BAEKJE (백제; 百濟; ; 18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located
in southwest Korea. It was one of the
Three Kingdoms of Korea ,
Baekje was founded by Onjo , the third son of Goguryeo's founder
So Seo-no , at
Wiryeseong (present-day southern
Baekje, like Goguryeo, claimed to succeed
Buyeo , a state established
Manchuria around the time of
Gojoseon 's fall.
Baekje alternately battled and allied with
Silla as the
three kingdoms expanded control over the peninsula. At its peak in the
Baekje controlled most of the western Korean peninsula,
as far north as
Pyongyang , and may have even held territories in
China, such as in
Liaoxi , though this view is controversial. It
became a significant regional sea power, with political and trade
Baekje was a great maritime power; its nautical skill, which made it
Phoenicia of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of
Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan.
In 660 it was defeated, by an alliance of
Silla and the Chinese Tang
Dynasty , and submitted to
Unified Silla .
* 1 History
* 1.1 Founding
* 1.2 Expansion
* 1.4 Sabi period
* 1.5 Fall and restoration movement
* 2 Social and political structure
* 3 Language and culture
* 4 Foreign relations
* 4.1 Relations with
* 4.2 Relations with
* 4.2.1 Cultural Impact and Military assistance
* 4.2.2 The fall of
Baekje and the military support from
* 5 Legacy
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 Further reading
* 9 External links
Mireuksa Neck Bolster of
Baekje was founded in 18 BC by King Onjo , who led a group of people
Goguryeo south to the Han River basin. According to the Chinese
Records of the Three Kingdoms _, during the
Samhan period, one of the
chiefdoms of the
Mahan confederacy was called Baekje.
Samguk Sagi _ provides a detailed account of Baekje's founding.
Jumong had left his son Yuri in
Buyeo when he left that kingdom to
establish the new kingdom of Goguryeo. Jumong became Divine King
Dongmyeong , and had two more sons with
So Seo-no , Onjo and
When Yuri later arrived in Goguryeo, Jumong promptly made him the
crown prince. Realizing Yuri would become the next king, So Seo-no
left Goguryeo, taking her two sons
Biryu and Onjo south to found their
own kingdoms with their people, along with ten vassals. She is
remembered as a key figure in the founding of both
Onjo settled in
Hanam ), and called his
country _Sipje_ (십제, 十濟, meaning "Ten Vassals"), while Biryu
settled in Michuhol (present-day
Incheon ), against the vassals'
advice. The salty water and marshes in Michuhol made settlement
difficult, while the people of
Wiryeseong lived prosperously.
Biryu then went to his brother Onjo, asking for the throne of Sipje.
When Onjo refused,
Biryu declared war, but lost. In shame, Biryu
committed suicide, and his people moved to Wiryeseong, where King Onjo
welcomed them and renamed his country _Baekje_ ("Hundred Vassals").
King Onjo moved the capital from the south to the north of the Han
river, and then south again, probably all within present Seoul, under
pressure from other Mahan states. King Gaeru is believed to have moved
the capital north of the river to
Bukhansanseong in 132, probably in
Goyang to the northwest of Seoul.
Through the early centuries of the
Common Era , sometimes called the
Proto–Three Kingdoms Period ,
Baekje gradually gained control over
the other Mahan tribes.
Korea in 375, The greatest territory expansion of Baekje.
During the reign of King Goi (234–286),
Baekje became a
full-fledged kingdom, as it continued consolidating the Mahan
confederacy. In 249, according to the ancient Japanese text
Nihonshoki _, Baekje's expansion reached the
Gaya confederacy to its
east, around the
Nakdong River valley.
Baekje is first described in
Chinese records as a kingdom in 345. The first diplomatic missions
Japan around 367 (According to the _Nihon Shoki_ :
King Geunchogo (346–375) expanded Baekje's territory to the north
through war against
Goguryeo , while annexing the remaining Mahan
societies in the south. During Geunchogo's reign, the territories of
Baekje included most of the western
Korean Peninsula (except the two
Pyeongan provinces), and in 371,
Goguryeo at Pyongyang
Baekje continued substantial trade with Goguryeo, and actively
adopted Chinese culture and technology.
Buddhism became the official
state religion in 384.
Baekje also became a sea power and continued mutual goodwill
relationships with the Japanese rulers of the
Kofun period ,
transmitting continental cultural influences to Japan. The Chinese
writing system ,
Buddhism , advanced pottery , ceremonial burial, and
other aspects of culture were introduced by aristocrats, artisans,
scholars, and monks throughout their relationship.
During this period, the Han River basin remained the heartland of the
In the 5th century,
Baekje retreated under the southward military
threat of Goguryeo, and in 475, the
Seoul region fell to Goguryeo.
Baekje's capital was located at
Gongju ) from 475
Isolated in mountainous terrain, the new capital was secure against
the north but also disconnected from the outside world. It was closer
Wiryeseong had been, however, and a military alliance
was forged between
Baekje against Goguryeo.
Most maps of the Three Kingdoms period show
Baekje occupying the
Jeolla provinces, the core of the country in the
Ungjin and Sabi periods.
In 538, King Seong moved the capital to Sabi (present-day Buyeo
County ), and rebuilt his kingdom into a strong state. From this time,
the official name of the country was _Nambuyeo_ ("Southern Buyeo"), a
Buyeo to which
Baekje traced its origins. The Sabi Period
witnessed the flowering of
Baekje culture, alongside the growth of
Under pressure from
Goguryeo to the north and
Silla to the east,
Seong sought to strengthen Baekje's relationship with China. The
location of Sabi, on the navigable
Geum River , made contact with
China much easier, and both trade and diplomacy flourished during his
reign and continuing on into the 7th century.
In the 7th century, with the growing influence of
Silla in the
southern and central Korean peninsula,
Baekje began its decline.
FALL AND RESTORATION MOVEMENT
In 660, the coalition troops of
Silla and Tang of
Baekje, which was then allied with Goguryeo. A heavily outmanned army
led by General
Gyebaek was defeated in the Battle of
Nonsan. The capital Sabi fell almost immediately thereafter, resulting
in the annexation of
Silla . King Uija and his son Buyeo
Yung were sent into exile in
China while at least some of the ruling
class fled to
Baekje forces attempted a brief restoration movement but faced
Silla-Tang joint forces. A Buddhist monk
Dochim (도침, 道琛) and
Buyeo Boksin rose to try to revive Baekje.
They welcomed the
Buyeo Pung back from
Japan to serve as
king, with Juryu (주류, 周留, in modern
Seocheon County , South
Chungcheong ) as their headquarters. They put the Tang general Liu
Renyuan (劉仁願) under siege in Sabi . Emperor Gaozong sent the
Liu Rengui , who had previously been demoted to commoner rank
for offending Li Yifu, with a relief force, and
Liu Rengui and Liu
Renyuan were able to fight off the
Baekje resistance forces' attacks,
but were themselves not strong enough to quell the rebellion, and so
for some time the armies were in stalemate.
Baekje requested Japanese aid, and King Pung returned to
a contingent of 5,000 soldiers. Before the ships from
his forces battled a contingent of Tang forces in
Baekje revival forces and a Japanese naval fleet convened in
Baekje to confront the
Silla forces in the Battle of Baekgang
. The Tang dynasty also sent 7,000 soldiers and 170 ships. After five
naval confrontations that took place in August 663 at Baekgang,
considered the lower reaches of
Geum River or Dongjin river , the
Silla-Tang forces emerged victorious, and
Buyeo Pung escaped to
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL STRUCTURE
The establishment of a centralized state in
Baekje is usually traced
to the reign of King Goi , who may have first established patrilineal
succession . Like most monarchies , a great deal of power was held by
the aristocracy . King Seong , for example, strengthened royal power,
but after he was slain in a disastrous campaign against Silla, the
nobles took much of that power away from his son.
Hae clan and the
Jin clan were the representative royal houses
who had considerable power from the early period of Baekje, and they
produced many queens over several generations. The
Hae clan was
probably the royal house before the
Buyeo clan replaced them, and both
clans appear descended from the lineage of
Goguryeo . The
Great Eight Families " (Sa, Yeon, Hyeop, Hae, Jin , Guk, Mok, and
Baek) were powerful nobles in the Sabi era, recorded in Chinese
records such as
Central government officials were divided into sixteen ranks, the six
members of the top rank forming a type of cabinet, with the top
official being elected every three years. In the _Sol_ rank, the first
(_Jwapyeong_) through the sixth (_Naesol_) officials were political,
administrative, and military commanders. In the _Deok_ rank, the
seventh (_Jangdeok_) through the eleventh (_Daedeok_) officials may
have headed each field. _Mundok_, _Mudok_, _Jwagun_, _Jinmu_ and
_Geuku_ from the twelfth to the sixteenth, may have been military
According to the _
Samguk Yusa _, during the Sabi period, the chief
minister (_Jaesang_) of
Baekje was chosen by a unique system. The
names of several candidates were placed under a rock (Cheonjeongdae)
near Hoamsa temple. After a few days, the rock was moved and the
candidate whose name had a certain mark was chosen as the new chief
minister. Whether this was a form of selection-by-lot or a covert
selection by the elite is not clear.
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
Baekje was established by immigrants from
Goguryeo who spoke what
could be a
Buyeo language , a hypothetical group linking the languages
Goguryeo , and Baekje. In a case of diglossia ,
Samhan people, having migrated in an earlier wave from
the same region, probably spoke a variation or dialect of the same
Baekje language .)
Baekje artists adopted many Chinese influences and synthesized them
into a unique artistic tradition. Buddhist themes are extremely strong
Baekje artwork. The beatific
Baekje smile found on many Buddhist
sculptures expresses the warmth typical of
Baekje art. Taoist
influences are also widespread. Chinese artisans were sent to the
kingdom by the
Liang Dynasty in 541, and this may have given rise to
an increased Chinese influence in the Sabi period.
The tomb of
King Muryeong (501–523), although modeled on Chinese
brick tombs and yielding some imported Chinese objects, also contained
many funerary objects of the
Baekje tradition, such as the gold crown
ornaments , gold belts , and gold earrings. Mortuary practices also
followed the unique tradition of Baekje. This tomb is seen as a
representative tomb of the
Delicate lotus designs of the roof-tiles, intricate brick patterns,
curves of the pottery style, and flowing and elegant epitaph writing
Baekje culture. The Buddhist sculptures and refined
pagodas reflect religion-inspired creativity. A splendid gilt-bronze
incense burner (백제금동대향로 _
Baekje Geumdong Daehyeongno_)
excavated from an ancient Buddhist temple site at Neungsan-ri, Buyeo
County , exemplifies
Little is known of
Baekje music, but local musicians were sent with
tribute missions to
China in the 7th century, indicating that a
distinctive musical tradition had developed by that time.
RELATIONS WITH CHINA
In 372, King Geunchogo paid tribute to the Jin Dynasty of
located in the basin of the
Yangtze River . After the fall of Jin and
the establishment of Song Dynasty in 420,
Baekje sent envoys seeking
cultural goods and technologies.
Baekje sent an envoy to
Northern Wei of Northern Dynasties for the
first time in 472, and King Gaero asked for military aid to attack
Goguryeo . Kings Muryeong and Seong sent envoys to Liang several times
and received titles of nobility.
King Muryeong is built with bricks according with Liang's
RELATIONS WITH JAPAN
Replica of the Seven-pronged Sword
Baekje gave to Yamato.
Cultural Impact And Military Assistance
Korean influence on Japanese culture
To confront the military pressure of
Goguryeo to its north and Silla
to its east,
Baekje (_Kudara_ in Japanese) established close relations
with Japan. According to the Korean chronicle
Samguk Sagi ,
Silla sent some princes to the Japanese court as hostages. Whether
the princes sent to
Japan should be interpreted as diplomats as part
of an embassy or literal hostages is debated. Due to the confusion on
the exact nature of this relationship (the question of whether the
Baekje Koreans were family or at least close to the Japanese Imperial
line or whether they were hostages) and the fact that the Nihon Shoki,
a primary source of material for this relationship, is a compilation
of myth, makes it difficult to evaluate. The Samguk Sagi, which also
documents this, can also be interpreted in various ways and at any
rate it was rewritten in the 13th century, easily seven or eight
centuries after these particular events took place. Adding to the
confusion is the discovery (in Japan) that the "Inariyama sword, as
well as some other swords discovered in Japan, utilized the Korean
'Idu ' system of writing". The swords "originated in Paekche and that
the kings named in their inscriptions represent Paekche kings rather
than Japanese kings". The techniques for making these swords were the
apparently similar to styles from Korea, specifically from Baekje.
In Japan, the hostage interpretation is dominant.
Other historians, such as those who collaborated on 'Paekche of Korea
and the Origin of Yamato Japan' and Jonathan W. Best, who helped
translate what was left of the
Baekje annals, have noted that these
princes set up schools in Yamato
Japan and took control of the
Japanese naval forces during the war with Goguryeo, taking this as
evidence of them being more along the lines of diplomats with some
kind of familial tie to the Japanese imperial family and as evidence
against any hostage status. In addition, the translation of the old
documents is difficult because in the past, the term "Wa" was
derogatory, meaning "midget" or "dwarf," which was a reference to the
perceived smaller stature of the average Japanese in ancient times. As
a result, it is difficult to assess what is truly being stated,
particularly in records made in Korea after the fall of Baekje, as the
reference to Yamato Wa (Japan) could have been a derogatory statement
by a rival nation (specifically
As is with many long-past histories and competing records, very
little can be definitively concluded. Further research has been
difficult, in part due to the 1976 restriction on the study of royal
Japan (to include tombs such as the Gosashi tomb, which is
allegedly the resting place of
Empress Jingū ). Prior to 1976,
foreign researchers did have access, and some found Korean artifacts
in Japanese dig sites. Recently in 2008,
Japan has allowed controlled
limited access to foreign archaeologists, but the international
community still has many unanswered questions. National Geographic has
Japan "_the agency has kept access to the tombs
restricted, prompting rumors that officials fear excavation would
reveal bloodline links between the "pure" imperial family and
Korea—or that some tombs hold no royal remains at all._" Guze
Kannon is a buddhist statue made in the image of King Seong in the
Korean style. The statue, originally come from Baekje, is kept in
the Dream Hall at the Japanese temple
In any case, these Koreans, diplomats and royal relatives or not,
Japan knowledge of the Chinese writing system, Buddhism,
iron processing for weapons, and various other technologies. In
Japan provided military support.
According to mythical accounts in the controversial _
Nihon Shoki _,
Empress Jingū extracted tribute and pledges of allegiance from the
kings of Baekje,
Silla , and
Goguryeo . At the height of Japanese
nationalism in the early 20th century, Japanese historians used these
mythical accounts along with a passage in the
Gwanggaeto Stele to
establish ideological rationale to the imperialist outcry for invasion
of Korea. Other historians have pointed out that there is no
evidence of this Japanese account in any part of Korea, in addition to
not being in any viable text in
China or Korea. Regarding the
Gwanggaeto Stele, because the lack of syntax and punctuation the text
can be interpreted 4 different ways, one which states that Korea
crossed the water and subjugated Yamato. Due to this problem in
interpretation, nothing can be concluded. Also complicating the matter
is that in the
Nihongi a Korean named
Amenohiboko is described in
Nihon Shoki _ as a maternal predecessor of Tajima-no-morosuku
(但馬諸助), This is highly inconsistent and difficult to
Scholars believe that the _Nihon Shoki_ gives the invasion date of
Baekje as the late 4th century. However, by this time, Japan
was a confederation of local tribes without sophisticated iron
weapons, while the
Three Kingdoms of Korea were fully developed
centralized powers with modern iron weapons and were already utilizing
horses for warfare. It is very unlikely that a developing state such
as Yamato had the capacity to cross the sea and engage in battles with
Baekje and Silla. The _Nihon Shoki_ is widely regarded to be an
unreliable and biased source of information on early relations with
Korea, as it mixes heavy amounts of supposition and legend with facts.
Some Japanese scholars interpret the
Gwanggaeto Stele , erected in
King Jangsu of
Goguryeo , as describing a Japanese invasion in
the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. However, Mohan claims
Goguryeo fabricated the Japanese invasion in order to justify its
conquest of Baekje. If this stele was a dedication to a Korean king,
it can be argued that it would logically highlight Korea's conquests
and not dedicate it to a strange incident regarding Japan. In any
case, because of these various possible interpretations, the
circumstances surrounding the stele are still highly debated and
Chinese scholars participated in the study of the Stele during the
1980s. Wang Jianqun interviewed local farmers and decided that no
intentional fabrication occurred, adding that the lime on the Stele
was pasted by local copy-making workers to enhance readability. Xu
Jianxin of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences discovered the
earliest rubbed copy which was made before 1881. He also concluded
that there was no evidence the Japanese had intentionally damaged any
of the characters on the Stele.
Today, most Chinese and Japanese scholars contradict the conspiracy
theories, based on the study of the Stele itself and advocate Japanese
intervention in the era, although its size and effect are disputed.
In the project of writing a common history textbook, Kim Tae-sik of
Hongik University (Korea) denied Japan's theory. But, Kōsaku Hamada
of Kyushu University (Japan) reported their interpretations of the
Gwanggaeto Stele text, neither of them adopting the intentionally
damaged stele theory in their interpretations.
The Fall Of
Baekje And The Military Support From Japan
Suda Hachiman Shrine Mirror looks like mirrors of
Some members of the
Baekje nobility and royalty emigrated to Japan
even before the kingdom was overthrown. In response to Baekje's
Japan in 663 sent the general
Abe no Hirafu with 20,000
troops and 1,000 ships to revive
Buyeo Pung (known in
Japanese as Hōshō), a son of
Uija of Baekje who had been an emissary
to Japan. Around August 661, 10,000 soldiers and 170 ships, led by Abe
no Hirafu, arrived. Additional Japanese reinforcement, including
27,000 soldiers led by Kamitsukeno no Kimi Wakako (上毛野君稚子)
and 10,000 soldiers led by Iohara no Kimi (廬原君) also arrived at
Baekje in 662.
This attempt, however, failed at the
Battle of Baekgang , and the
prince escaped to Goguryeo. According to the _Nihon Shoki_, 400
Japanese ships were lost in the battles. Only half of the troops were
able to return to Japan.
The Japanese army retreated to
Japan with many
Baekje refugees. The
former royal family members were initially treated as "foreign guests"
(蕃客) and were not incorporated into the political system of Japan
for some time.
Buyeo Pung's younger brother Seon'gwang (Zenkō in
Japanese) (善光 or 禅広) used the family name _Kudara no Konikishi
_ ("King of Baekje") (百濟王) (they are also called the Kudara
Baekje was called Kudara in Japanese).
Baekje Cultural Land
Baekje was briefly revived in the
Later Three Kingdoms of Korea
Unified Silla collapsed. In 892, General Gyeon Hwon
Hubaekje (“Later Baekje”), based in Wansan
Hubaekje was overthrown in 936 by King Taejo of
In contemporary South Korea,
Baekje relics are often symbolic of the
local cultures of the southwest, especially in Chungnam and
The gilt-bronze incense burner , for example, is a key symbol of Buyeo
County , and the Baekje-era Buddhist rock sculpture of Seosan
Maaesamjonbulsang is an important symbol of
Seosan City .
On 17 April 2009, Ōuchi Kimio (大內公夫) of Ōuchi clan visited
Iksan , Korea to pay tribute to his
Baekje ancestors. The Ōuchi are
Prince Imseong .
Baekje Cultural Land was opened to visitors. The theme park
aims to preserve
Baekje architecture and culture.
Baekje Historic Areas , which feature locations with remains of the
period, was designated a
World Heritage site in 2015.
Three Kingdoms of Korea
Crown of Baekje
Great Eight Families
List of Baekje people
Index of Korea-related articles
List of Baekje researchers
* List of
List of monarchies
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Korea, 1–500 A.D.". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art
History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–.
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=05®ion=eak (October 2000)
* ^ Iryeon (1281). _Samgungnyusa_.
* ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. _East
Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History_. Houghton Mifflin. p.
123. ISBN 9780618133840 . Retrieved 12 September 2016.
* ^ Kitagawa, Joseph. _The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion,
History, and Culture_. Routledge. p. 348. ISBN 9781136875908 .
Retrieved 29 July 2016.
* ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. _East
Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800_.
Cengage Learning. p. 104. ISBN 1111808155 . Retrieved 12 September
* ^ "
Korean Buddhism Basis of Japanese Buddhism," _
June 18, 2006; "Buddhist Art of Korea "Kanji," JapanGuide.com;
"Pottery," MSN Encarta; Archived 2009-10-31.
Il-yeon : _Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three
Ancient Korea_, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K.
Mintz. Book Two, page 121. Silk
Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1-59654-348-5
* ^ _Samguk Sagi_ (in Korean). Archived from the original on
2008-05-12. 六年 夏五月 王與倭國結好 以太子腆支爲質
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Hong Wontack 1994 Paekche of Korea and the origin
of Yamato Japan,
Seoul Kadura International
* ^ 5000 Years of Korean Martial Arts
* ^ Korean Impact (1984)
* ^ Best JW 2007 A History of the Early Korean Kingdom of Paekche,
together with an annotated translation of The Paekche Annals of the
Samguk sagi (Harvard East Asian Monographs) Massachusetts, Harvard
University, Asia studies
* ^ "Japanese Royal Tomb Opened to Scholars for First Time".
News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
* ^ 聖冏抄 ... 故威德王恋慕父王状所造顕之尊像
* ^ Evelyn McCune. The arts of Korea: an illustrated history. C. E.
Tuttle Co., 1962
* ^ Asiatic Society of Japan. Transactions of the Asiatic Society
of Japan. The Society, 1986
* ^ "
Korean Buddhism Basis of Japanese Buddhism," _
June 18, 2006; "Buddhist Art of Korea "Kanji,"
* ^ JapanGuide.com; "
Pottery Archived 2009-10-31 at
WebCite ," MSN
Encarta; "History of Japan," JapanVisitor.com. Archived 2009-10-31.
* ^ Delmer M. Brown (ed.), ed. (1993). _The Cambridge History of
Japan_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 140–141. CS1 maint: Extra
text: editors list (link )
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ *Mohan, Pankaj N. "Rescuing a Stone from
Nationalism: A Fresh Look at the Kwanggaeto Stele of Koguryo."
_Journal of Inner and East Asian Studies_, 1 (2004): 89–115.
* ^ 'Gina L. Barnes', "State Formation in Korea", 2001 Curzon Press
* ^ Lee (1997:31–35)
* ^ Kōzō (1997:308–310)
* ^ Coval, Dr John Carter and Alan, 1984, "Korean impact on
Japanese culture: Japan's hidden History" Hollym International Corp.,
Elizabeth, New Jersey
* ^ "
Nihon Shoki Vol.6" "昔有一人 乘艇而泊于但馬國
因問曰 汝何國人也 對曰 新羅王子 名曰 天日槍
則留于但馬 娶其國前津耳女 一云 前津見 一云 太耳
麻拖能烏 生 但馬諸助 是清彥之祖父也"
* ^ **Grayson, James. "Mimana, A Problem in Korean Historiography,"
_Korea Journal_, 17 (1977):65–69.
* ^ 'John Whitney Hall', "Cambridge History of Japan", 1988
Cambridge University Press
* ^ Lee, Hui Jin: 거짓과 오만의 역사, Random house
Joongang,2001. ISBN 89-8457-059-1
* ^ 'Boia et al.', "Great Historians from Antiquity to 1800: An
International Dictionary", 1989 Greenwood press
* ^ 'William Wayne Farris', "Population, Disease, and Land in Early
Japan, 645-900", 1995 Harvard University Asia Center
* ^ 好太王碑研究, 王健群, 1984, 吉林人民
* ^ _A_ _B_ Xu, Jianxin. _好太王碑拓本の研究 (An
Investigation of Rubbings from the Stele of Haotai Wang)_. Tokyodo
Shuppan, 2006. ISBN 978-4-490-20569-5 .
* ^ Takeda, Yukio, "Studies on the King Gwanggaeto Inscription and
Their Basis" _Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko_.
* ^ Oh, Byung-sang (October 4, 2002). "FOUNTAIN: Echoes of drumming
* ^ Kim, Tae-Sik (2005). "Korean-Japanese Relationships in 4th
Century; based on Wa Troops Issues in Gwanggaeto Stele_"_ (PDF). The
Japan-Korea Cultural Foundation_. Archived from the original (PDF) on
* ^ Hamada, Kōsaku . _Japanese-Korean Relationships in 4th
Century_. The Japan-Korea Cultural Foundation. 2005."Archived copy"
(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-30. Retrieved
* ^ 야후! 검색 - 통합 검색. Kr.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved on
2013-07-12. Archived 2011-06-14 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "
Baekje Cultural Land". Chungnam.go.kr. Retrieved 2016-08-30.
* ^ "
Baekje Historic Areas".
UNESCO Organization. Retrieved 29
* Best, Jonathan W. _A History of the Early Korean Kingdom of
Paekche, together with an annotated translation of "The Paekche
Annals" of the "Samguk sagi"_ (Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2007).
Wikimedia Commons has media related to BAEKJE _.
Baekje History position: absolute;" /> Retrieved from
Baekje additional terms
Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.