nepal . The Jal Binayak temple is the most important
Ganesh shrine of
the central region Kathmandu. It is one of the four Binayak of
Kathmandu Valley .
Bagmti River Crossing Also Bihar's Poplur City's And Most Village
Saidpur, Rampur, Ratanpura, Rasalpur Baghla ">
* ^ Formerly also written BAGHMATI.
* ^ Kholā means "small river" or "creek" in Nepali.
* ^ EB (1878) .
* ^ A B C D Article: नेपाली वास्तु र
परिचय, Author: Tarananda Mishra
* ^ Fisher, James F.; et al. (1997), Living Martyrs: Individuals
and Revolution in Nepal, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 220, ISBN
* ^ A B C D E F G H Davis (1977) , p. 227.
* ^ Kannel & al. (2007) , p. 505.
* ^ "Map of Kathmandu" United States Department of State, 1985
* ^ A B Kannel & al. (2007) , p. 509.
* ^ Davis (1977) , p. 229.
* ^ Kannel & al. (2007) , p. 513.
* ^ Bhusal, Jagat K. (May 2002) "Lessons from the Extreme Floods in
Nepal in 1993" International Network of Basin
* ^ "Tripureshwor Mahadev Temple".
* ^ "Rajunepal.com".
* "Baghmati", Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. III, New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, p. 235 .
* Davis, John A. (1977), "Water Quality Standards for the Bagmati
River", Journal of the Water
Pollution Control Federation, Vol. 49,
No. 2, pp. 227–234 .
* Kannel, Prakash Raj; et al. (10 April 2007), "Application of
automated QUAL2Kw for water quality modeling and management in the
Bagmati River, Nepal", Ecological Modelling, Vol. 202, No. 3-4, pp.
503–517, doi :10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.12.033 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to BAGMATI .
* Friends of the Bagmati
* Illegal Capture of
Bagmati River Banks
* Religious story of Bagmati River