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Verlag Karl Baedeker, founded by Karl Baedeker on July 1, 1827, is a German
publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as books, newsp ...
and pioneer in the business of worldwide
travel guide A guide book or travel guide is "a book of information about a place designed for the use of visitors or tourists". It will usually include information about sights, accommodation, restaurants, transportation, and activities. Maps of varying det ...
s. The guides, often referred to simply as " Baedekers" (a term sometimes used to refer to similar works from other publishers, or travel guides in general), contain, among other things, maps and introductions; information about routes and travel facilities; and descriptions of noteworthy buildings, sights, attractions and museums, written by specialists.


History (1827−1948)


Karl Baedeker

1827−1859: Karl Baedeker (1801-1859) descended from a long line of printers, booksellers and publishers from
Essen Essen (; Latin: ''Assindia'') is the central and, after Dortmund, second-largest city of the Ruhr, the largest urban area in Germany. Its population of makes it the fourth-largest city of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, Düsseldorf and Dor ...
. He was the eldest of ten children of Gottschalk Diederich Bädeker (1778–1841), who had inherited the publishing house founded by his own father, Zacharias Gerhard Bädeker (1750–1800). The company also published the local newspaper, the ''
Essen Essen (; Latin: ''Assindia'') is the central and, after Dortmund, second-largest city of the Ruhr, the largest urban area in Germany. Its population of makes it the fourth-largest city of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, Düsseldorf and Dor ...
dische Zeitung'', and the family expected that Karl, too, would eventually join the firm. Karl worked with his father until 1827 when he left for Coblence (now
Koblenz Koblenz (; Moselle Franconian language, Moselle Franconian: ''Kowelenz''), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city on the banks of the Rhine and the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman mili ...
) to start his own bookselling and publishing business. Karl changed the spelling of the family name from Bädeker with the umlaut to Baedeker around 1850. In 1832 Baedeker's firm acquired the publishing house of Franz Friedrich Röhling in Koblenz, which in 1828 had published a handbook for travellers by Professor Oyvind Vorland entitled ''Rheinreise von Mainz bis Cöln; ein Handbuch für Schnellreisende'' (''A Rhine Journey from
Mainz Mainz () is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Mainz is on the left bank of the Rhine, opposite to the place that the Main (river), Main joins the Rhine. Downstream of the confluence, the Rhine flows to the north-we ...
to
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of the German western States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city of Germany with 1.1 m ...
; A Handbook for Travellers on the Move''). This book provided the seeds for Baedeker's own travel guides. After Klein died and the book went out of print, he decided to publish a new edition, incorporating some of Klein's material but also added many of his own ideas into what he thought a travel guide should offer the traveller or reader. Baedeker aimed to free the traveller from having to look for information anywhere outside the travel guide: about routes, transport, accommodation, restaurants, tipping, sights, walks and prices. While the concept of a travel guide-book already existed (Baedeker emulated the style of English guide-books published by John Murray), Baedeker innovated in including detailed information on routes, travel and accommodation. Karl Baedeker had three sons, Ernst, Karl and Fritz and after his death each, in turn, took over the running of the firm.


Ernst Baedeker

1859−1861: Following the death of Karl Baedeker, his eldest son Ernst Baedeker (1833−1861) became the head of the firm. After his training as a bookseller in
Braunschweig Braunschweig () or Brunswick ( , from Low German ''Brunswiek'' , Braunschweig dialect: ''Bronswiek'') is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz Mountains at the farthest navigable point of the riv ...
,
Leipzig Leipzig ( , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants (1.1 million in the larger urban zone) as of 2021 places the city as Germany's L ...
and
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian German, Swabian: ; ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Baden-Württemberg by population, largest city of the States of Germany, German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is located on the Neckar river in a fe ...
, he had spent some time at the English publishing house "Williams & Norgate" in London. On New Year's Day, 1859, he had joined his father's publishing firm as a partner and just ten months later he was running it on his own. His tenure at the helm of the firm saw the publication of three new travel guides in 1861 viz the first Baedeker travel guide in English, the handbook on "The
Rhine The Rhine ; french: Rhin ; nl, Rijn ; wa, Rén ; li, Rien; rm, label=Sursilvan, Rein, rm, label=Sutsilvan and Surmiran, Ragn, rm, label=Rumantsch Grischun, Vallader and Puter, Rain; it, Reno ; gsw, Rhi(n), including in Alsatian dialect, Al ...
" (from Switzerland to Holland), a guide in German on Italy (''Ober-Italien''), the first of a series on Italy, which his father had planned and one in French, also on Italy (''Italie septentrionale''). Ernst Baedeker died unexpectedly on 23 July 1861 of sunstroke in Egypt and his younger brother, Karl, assumed charge of the publishing house.


Karl Baedeker II

1861−1877: Karl Baedeker II (1837−1911) continued the work started by his brother Ernst. In addition to the ongoing revision of existing guides, he published 14 new guides: four in German, seven in English and three in French. viz. * New German titles: ** 1862: London ** 1866: Italien Zweiter Teil: Mittel-Italien und Rom ** 1866: Italien Dritter Teil: Unter-Italien, Sizilien und die Liparischen Inseln * New English titles: ** 1863: Switzerland ** 1865: Paris ** 1867: Central Italy and Rome ** 1868: Southern Italy (including Sicily, the Lipary Islands) ** 1868: Southern Germany and the Austrian Empire ** 1863: Northern Italy (as far as Leghorn, Florence and Ancona, and the Island of Corsica) * New French titles: ** 1863: Paris ** 1866: Londres ** 1867: L'Itale deuxième partie : L'Italie centrale et Rome ** 1867: L'Italie troisième partie: L'Italie du Sud, La Sicille et les îles Lipari Karl Baedeker II worked with his younger brother Fritz, who joined the firm in 1869 as a partner and became the general manager. In 1877 (according to the source cited here) Karl, afflicted with an incurable mental condition, moved to a sanatorium near
Esslingen am Neckar Esslingen am Neckar (Swabian German, Swabian: ''Esslenga am Neckor'') is a town in the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany, seat of the Esslingen (district), District of Esslingen as well as the largest town in the district ...
where he remained for the rest of his life.


Fritz Baedeker

1869−1925: Under Fritz Baedeker (1844−1925) the company grew rapidly. In 1870, the Baedeker bookselling business was sold. In 1872, he moved the company's headquarters from
Koblenz Koblenz (; Moselle Franconian language, Moselle Franconian: ''Kowelenz''), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city on the banks of the Rhine and the Moselle, a multi-nation tributary. Koblenz was established as a Roman Empire, Roman mili ...
to
Leipzig Leipzig ( , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants (1.1 million in the larger urban zone) as of 2021 places the city as Germany's L ...
, a major move forward, as most of the reputable major German publishing houses were located there. He also persuaded Eduard Wagner, the Baedeker cartographer in Darmstadt, to move to
Leipzig Leipzig ( , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants (1.1 million in the larger urban zone) as of 2021 places the city as Germany's L ...
and establish a new company with Ernst Debes, a talented cartographer from "Justus Perthes" a leading cartography firm in
Gotha Gotha () is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of central Germany, covering , the sixth smallest of the sixteen German states. It ...
. The new company was named "Wagner and Debes" with offices adjacent to the new Baedeker address.
Herbert Warren Wind Herbert Warren Wind (August 11, 1916 – May 30, 2005) was an American sportswriter noted for his writings on golf Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various Golf club, clubs to hit Golf ball, balls into a series of holes ...
, the author of ''The House of Baedeker'' wrote: He added: Michael Wild, the Baedeker
chronicler A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek language, Greek ''chroniká'', from , ''chrónos'' – "time") is a historical account of events arranged in chronology, chronological order, as in a timeline. Typically, equal weight is given for historic ...
, refers to the Baedeker maps as ''a feast for the eye.'' The expansion was fast and furious. New editions were now printed by several Leipzig printers, but the bulk of the revised editions of pre-1872 guides continued to be printed where all Baedeker guides had been produced before—the G.D. Baedeker printing works in
Essen Essen (; Latin: ''Assindia'') is the central and, after Dortmund, second-largest city of the Ruhr, the largest urban area in Germany. Its population of makes it the fourth-largest city of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, Düsseldorf and Dor ...
. Fritz ventured into territory none of his predecessors had covered before, inside and outside Europe e.g. Russia, Sweden, Norway, Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Greece, the Mediterranean, USA, Canada, India and South East Asia. Plans to publish guides on China and Japan had to be abandoned when war broke out in 1914. At home, the list of guides on German regions and cities continued to grow. His was the golden age of Baedeker travel guides. Fritz also had the good fortune to have three of his four sons − Hans, Ernst and Dietrich − beside him in the firm, as editors and writers. Karl Baedeker III, the fourth son, entered academia and rose to become a professor of physics at the University of
Jena Jena () is a German city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. Lon ...
. He was killed in action at the
Battle of Liège A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and mil ...
in August 1914. It was his son Karl Friedrich who revived Verlag Karl Baedeker after the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
. During his reign, which lasted over 50 years, Fritz produced 73 new ''Baedekers'', as they came to be known universally. The Baedeker travel guides became so popular that ''baedekering'' became an English-language term for the purpose of traveling in a country to write a travel guide or travelogue about it. Fritz Baedeker became the most successful travel guide publisher of all time and turned the publishing house into the most famous and reputable publisher of travel guides in the world. In 1909,
Leipzig Leipzig ( , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants (1.1 million in the larger urban zone) as of 2021 places the city as Germany's L ...
University A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities ty ...
conferred an honorary Ph.D. (a rare honour at the time) on him at its 500th anniversary convocation. This era in its history was brought to an end by the outbreak of
World War I World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
, after which the house of Baedeker went into decline, the victim of the
post-war In Western world, Western usage, the phrase post-war era (or postwar era) usually refers to the time since the end of World War II. More broadly, a post-war period (or postwar period) is the interval immediately following the end of a war. A po ...
international geopolitical and economic conditions. Consequently, in 1920, Fritz broke with tradition and for some time thereafter, Baedeker guides to German cities and regions carried a limited amount of advertising. Fritz Baedeker's released 39 guidebooks in German from 1872 to 1925, and 21 in English from 1872 to 1914. Twelve French titles were published between 1882 and 1910.


Hans Baedeker

1925−1943: Hans Baedeker (1874−1959), the eldest son of Fritz Baedeker, took charge of the company in difficult times. His two brothers, Ernst and Dietrich, were with him, running the company. The firm had lost heavily by investing in government bonds during the
First World War World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
. The war had not only wreaked havoc on tourism, it had also resulted in anti-German sentiments around the world, particularly in America and France, where the guidebooks had been very popular and from where tourists had come in droves. Rising inflation, too, played its part in affecting tourism and the balance sheet of the publishing house. The
Great Depression The Great Depression (19291939) was an economic shock that impacted most countries across the world. It was a period of economic depression that became evident after a major fall in stock prices in the United States. The Financial contagion, ...
put paid to any hopes of an early recovery in its fortunes. The arrival of
Nazism Nazism ( ; german: Nazismus), the common name in English for National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the far-right politics, far-right Totalitarianism, totalitarian political ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hit ...
made things even worse for anything connected with tourism. For the Baedeker publishing house it culminated in the destruction of their headquarters in
Leipzig Leipzig ( , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants (1.1 million in the larger urban zone) as of 2021 places the city as Germany's L ...
, with total loss of the firm's archives, in the early hours of December 4, 1943 when Britain's
Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's Air force, air and space force. It was formed towards the end of the World War I, First World War on 1 April 1918, becoming the first independent air force in the world, by regrouping the Royal ...
bombarded the city. See also
Baedeker Blitz The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of Aerial bombing of cities, aerial attacks in April and May 1942 by the Nazi Germany, German ''Luftwaffe'' on English cities during the Second World War. The name derives from Baedeker, a serie ...
for Baedeker Raids. Hans was extremely proud of what the Baedeker clan had achieved and not one to give up trying to revive the firm. He received a loan from
Allen & Unwin George Allen & Unwin was a British publishing company formed in 1911 when Stanley Unwin (publisher), Sir Stanley Unwin purchased a controlling interest in George Allen & Co. It went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth ce ...
, the London publishing house, which represented Baedeker in Britain, and continued to do whatever he could to rejuvenate the firm at home. On July 1, 1927, Hans celebrated the centenary of its foundation by holding a reception at the
Leipzig Leipzig ( , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants (1.1 million in the larger urban zone) as of 2021 places the city as Germany's L ...
"Harmonie", a popular venue for such events. The firm did make some progress and he managed to produce twelve new titles in German and five in English, though these included those commissioned by the
Nazi regime Nazi Germany (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") (officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945) was ...
. He also published the 1928 one-volume eighth and revised German edition of ''Egypt'' and in 1929 its eighth English edition, which many travel guidebooks connoisseurs and collectors consider to be the two finest Baedeker travel guides ever published. Hans Baedeker's released 10 guidebooks in German between 1928 and 1942. Several were commissioned by the
Nazis Nazism ( ; german: Nazismus), the common name in English for National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the far-right politics, far-right Totalitarianism, totalitarian political ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hit ...
, who had been vetting Baedeker guides, proposing and effecting changes in the text, as they saw fit, and laying down to whom certain guides could be sold. Baedeker was asked to publish a guidebook for the German Army of Occupation in Poland, with history written as the Nazis wished it to be written, as the introduction to the 1943 book ''Das Generalgouvernement'' reveals. The 1948 ''Leipzig'' was the first
post-World War II The aftermath of World War II was the beginning of a new era started in late 1945 (when World War II ended) for all countries involved, defined by the decline of all colonial empires A colonial empire is a collective of territories (often call ...
Baedeker and the last one to be published in
Leipzig Leipzig ( , ; Upper Saxon: ) is the most populous city in the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony. Leipzig's population of 605,407 inhabitants (1.1 million in the larger urban zone) as of 2021 places the city as Germany's L ...
, which was now in the Russian zone. The Russians had not granted Baedeker a publishing licence. Hans got round this by having 10,000 copies printed by the ''
Bibliographisches Institut The German publishing company was founded 1826 in Gotha (town), Gotha by Joseph Meyer (publisher), Joseph Meyer, moved 1828 to Hildburghausen and 1874 to Leipzig. Its production over the years includes such well-known titles as ' (encyclopae ...
.'' However, after some 1000 copies had been sold, the Russians said the guidebook contained military secrets in the form of a map showing the site of their '' Kommandantura'', and confiscated the remaining copies. New English titles during this time were 1927's ''Tyrol and the Dolomites'', 1931's ''The Riviera'' (including South Eastern France and Corsica), an edition of ''Germany'' for the 1936 Olympic Games, and 1939's ''Madeira, Canary Islands, Azores, Western Morocco''.


History (since 1948)


Karl Friedrich Baedeker

1948−1979: Karl Friedrich Baedeker (1910−1979) was the son of Karl Baedeker III, who was killed in action at the
Battle of Liège A battle is an occurrence of combat in warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and mil ...
in 1914. He had worked as an editor at the firm before the outbreak of the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the World War II by country, vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great power ...
. During the war, he saw active service and rose to the rank of captain. Towards the closing stages of the war, he was taken prisoner in Austria by the Americans. After the war, he moved to Malente-Gremsmühlen in
Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein (; da, Slesvig-Holsten; nds, Sleswig-Holsteen; frr, Slaswik-Holstiinj) is the Northern Germany, northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the form ...
, where his wife and sister were living and which was in the British zone. Here, he worked in local government until 1948, latterly sorting out the
Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein (; da, Slesvig-Holsten; nds, Sleswig-Holsteen; frr, Slaswik-Holstiinj) is the Northern Germany, northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the form ...
archives when he decided to revive the family publishing business under the name of ''Karl Baedeker ''. His uncle Hans had decided to stay on in Leipzig, which was now under the jurisdiction of the Russians who had not granted him a publishing licence. However, they were very close and Karl could draw on his uncle's experience to get things going. Even before the outbreak of war, Hans used to tell him: Some American, British and German publishers had tried hard to buy the 'Baedeker' name, which was still a world brand, thinking that Karl Friedrich would be only too pleased to sell. However, as he said to
Herbert Warren Wind Herbert Warren Wind (August 11, 1916 – May 30, 2005) was an American sportswriter noted for his writings on golf Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various Golf club, clubs to hit Golf ball, balls into a series of holes ...
: In December 1949, he published his first offering—10,000 copies of ''Schleswig-Holstein''. This was printed in Glückstadt near
Hamburg (male), (female) en, Hamburger(s), Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal ...
and contained some advertising to balance the books, as did some of his other contemporaneous titles.
Allen & Unwin George Allen & Unwin was a British publishing company formed in 1911 when Stanley Unwin (publisher), Sir Stanley Unwin purchased a controlling interest in George Allen & Co. It went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth ce ...
, the London publisher, once again helped the Baedeker firm with another loan and he published more city and regional guides in the years that followed. In 1951, Karl Friedrich and Oskar Steinheil, a pre-war Baedeker editor, signed an agreement with Shell AG, the subsidiary of
Royal Dutch Shell Shell plc is a British Multinational corporation, multinational petroleum, oil and natural gas, gas company headquartered in London, England. Shell is a public limited company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) and second ...
, and Kurt Mair (1902–1957), the German printer and publisher based in Stuttgart, to produce a series of motoring guides. Baedeker would provide the text and Mair the finished product. The Baedekers Autoführer-Verlag,
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian German, Swabian: ; ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Baden-Württemberg by population, largest city of the States of Germany, German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is located on the Neckar river in a fe ...
was born. The slim guides called ''Baedekers Shell-Autoführer'' (Baedekers Shell Guides) were designed to fit into a man's jacket pocket or in the glove compartment of a car. The first ones covered Germany and were a huge success. Guides on other European countries followed in both German and English. Karl Friedrich was now operating on two fronts. He continued to produce city and regional guides from Malente and with the publication of his 1954 ''Berlin'' guide in German, English and French, the Baedeker brand had been well and truly re-established. Florian, his only son, was by his side and his cousin Hans, the son of his uncle Dietrich, was engaged in producing the motoring guides from
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian German, Swabian: ; ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Baden-Württemberg by population, largest city of the States of Germany, German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is located on the Neckar river in a fe ...
. Dietrich's other son Otto also helped run the firm until 1971 when he left to join another publishing house. In 1956, Karl Friedrich moved his field of operations from Malente to
Freiburg im Breisgau Freiburg im Breisgau (; abbreviated as Freiburg i. Br. or Freiburg i. B.; Low Alemannic German, Low Alemannic: ''Friburg im Brisgau''), commonly referred to as Freiburg, is an independent city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. With a population o ...
. In 1972, the
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian German, Swabian: ; ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Baden-Württemberg by population, largest city of the States of Germany, German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is located on the Neckar river in a fe ...
operation moved to Ostfildern/Kemnat in the district of Esslingen where Volkmar Mair, the son of Kurt Mair, was now in charge. With the rise of air travel in the 1960s and 1970s, Baedeker entered a new era. In 1974, the first post-war international guidebook appeared, financed largely by the German airline ''
Lufthansa Deutsche Lufthansa Aktiengesellschaft, AG (), commonly shortened to Lufthansa, is the flag carrier of Germany. When combined with its subsidiaries, it is the second-List of largest airlines in Europe, largest airline in Europe in terms of passe ...
''—the voluminous 872-page ''Baedekers USA'' in German, which had the look of traditional pre-war Baedekers.


Florian Baedeker

Florian Baedeker (1943−1980), the only son of Karl Friedrich Baedeker, succeeded him when he died in 1979. After completing his studies in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by popu ...
in 1971, he had devoted himself to matters relating to book publishing under the guidance of his father, and had helped him with the preparation of the ''Munich'' guide, released for the 1972
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by popu ...
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: link=no, Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a var ...
. Florian also carried out most of the work involved in preparing the city guides titled
Baden-Baden Baden-Baden () is a spa town in the states of Germany, state of Baden-Württemberg, south-western Germany, at the north-western border of the Black Forest mountain range on the small river Oos (river), Oos, ten kilometres (six miles) east of the ...
, Constance,
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=Haut Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburig ) is the Prefectures in France, prefecture and largest city of the Grand Est Re ...
and
Wiesbaden Wiesbaden () is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the state of Hesse. , it had 290,955 inhabitants, plus approximately 21,000 United States citizens (mostly associated with the United States Army). The Wiesbaden urban area ...
, published in the mid-1970s. He also produced several short city guides.
Basel Basel ( , ), also known as Basle ( ),french: Bâle ; it, Basilea ; rm, label=Sutsilvan, Basileia; other rm, Basilea . is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river High Rhine, Rhine. Basel is Switzerland's List of cities in Switzerland, th ...
, the
Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Swiss, Wisconsin Other uses *Swiss-system tournament, in various games and sports *Swiss International A ...
city which was first covered in a Baedeker guidebook by Karl Baedeker himself in his most celebrated guidebook " Schweiz", first published in 1844, was the title of Florian's own guide, published in 1978. It is considered by many to be one of his best city guides. Florian Baedeker. a keen parachute jumper, was killed in a parachuting accident on October 26, 1980. He was 36.


Eva Baedeker

Following the death of Florian, his mother, Karl Friedrich's widow Eva Baedeker, née Konitz (1913−1984), piloted the firm until she died in 1984. She was the last Baedeker to play an active role in running the Baedeker publishing house founded in 1827, and negotiated the sale of the Freiburg branch to
Langenscheidt Langenscheidt () is a German publishing company that specializes in language reference works. In addition to publishing language, monolingual dictionary, dictionaries, Langenscheidt also publishes bilingual dictionaries and travel phrase-books. ...
before she died. However, the "Karl Baedeker" brand name has been retained by all subsequent owners of the company, in one form or another.


Allianz

Since 1979 Baedeker travel guides have appeared as ''Baedeker Allianz Reiseführer'' (travel guides), published in collaboration with the German insurance group
Allianz Allianz ( , ) is a German multinational financial services company headquartered in Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a pop ...
. Multi-coloured with copious illustrations and in many languages, they now cover most of the popular tourist destinations in the world. Over 150 guides have been published already and the list keeps growing, as well as the number of languages in which they are published. In Britain, the guides have been published in collaboration with the British Automobile Association (The AA) and in the USA by Macmillan Travel, a Simon & Schuster Macmillan company.


Langenscheidt

The
Freiburg Freiburg im Breisgau (; abbreviated as Freiburg i. Br. or Freiburg i. B.; Low Alemannic German, Low Alemannic: ''Friburg im Brisgau''), commonly referred to as Freiburg, is an independent city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. With a population o ...
Baedeker branch was acquired by the German publisher
Langenscheidt Langenscheidt () is a German publishing company that specializes in language reference works. In addition to publishing language, monolingual dictionary, dictionaries, Langenscheidt also publishes bilingual dictionaries and travel phrase-books. ...
following the death of Eva Baedeker. In 1987, both Baedeker branches, the
Langenscheidt Langenscheidt () is a German publishing company that specializes in language reference works. In addition to publishing language, monolingual dictionary, dictionaries, Langenscheidt also publishes bilingual dictionaries and travel phrase-books. ...
operation in
Freiburg Freiburg im Breisgau (; abbreviated as Freiburg i. Br. or Freiburg i. B.; Low Alemannic German, Low Alemannic: ''Friburg im Brisgau''), commonly referred to as Freiburg, is an independent city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. With a population o ...
and the Baedeker Autoführer Verlag in
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; Swabian German, Swabian: ; ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Baden-Württemberg by population, largest city of the States of Germany, German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is located on the Neckar river in a fe ...
operated by the Mairs publishing group, were merged and housed together in Ostfildern/Kemnat as "Karl Baedeker GmbH" with a branch in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of the States of Germany, German state of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by popu ...
. The ownership of the new venture was split down the middle between Langenscheidt and Mairs.


MairDumont

In 1997, Mairs Geographischer Verlag, now known as , became the 100% owner of Verlag Karl Baedeker, along with all rights attached to Karl Baedeker's name and firm. The new English Baedekers produced by MairDumont dispensed with the ''Allianz'' logo in the title, with the German editions doing the same in 2013. This marked the beginning of a new era in the appearance and content of modern Baedekers under the
catchphrase A catchphrase (alternatively spelled catch phrase) is a phrase or expression recognized by its repeated utterance. Such phrases often originate in popular culture Popular culture (also called mass culture or pop culture) is generally recogni ...
"''Wissen öffnet Welten''" ("Knowledge opens worlds"). The previous German editions had four main sections: "Background", "Tours", "Destinations from A to Z" and "Practical Information from A to Z". MairDumont added a fifth section in each guidebook entitled ''"Erleben und Geniessen"'' ("Experience and Enjoy"). These new Baedeker guides were the first such guidebooks to incorporate
infographic Infographics (a clipped compound of "information" and "graphics") are graphic visual representations of information, data, or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly.Doug Newsom and Jim Haynes (2004). ''Public Relations Wri ...
s.


Baedeker English editions

From the outset, Karl Baedeker recognised the importance of publishing his guides in English as well as in German. His son Ernst had worked in London before joining Verlag Baedeker in 1859, and was entrusted with the task of preparing the first Baedeker in English. ''The Rhine'' appeared in 1861.


James and Findlay Muirhead

The Scottish brothers James Francis Muirhead (1853−1934) and Findlay Muirhead (1860−1935) played a significant role in popularising the English guidebooks worldwide. James, the elder brother, had been taken on as editor of the English editions by Fritz Baedeker in 1879, at age 25; Findlay joined him later as joint editor. They were responsible for all the Baedeker editions in English for almost forty years. James Findlay is given the credit for two-thirds of the content in the ''Canada'' guidebook, first published in 1894. The ''Canada'' guide is the sole classic Baedeker to have been published only in English. James Muirhead's worked on the 1893 edition of ''The United States'', which ran to four editions while he was with the firm.
Herbert Warren Wind Herbert Warren Wind (August 11, 1916 – May 30, 2005) was an American sportswriter noted for his writings on golf Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various Golf club, clubs to hit Golf ball, balls into a series of holes ...
wrote: It took James Muirhead two and a half years to research and write ''The United States''. In the preface to "The United States", the publishers acknowledged Muirhead's work in producing the travel guide. The 724-page fourth edition, published in 1909, included excursions to
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is an island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called ...
,
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico), is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...
and
Alaska Alaska ( ; russian: Аляска, Alyaska; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state, state located in the Western United States on the northwest extremity o ...
in addition to
Mexico Mexico (Spanish language, Spanish: México), officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the so ...
. After the
First World War World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
, Findlay launched his own series of the Blue Guides, published in London by Ernest Benn. His brother joined him in the venture shortly afterwards.


Hermann Augustine Piehler

Hermann Augustine Piehler (1888−1987)—better known as H.A. Piehler in the publishing world—was an Englishman of German descent who became the chief editor of the English editions after the Muirheads left. During his student days, Karl Friedrich Baedeker had spent a year in England and had lived with Piehler at his London residence. In 1948, when Karl Friedrich decided to re-establish the Baedeker firm in Malente (British zone, in Germany), his publishing licence was endorsed by Piehler, who was then a colonel in British Intelligence and the head of the 'books and publications' division in the district. Upon his return to England, Piehler continued editing the English guides well into his eighties. In the meantime, his brother had been editing the new Baedeker ''London'' guide. The Baedekers acknowledged the commitment of the Muirheads and Piehler to their firm and the contribution they had made to the success of Verlag Karl Baedeker.


See also

*
Baedeker Blitz The Baedeker Blitz or Baedeker raids were a series of Aerial bombing of cities, aerial attacks in April and May 1942 by the Nazi Germany, German ''Luftwaffe'' on English cities during the Second World War. The name derives from Baedeker, a serie ...
* Karl Baedeker * List of Baedeker Guides


References


Further reading

*


External links


Baedeker

BDKR.com
a resource for collectors *
Early Baedeker guidebooks in the travel!digital Corpus
{{Authority control Book publishing companies of Germany Publishing companies of Germany Travel guide books