A bachelor's degree (from
Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate
(from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree
awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of
study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and
academic discipline). In some institutions and educational systems,
some bachelor's degrees can only be taken as graduate or postgraduate
degrees after a first degree has been completed. In countries with
qualifications frameworks, bachelor's degrees are normally one of the
major levels in the framework (sometimes two levels where non-honours
and honours bachelor's degrees are considered separately), although
some qualifications titled bachelor's degrees may be at other levels
(e.g. MBBS) and some qualifications with non-bachelor's titles may be
classified as bachelor's degrees (e.g. the
Scottish MA and Canadian
The term bachelor in the 12th century referred to a knight bachelor,
who was too young or poor to gather vassals under his own banner. By
the end of the 13th century, it was also used by junior members of
guilds or universities. By folk etymology or wordplay, the word
baccalaureus came to be associated with bacca lauri ("laurel berry")
in reference to laurels being awarded for academic success or
Under the British system, and those influenced by it, undergraduate
academic degrees are differentiated as either non-honours degrees
(known variously as pass degrees, ordinary degrees or general degrees)
or honours degrees, the latter sometimes denoted by the addition of
"(Hons)" after the degree abbreviation. An honours degree generally
requires a higher academic standard than a pass degree, and in some
systems an additional year of study beyond the non-honours bachelor's.
In some countries, e.g. Australia, there is a "postgraduate"
bachelor's honours degree, which may be taken as a consecutive
academic degree, continuing on from the completion of a bachelor's
degree program in the same field, or (in a similar manner to the UK
system) as part of an integrated honours program.
1.1.5 South Africa
1.2.12 Republic of Korea
1.2.13 Sri Lanka
1.3.2 New Zealand
1.4 The Americas
1.4.2 United States
1.4.7 Costa Rica, El Salvador and Venezuela
1.5.4 Czech Republic
1.5.6 Faroe Islands
1.5.14 Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Armenia
1.5.18 United Kingdom
22.214.171.124 England, Wales and Northern Ireland
2.2 Architecture and design
2.5 Business and management
Computer science and information systems
2.7 Health Care
2.7.8 Veterinary science
2.7.10 Public Health
2.7.11 Medical and Health Sciences
2.7.13 Nutrition and Dietetics
2.9 Divinity and theology
2.10 Fine arts
2.11 Film and television
2.12 Integrated studies
2.14 Landscape architecture
2.15 Liberal arts
2.16 Library science
2.18 Mortuary science
2.22 Science with education
2.25 Science in law
2.26 Social sciences
2.27 Social work
2.30 Talmudic law
2.31 Tourism studies
2.33 Urban and regional planning
2.34 Public affairs and policy management
3 See also
5 External links
In most African countries, the university systems follow the model of
their former colonizing power. For example, the Nigerian university
system is similar to the British system, while the Ivorian system is
akin to the French.
Bachelor's degrees in Algerian universities are called
"الليسانس" in Arabic or la licence in French; the degree
normally takes three years to complete and is a part of the LMD
("license", "master", "doctorate") reform, students can enroll in a
bachelor's degree program in different fields of study after having
obtained their baccalauréat (the national secondary education test).
The degree is typically identical to the program of France's
universities, as specified in the LMD reform. Bachelor's degree
programs cover most of the fields in Algerian universities, except
some fields, such as
Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science.
Bachelor's degrees at the
University of Botswana
University of Botswana normally take four
years. The system draws on both British and American models. Degrees
are classified as First Class, Second Class Division One (2:1), Second
Class Division Two (2:2) and Third as in English degrees, but without
being described as honours. The main degrees are named by British
tradition (Arts, Science, Law, etc.), but in recent years there have
been a number of degrees named after specific subjects, such as
Bachelor of Library and Information.
In Morocco, a bachelor's degree is referred to as al-ʾijāzah
(Arabic, French: licence). The course of study takes three years,
which are further divided into two cycles. The first cycle comprises
the first, or propaedeutic, year. After successfully completing their
first two years, students can pursue either theoretical specialization
(études fondamentales) or professional specialization (études
professionnelles). The second cycle is one year long, after whose
completion students receive the licence d'études fondamentales or the
licence professionnelle. This academic degree system was introduced
in September 2003.
University admission is extremely competitive, with attendant
advantages and disadvantages. Nonetheless, it takes four to five years
to complete a bachelor's degree. In cases of poor performance, the
time limit is double the standard amount of time. For example, one may
not study for more than 10 years for a five-year course. Students are
normally asked to leave if they must take longer. Nigerian
universities offer B.Sc., B.Tech. (usually from
Technology), B.Arch. (six years), and other specialized undergraduate
degrees, such as B.Eng. Science undergraduate degrees may require six
months or a semester dedicated to SIWES (Students Industrial Work
Experience Scheme) but it is usually mandatory for all engineering
degrees. A semester for project work/thesis is required, not excluding
course work, during the bachelor thesis in the final year. The
classifications of degrees: first-class, second-class (upper and
lower), third-class (with honours; i.e.,
B.Sc. (Hons)) and a pass (no
honours). First- and second-class graduates are immediately eligible
for advanced postgraduate degrees (i.e.,
M.Sc. and Ph.D.), but other
classes may be required for an additional postgraduate diploma before
Furthermore, all graduating students are obliged to do the National
Youth Service Corps (NYSC) requirement, which usually takes one year,
after which they are eligible to pursue higher degrees. The NYSC is a
paramilitary service that involves students' being posted to different
parts of the country to serve in various capacities. Principal
objectives of the NYSC are to forge national cohesion, encourage
students to apply their obtained knowledge to solving problems of
rural Nigeria, and others. The NYSC was established by law after the
Nigerian Civil War.
Polytechnical schools (polytechnics) in
Nigeria are not considered
universities. They are mandated to educate technicians of high
calibre; they offer the OND (ordinary national diploma) and the HND
(higher national diploma). The polytechnics focus very strongly on
practical technical training. The
B.Sc. and HND are compared in
engineering circles but there are significant differences in training
Honours degrees in
Nigeria are differentiated only on the basis of
performance. Honours degrees include the first-class degree,
second-class degrees (upper and lower) and the third-class degree, but
not the pass. All university students must do an independent research
project which applies the knowledge obtained during the previous years
The project work must be submitted in the semester before graduation
and usually takes a significant number of points. Further course work
is not precluded during the project work, but the courses are fewer
and are at an advanced level. Project work is orally defended before
the faculty and before peers. In the sciences and engineering a
demonstration of the project is usually required. The exceptions are
theoretical work, for which a media project is required.
In South Africa, an honours degree is an additional postgraduate
qualification in the same area as the undergraduate major, and
requires at least one further year of study as well as a research
In Tunisia, a bachelor's degree is referred to as al-ʾijāzah in
Arabic, or la license in French; the degree takes three years to
complete and is a part of the LMD (license, master, doctorat) reform,
students can enroll in a bachelor's degree program in different fields
of study after having obtained their baccalauréat (the national
secondary education test). The degree is typically identical to the
program of France's universities, as specified in the LMD reform. Most
universities in Tunisia offer the 3-year bachelor's degree, except
some fields, which are Medicine, Pharmacy, Architecture and Bachelor
of Science in Business Administration, solely offered by Tunis
Business School and lasts 4 years.
In Kenya, university education is highly valued and supported by the
government, affluent individuals as well as corporate entities who
demonstrate this by providing loans and scholarships to students who
perform exceptionally well in their Kenya Certificate of Secondary
Education (KCSE) examination. A bachelor's degree is awarded to
students who successfully complete a three to seven-year course
depending on the area of study. For most degree programs, a research
project and an internship period after which a report is written by
the student is a must before the student is allowed to graduate. In
2012, a number of select colleges were upgraded to university status
in a bid to increase the intake of students into the degree
In Bangladesh, universities and colleges award three- and four-year
degrees (three-year degrees courses are called pass courses and
four-year degree courses are called honours courses) in science and
business (B.Sc., B.B.S., B.B.A., four-year and three
months[clarification needed], etc.) and three- and four-year degrees
in arts (B.A., B.S.S., etc.).
Engineering universities provide
four-year degree programs for bachelor's degree courses of study
B.Sc. in Eng and B.Sc.). Medical colleges have five-year degree
programmes (MBBS, BDS). In law education there is a two-year LL.B.
degree after completing three years in a B.A. program for a total of
five years of study. There is also a four-year LL.B. honours degree.
Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) and
Bachelor of Pharmacy
(B.Pharm.) are professional degrees awarded to students who complete a
five-year course of study in the field at some universities. All of
these programs begin after achieving the Higher Secondary Certificate
(HSC—in total 12 years of school education).
Since the undergraduate education system in China is modeled after its
American counterpart, all the degrees are adapted from those of the
United States excepting the release of the degree certificate. Once a
student has fulfilled his/her course requirements, a graduate
certificate will be given. In order to get the degree, a student must
finish and pass the dissertation stage; only then will he or she be
awarded a degree credentialed by the Ministry of
Education of the
People's Republic of China. Four years of education is the standard
length, although some private small colleges not credentialed by the
Education do offer three-year programs. Normally, about
90% of graduates are able to obtain a degree; however, no degree is
awarded with excellence or honor. It is also referred to as a "Xueshi"
The colonial link and the establishment of the University of the South
Pacific in 1968 allowed the education system to follow suit from the
qualification system of the Commonwealth. University of the South
Pacific is the only university in the
Oceania region to be
internationally recognized outside Australia and New Zealand with its
bachelor's and other awards program. It is also the highest ranked in
the university ranking in the island region and also ranked above some
Australian universities like the University of Canberra, University of
Sunshine Coast and New Zealand universities like Lincoln University
and Waikato Institute of Technology.
Bachelor's degree in India normally take 3 years of study to complete
although courses like Bachelor's in Engineering(B.tech.) or Medical
degrees take longer. B.Tech. usually takes 4 years of classwork with a
project at the end of the 4th year while Medical degrees usually take
5 years to complete. Most of the Science, Commerce, and Arts degrees
are honours degrees with electives chosen by the student.
Common bachelor's degrees and abbreviations:
Bachelor of Arts: BA
Bachelor of Science: BSc
Bachelor of Commerce: Bcom
Bachelor of Computer Applications: BCA
Bachelor of Laws: LLB
Bachelor of Engineering: BE
Bachelor of Technology: BTech
Bachelor of Education: BEd (BEd degrees are offered after completion
of a 3 year undergraduate coursework.)
Bachelor of Medicine,
Bachelor of Surgery: MBBS
For academic grading system in India, refer to this page.
Students usually start their Bachelor's after completing their
Secondary School coursework(also known as +2) from a state or private
In Iran, you can study different undergraduate or postgraduate courses
which will lead to BSc or MSc that is recognised and equivakent to
similar qualifications given in other countries. Most universities in
Iran are part of Islamic Azad Universiry, which have branches in all
cities through Iran. You can also provide four years of education
leading to a B.Sc.
In Indonesia, most of the current bachelor's degrees are
domain-specific degrees. Therefore, there are probably more than 20
bachelor's degrees. For instance, S.Psi for Sarjana Psikologi
(literally translated as "
Bachelor of Psychology/B.Psy., B.A."), S.T.
for Sarjana Teknik (literally translated as "
Engineering"), S.Si. for Sarjana Sains (literally translated as
Bachelor of Science"), S.Farm for Sarjana Farmasi (literally
translated as "
Bachelor of Pharmacy"), S.E for Sarjana Ekonomi
(literally translated as "
Bachelor of Economy"), S.Kom. for Sarjana
Ilmu Komputer (literally translated as "
Bachelor of Computer
Science"), or S.Sos. for Sarjana Ilmu Sosial (literally translated as
Bachelor of Social Sciences"). In the past, the Indonesian academic
system adopted the old European/western degrees, such as the Ir
(insinyur from Dutch ingenieur) for an engineering degree and the
common academic degree (doktorandus from Dutch and ultimately Latin
doctorandus) for a degree in either social or natural sciences.
Since the undergraduate education system in Jordan is modeled after
its American counterpart, all the degrees are adapted from those of
the United States excepting the release of the degree certificate.
Once a student has fulfilled his/her course requirements, a graduate
certificate will be given. In order to get the degree, a student must
finish and pass the dissertation stage; only then will he or she be
awarded a degree credentialed by the Ministry of Higher
the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Four years of education is the
In Nepal, the bachelor's degree was initially a three-year program for
Bachelor of Business Studies (B.B.S.),
Bachelor of Arts
(B.A.) from Tribhuvan University, Pokhara University, Purbanchal
University and other new regional university equivalent but now it is
mostly a four-year program for new courses like
Bachelor of Business
Bachelor of Business Information System
Bachelor of Information Management (B.I.M.),
Bachelor of Science in Computer Studies and
Information Technology (B.Sc).C.S.I.T. Some bachelor's programs are
still three years long, such as the
Bachelor of Arts (B.A) and
Education (B.Ed). It is completed after 10+2 level (High
Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A),
Information Management (B.I.M.),
Bachelor of Business Information
Bachelor of Engineering, and
Bachelor of Science
in Computer Science and Information Technology (B.Sc.C.S.I.T.) are a
few popular bachelor's degree programs.
B.Sc. and B.
recently turned into four year programs from three year programs. In
Nepal, Tribhuvan University as an oldest and biggest University based
on number of student and academic department, Kathmandu University,
Purbanchal University, Pokhara University, Nepal Sanskrit University
and other new regional universities are operating currently. M.B.A.
and B.B.A. from all universities are examined under the system of
Percentage and G.P.A, and traditional university courses are accessed
on division base like pass division, second division, first division
and distinction. In Nepal, there is no top up, honours and exchange or
related tie up degree courses authorised and practiced by Nepalese
Government and other educational Institution but these day,
Affiliation from foreign universities, online and distance mode is
popular in modern working youth population. M.B.A., B.B.A., B. Pharm.,
B. Sc. Nursing,
Nursing (B.N.), B. E. has a trending
professional demand in Nepalese market.
Institutes of higher learning in Malaysia provide three or four years
of education leading to a
B.Sc. Hons Degree. The standards of
categorization is almost consistent among Malaysian Universities.
Candidates who excel in their academic results will be awarded a First
Bachelor Hons Degree (usually 3.67 C
GPA and above), followed by
Class Second Upper (usually between 3.00–3.66 CGPA), Class Second
Lower (usually 2.50–2.99 CGPA), Class Three (usually 2.00–2.49
CGPA) and General Degree (Without Honours), for usually 1.99 and below
In Pakistan, arts, commerce and science colleges provide four-year
bachelor's degrees (BA, BSc, BBA, BCom etc.). Generally these programs
are of four years duration as elsewhere in the world and begin after
completing higher secondary school education by receiving a Higher
Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) acknowledging one's twelve years
of study by the respective board. After successful completion of these
programs, a bachelor's degree is awarded by the respective university.
Engineering and medical colleges provide four and five-year degree
programs respectively for bachelor's degrees (BE/BS/BSc Eng and MBBS)
that also begin after higher secondary school year 12. The
Architecture (BArch) degree program is of five years' duration.
In the Philippines, where the term "course" is commonly used to refer
to a bachelor's degree major, course of study or program, several
undergraduate categories exist—the two most common degrees awarded
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) and
Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B.).
Specializations ("majors") in economics, business administration,
social work, agriculture, nursing, accountancy, architecture and
engineering are offered as B.S. degrees in most colleges and
universities. The latter three specializations require five years of
schooling, in contrast to the standard of four years. Other common
Education (B.Ed.) and
Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.,
a professional degree). Being patterned after the United States, all
universities and colleges offer graduation with honors—cum laude,
magna cum laude, and summa cum laude.
Republic of Korea
Universities, colleges, and institutions of higher learning provide
the bachelor's degree, called 'haksa' (Korean: 학사). For example, a
university student who majored in literature and graduates obtains a
B.A., called 'munhaksa' (Korean: 문학사). Even if he or she does
not go to an institution of higher learning, a person can get a
bachelor's degree through the Bachelor's Degree Examination for
Recognised institutes of higher learning only are authorised to award
degrees in Sri Lanka. Three years full-time bachelor's degree without
an area of specialization is known as a general degree. A degree with
a specialization (in accounting, chemistry, plant biotechnology,
zoology, physics, engineering, IT, law, etc.) is known as a special
degree and requires four years of study and more entrance
qualifications. A degree in medicine, an M.B.B.Sc., requires a minimum
of six years.
In Australia, a "bachelor degree" is normally a three to four-year
program, leading to a qualification at level 7 of the Australian
Qualifications Framework. Entry to a number of professions, such
as law practice and teaching, require a bachelor's degree (a
'professional' degree). Other degrees, such as
Bachelor of Arts don't
necessarily elicit entry into a profession, though many organisations
require a bachelor's degree for employment.
A one-year postgraduate bachelor honours degree at can be achieved as
a consecutive stand-alone course following a bachelor's degree in the
same field, or as an additional year as part of a bachelor's degree
program. The honours course is normally only open to those who do
well in their bachelor's degree program and involves study at a more
advanced level than that bachelor's degree. Both the bachelor and
bachelor honours degrees are aligned with level 6 of the EQF, the same
as British and Irish bachelor's degrees with and without honours, and
Bologna Process first cycle qualifications.
Some bachelor's degrees (e.g. engineering and environmental science)
include an integrated honours degree as part of a four-year program.
Honours is generally for students who want to take up a research track
for postgraduate studies, and increasingly for those who want an extra
edge in the job market. Marking scales for Honours differ; generally,
First Class Honours (85–100%) denotes an excellent standard of
achievement; Second Class Division 1 (75–84%) a high standard;
Second Class Division 2 (65–74%) a good standard; Third Class
(50–64%) satisfactory standard; a final mark below 50% is a fail of
Bachelor honours degrees include a major Independent research
component, allowing students to develop skills that will enable them
to proceed to further study or to work in research roles in
industry. First-class or second-class (upper division) honours are
generally required for entry into doctoral programs (e.g. PhDs, etc.);
an alternative route to doctoral study is via a "masters
In New Zealand, only recognised institutions—usually universities
and polytechnics—have degree-awarding powers.
Most bachelor's degrees are three years full-time, but certain
degrees, such as the
Bachelor of Laws and the
Bachelor of Engineering
degrees, require four years of study. A
requires a minimum of six years.
Where students opt to study two bachelor's degrees
simultaneously—referred to as a "conjoint degree" or "double
degree"—an extra year of study is added. The number of years of
study required is determined based on the degree with the greatest
number of years. For example, a B.Com. degree requires three years of
full-time study, but a double B.Com.–LL.B. degree will require five
years of full-time study because the LL.B. degree is four years long.
Exceptional students may choose to complete a degree in a shorter
amount of time by taking on extra courses, usually with the help of
summer school. Students who complete a double degree program will have
two separate bachelor's degrees at the end of their studies.
Consistently high-performing students may also be invited to complete
the 'honours' program. This usually requires an extra year of study
with an extra honours dissertation. An honors award is credited with
Bachelor of Laws (Hons.)). Some degrees also offer a
Post Graduate Diploma, which often consists of the same workload, but
with added flexibility. PGDip does not usually require a dissertation.
However, the student may complete one if desired. A diploma award is
credited with 'PGDip' and the name of the degree (for example,
'PGDipArts' or 'PGDipScience'.
Usually the region presents bachelor's, Master's, doctoral, and
Canada is governed independently by each province and
territory, however a common framework for degrees was agreed by the
Council of Ministers of Education,
Canada in 2007. This adopted
descriptors for bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees that were
deliberately similar to those defined by the
Under the framework, four general forms of bachelor's degree are
defined: general programs providing a broad education and preparing
graduates for graduate-entry professional programs or employment
generally; in-depth academic programs in a specific subject that
prepare graduates for postgraduate study in the field or employment
generally; applied programs that concentrate on a mastery of practice
rather than knowledge; and professional programs, often (but not
exclusively) graduate-entry, that prepare graduates to practice as
professionals in a specific field. This last category included
graduate-entry degrees titled as if they were doctorates, such as MD,
JD and DDS degrees – despite their names, these are considered
Bachelor's degrees may take either three or four years to complete and
are awarded by colleges and universities. In many universities and
colleges bachelor´s degrees are differentiated either as bachelor´s
or as honours bachelor´s degrees. The term "Honours" is an academic
distinction, which indicates that students must achieve their
bachelor's degree with a sufficiently high overall grade point
average; in addition, some programs may require more education than
non-honours programs. The honours degrees are sometimes designated
with the abbreviation in brackets of '(Hon(s))'.
In Quebec, students have to go through a minimum of two years of
college before entering, for example, a three-year
Bachelor of Science
(B.Sc.) or a four-year
Engineering (B.Eng.) program. As a
consequence, there is no de jure "honors degree" (although some
universities market some of their programs as being de facto honors
degrees in their English-language materials), but
there are some specializations called "concentrations" in French,
which are mostly taken as optional courses.
In the province of Ontario, the vast majority of bachelor's degrees
offered by Ontario universities are academic in nature. On the other
hand, Ontario provincial legislation requires bachelor's degrees
offered by Ontario colleges to be applied and vocationally-focused
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Bachelor's degrees in the United States are typically designed to be
completed in four years of full-time study, although some programs
(such as engineering or architecture) usually take five, and some
universities and colleges allow ambitious students (usually with the
help of summer school, who are taking many classes each semester or
who have existing credit from high school Advanced Placement or
International Baccalaureate course exams) to complete them in as
little as three years. Some US colleges and universities have a
separate academic track known as an "honors" or "scholars" program,
generally offered to the top percentile of students (based on GPA),
that offers more challenging courses or more individually directed
seminars or research projects in lieu of the standard core curriculum.
Those students are awarded the same bachelor's degree as students
completing the standard curriculum but with the notation in cursu
honorum on the transcript and the diploma. Usually, the above Latin
honors are separate from the notation for this honors course, but a
student in the honors course generally must maintain grades worthy of
at least the cum laude notation anyway. Hence, a graduate might
receive a diploma Artium Baccalaureatum rite or Artium Baccalaureatum
summa cum laude in the regular course or Artium Baccalaureatum summa
cum laude in cursu honorum in the honors course.
If the student has completed the requirements for an honors degree
only in a particular discipline (e.g., English language and
literature), the degree is designated accordingly (e.g., B.A. with
Honors in English). In this case, the degree candidate will complete
the normal curriculum for all subjects except the selected discipline
("English," in the preceding example). The requirements in either case
usually require completion of particular honors seminars, independent
research at a level higher than usually required (often with greater
personal supervision by faculty than usual), and a written honors
thesis in the major subject.
Many universities and colleges in the United States award bachelor's
degrees with Latin honors, usually (in ascending order) cum laude
("with honor/praise"), magna cum laude ("with great honor/praise"),
summa cum laude ("with highest honor/praise"), and the occasionally
seen maxima cum laude ("with maximal honor/praise"). Requirements for
such notations of honors generally include minimum grade point
averages (GPA), with the highest average required for the summa
distinction (or maxima, when that distinction is present). In the case
of some schools, such as Bates College, Carleton College, Colby
College, Middlebury College, Guilford College, Franklin College
Switzerland, and larger universities like the University of Virginia,
Princeton University, North Carolina State University, University of
Massachusetts Amherst, a senior thesis for degrees in the humanities
or laboratory research for natural science (and sometimes social
science) degrees is also required. Five notable exceptions are Reed
College, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Evergreen State
College, Sarah Lawrence College, and Bennington College, which do not
have deans' lists,
Latin honors recognitions, or undergraduate honors
programs or subjects.
Bachelor's degrees may take an average of five years (from four to
five years) to complete depending on the course load and the program
and they are awarded by colleges and universities.
Medicine is from 6
to 7 years. Each college has its own curriculum and requirements with
an emphasis of their choice, governed independently by each state of
the republic. After finishing all the subjects the student require a
final work, which means the completion of particular honors seminars,
research and development or a written thesis in a particular field.
Mexico's regulations established as an obligation in order to receive
their license and title the fulfillment of a "Social Service" to the
nation (usually for those who finished their studies in a public
institution) as a remuneration to society in the form of social
actions, the benefits, as students, were received during training.
This requirement takes about six months to one year depending on the
type of degree.
Bachelor's degree should not be falsely related with
its Spanish cognate "Bachiller", which designate a prerequisite for
matriculate in a career or bachelor studies. The official name for a
bachelor's degree in Mexico is "Licenciado" and such studies are
referred as "Licenciatura".
Bachelor's degrees should not be confused with
where an Ingeniería is prefixed to the name and requieres additional
courses for certification as an Engineer.
Universities and higher education in Brazil
In Brazil, a bachelor's degree takes from three years to six years to
complete depending on the course load and the program. A bachelor's
degree is the title sought by Brazilians in order to be a professional
in a certain area of human knowledge. Master's and doctoral degrees
are additional degrees for those seeking an academic career or a
specific understanding of a field.
Even without a formal adhesion to the
Bologna system, a Brazilian
"bachelor's" would correspond to a European "first cycle." A Brazilian
"bachelor's" takes three to six years for completion, as well as
usually a written monograph or concluding project, in the same way
that a European bachelor's can be finished in three to four years,
after which time Europeans may embark on a one- to two-year 2nd cycle
program usually called a "Master's", according to the
Depending on programs and personal choices, Europeans can achieve a
master's degree in as little as four years (a three-year bachelor's
and a one-year Master's) and as long as six years (a four-year
bachelor's, a two-year Master's) of higher education. In Brazil it
would be possible to have a specialization "lato-sensu" degree—which
differs from a Brazilian "stricto-sensu" master's degree—in as
little as three years (two years for a "tecnólogo" degree and an
additional year for a specialization) or as long as eight years (six
years for professional degrees, plus two years for a master's
"stricto-sensu" degree—typical in medicine or engineering).
In Colombia, secondary school has two milestones, in 9th and 11th
grades. After completing the first 4 years of secondary school (6th,
7th, 8th and 9th grades), a student is considered to have completed
the basic secondary school while after completed the last two years
(10th and 11th grades) is considered to have completed "bachillerato"
or high school diploma.
This degree can be only academic (the most common) or:
military, given by military specialised schools and gives the
opportunity for male students not to go to obligatory military
commercial, which grants students focussed skills on accountancy.
technical, which grants students focussed skills on technical
abilities such in electricity, mechanics and related matters.
Academic, which grants students focussed skills on elementary
After graduating from high-school, hopeful students must present a
nationwide exam that determines their eligibility to apply for their
desired program, depending on the score the student achieves on the
exam. In Colombia, the system of academic degrees is similar to the US
model. After completing their "bachillerato" (high school), students
can take one of three options. The first one is called a "Profesional"
(professional career), which is similar to a bachelor's degree
requiring from four to six years of study according to the chosen
program, However, strictly-career-related subjects are taken from the
very beginning unlike US where focused career-related subjects usually
are part of the curriculum from the third year. The other option is
called a "Técnico" (technician); this degree consists of only two and
a half years of study and prepares the student for technical or
mechanical labors. Finally, the third option is called a "Tecnólogo"
(equivalent to an associate degree), and consist of 3 years of study.
A technical school gives to the student, after a program of two years,
an under graduate degree in areas like software development, networks
and IT, accountancy, nursing and other areas of health services,
mechanics, electricity and technic-like areas.
Universities offer graduate degrees in ICFES endorsed programs like
medicine, engineering, laws, accountancy, business management and
other professional areas. A typical undergraduate program usually
takes 10 or 11 semesters and some (i.e. medicine) require an
additional period of service or practice to apply for the degree. A
student who has obtained an undergraduate degree can opt to continue
studying a career after completing their undergraduate degree by
continuing onto Master's and
Doctorate degrees. They can also choose
to a specialization in certain fields of study by doing an extra year.
ICFES is the national authority for the education quality. A complete
list of under graduate and graduate programs approved by ICFES can be
In Guyana, the universities offer
Bachelor programs in different
Bachelor of Atrs (B.A),
Bachelor of Science in Nursing,
Design and Arts, Liberal Arts, Psychology,
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine (MD) and
other health science programs. These programs are delivered by
University of Guyana, Texila American University, Green Heart Medical
University, Lesley university and many more offers these bachelor
Costa Rica, El Salvador and Venezuela
Education in Costa Rica,
Education in El Salvador, and
Education in Venezuela
In these countries, there are two titles that should not be confused:
High school students who pass their bachillerato exams obtain a
certificate of Bachiller en Educación Secundaria ("bachelor's degree
in secondary education"), which is needed in order to enter a
university and is usually requested by companies in their profiles.
University students obtain a licenciatura degree in their respective
fields after completing four years of education, five in Venezuela and
El Salvador, (and meeting other requisites unique to each
institution), enabling them to work as professionals in their chosen
areas; for example, a Bachiller en Enseñanza Secundaria ("bachelor's
degree in secondary teaching") enables a person to work as a high
school teacher. Currently, the trend is for universities not to offer
a bachelor's degree and to offer instead a licentiate's or "Ingeniero"
degree after five years of education.
Bachelor's degrees exist in almost every country in Europe. However,
these degrees were only recently introduced in some Continental
European countries, where bachelor's degrees were unknown before the
Undergraduate programs in Europe overall lead to the
following most widely accepted degrees:
Bachelor of Science degree (B.Sc.), 35%–40% of undergraduate
Bachelor of Arts degree (B.A.), 30%–35% of undergraduate programs;
Bachelor of Laws degree (LL.B.), 1% of total programs, however widely
accepted in the law discipline.
The rest of the programmes typically lead to
Bachelor of Engineering
Bachelor of Business Administration degree (B.B.A.),
or other variants. Also, associate degrees are rising in popularity on
the undergraduate level in Europe.
On a per-country, per-discipline and sometimes even per-institute
basis, the duration of an undergraduate degree program is typically
three or four years, but can range anywhere from three to six years.
This is an important factor in the student's decision-making process.
The historical situation in Austria was very similar to that in
Germany, with the traditional first degrees being the Magister and the
Diplom, which are master's-level qualifications. From 2004, bachelor's
degrees have been reintroduced as part of the
Bologna Process reforms.
These can be studied at universities, leading to a bachelor's degree
(BA or BSc) after three or four years, and at Fachhochschulen
(universities of applied science), leading to a
Bachelor (FH) after
Education in Belgium
Education in Belgium is run by the language communities, with separate
higher education systems being administered by the Flemish Community
and the French Community. Both systems have been reformed to align
Bologna Process, the
Flemish Community from 2003 and the
French Community from 2004. In the Flemish Community, bachelor's
degrees may be either academic or professional. These degrees last
three years, and may be followed in both cases by a more advanced
Bachelor-na-bachelor diploma, lasting one year (c.f. the Australian
bachelor honours degree). All of these qualifications are at level 6
on the EQF, to which the Flemish Qualification Framework was
referenced in June 2011. In the French Community, universities award
grade de bachelier (3 years) as the equivalent of bachelor's degrees.
Outside of universities, professional programs may be type long (long
type) or type court (short type), both of which are offered at Hautes
Ecoles and Ecoles Supérieures des Arts. The type long takes in a
grade de bachelier (type long) (3 years), which is followed by a
master degree (1 or 2 years), while the type court has a grade de
bachelier professionnalisant (type court) (3 years), which may be
followed by a bachelier de spécialisation (1 year). All bachelier
degrees (including the bachelier de spécialisation) are equivalent to
level 6 of the EQF, but have not been formally referenced.
Most universities and colleges in Croatia today offer a three-year
bachelor program, which can be followed up typically with a two-year
master's (graduate) program.
Upon completion of undergraduate professional studies, students are
awarded the professional title of Professional Bachelor, abbreviated
bacc. (baccalaureus or stručni prvostupnik in Croatian) with a
reference to a specialisation.
Undergraduate university studies normally last for three to four years
and upon completion, students are awarded an academic title of
Bachelor, abbreviated univ. bacc. (baccalaureus or sveučilišni
prvostupnik in Croatian).
Academies that specialize in the arts, e. g. the Academy of Fine Arts
in Zagreb, have four-year bachelor's programs followed by a one-year
Historically, the baccalareus was the undergraduate degree awarded to
students who graduated from the course of trivium (grammar, dialectic
and rhetoric) at a faculty of liberal arts (either at the Charles
University or at the University of Olomouc). It was a necessary
prerequisite to continue either with the faculty of liberal arts
(quadrivium leading to a master's degree and further to a doctoral
degree) or to study at one of the other three historical
faculties—law, medicine or theology.
A bachelor's degree, abbreviated Bc.A., in the field of fine arts, and
Bc. (Bakalář in Czech) in other fields is awarded for accredited
undergraduate programs at universities and colleges.
The vast majority of undergraduate programmes offered in the Czech
Republic have a standard duration of three years.
In the Czech tertiary education system, most universities and colleges
today offer a three-year bachelor program, which can be followed up
typically with a two-year master's (graduate) program. Some
specializations, such as doctors of medicine and veterinary doctors,
hold exceptions from the general system in that the only option is a
six-year master's program with no bachelor stage (graduate with title
doctor). This is due mainly to the difficulty of meaningfully
splitting up the education for these specialisations.
The bachelor's degree was re-introduced at universities in Denmark in
1993, after the original degree (baccalaureus) was abandoned in 1775.
The bachelor's degree is awarded after three or four years of study at
a university and follows a scheme quite similar to the British one.
Two bachelor's degrees are given at the university level today:
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.), awarded to students with main focus on
scientific, medical, or technical areas;
Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), awarded to students whose main focus is on
humanistic, theological, or jurisprudence areas.
However, both in the business and the academic world in Denmark, the
bachelor's degree is still considered to be "the first half" of a
master's (candidatus). It is often not considered a degree in its own
right ., despite the politicians' best attempts to
make it more accepted.
The bachelor's degree has also been used since the late 1990s in a
number of areas like nursing and teaching. Usually referred to as a
"Professional Bachelor" (Danish: professionsbachelor), these degrees
usually require 3 to 4½ years of combined theoretical and practical
study at a so-called "(professional) university college" (Danish:
professionshøjskole). These professional bachelor's degrees do grant
access to some university Master's program. These professional
bachelor's degrees are considered to be a full education.
Bachelor's degrees in the Faroe Islands are much the same as in
Licentiate (degree) § France
The traditional bachelor's degree is the equivalent of the French
Maîtrise four-year degree. Since the new European system of 2004 LMD
Bologna process was founded, it has become standard to recognize a
bachelor's degree over three years with a licence degree, a master's
degree over five years, and a doctorate over eight years.
Some private institutions are however literally naming their degrees
Bachelor's, Master's and Executive, such as the Bordeaux MBA/Collège
International de Bordeaux. Not all of them are yet accredited by the
French State, but offer similar course subjects, structures and
methods to those found in Anglo-Saxon institutions.
Historically, Bachelor's degrees, called "Bakkalaureus", originally
existed in Germany since the late Middle Ages. They were abolished up
until 1820 as part of educational reforms at this time. The Abitur
degree—the final degree received in school after a specialized
'college phase' of two years—replaced it, and universities only
awarded graduate degrees.
The Magister degree, a graduate degree, was awarded after five years
of study. In 1899, a second graduate degree, the Diplom, was
introduced when the Technische Hochschulen (TH) received university
status. Since the introduction of the universities of applied
sciences, a shortened version of the latter, referred to as Diplom
(FH) and designed to take three to four years, was introduced between
1969 and 1972.
However, to comply with the European
Bologna process, in 1998 a new
educational law reintroduced the bachelor's degree (first degree after
three years of study) in Germany. Today, these degrees can be called
either "Bakkalaureus" or "Bachelor" (in accordance with federal law),
but the English term is more common. According to the
Bachelor is followed by the post-graduate master's degree of
another two years. The traditional degrees of
Diplom and Magister were
mostly abolished in 2010, the
Diplom still remains in a few subjects
and universities and has been reintroduced as alternative degree in
The traditional degrees have been re-mapped to the new European Credit
Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) point system to make them
comparable to the new bachelor's degree. Traditional and Bologna
process degrees are ranked as follows in Germany:
Bachelor: 180, 210, or 240 ECTS points required;
Diplom Uni or TH: 300 ECTS;
Master: 300 ECTS (including bachelor).
The old four-, five-, or six-year laurea system was discontinued in
the early 2000s as per the
Bologna process, with some exceptions such
as law school or medical school. The bachelor's degree, called "Laurea
triennale" (three-year degree) or simply "Laurea", takes three years
to complete (note that Italian students graduate from high school at
age 19) and grants access to graduate degrees (known as "Laurea
Magistrale"). In order to graduate, students must earn 180 credits
(ECTS) and write a thesis for which students have to elaborate on an
argument under the supervision of a professor (generally from three to
eight ECTS). Graduation marks go from 66 to 110. According to each
faculty internal ruling, a lode may be awarded to candidates with a
110/110 mark for recognition of the excellence of the final project.
In 2003, the German-style education system was changed to conform to
the ECTS because of the
Bologna process. The existing academic degree
granted with a diploma was transformed into a baccalaureus (bachelor's
degree). The universities usually award a bachelor's degree after
three years (following which, a master's degree will be two years
long) or four years (following which, a master's degree will be one
In the Netherlands, the
Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees
were introduced in 2002. Until that time, a single program that led to
the doctorandus degree was in effect, which comprised the same course
load as the bachelor's and Master's programs put together. (The
doctorandus title was in use for almost all fields of study; other
titles were used for legal studies (meester) and engineering
(ingenieur).) Those who had already started the doctorandus program
could, upon completing it, opt for the doctorandus degree (before
their name, abbreviated to 'drs.'), or simply use the master's degree
(behind their name) in accordance with the new standard. Since these
graduates do not have a separate bachelor's degree (which is in
fact—in retrospect—incorporated into the program), the master's
degree is their first academic degree.
In 2003/2004, the Dutch degree system was changed because of the
Bologna process. Former degrees included:
baccalaureus (bc. for bachelor, corresponding to a B.A.Sc. or B.A.A.
degree, it may be formally rendered as "B", followed by the
specialization field, instead of "bc.")
doctorandus (prefix abbreviated to drs.; it corresponds to M.A. or
M.Sc., but it may be formally rendered as M instead of drs.),
ing. for graduates of the four-year courses offered by Dutch higher
vocational colleges (HBO, that is; hoger beroepsonderwijs) see:
university of applied science. It is similar to a B.A.Sc., B.Eng.,
B.B.E., B.A.S. or B.I.C.T. (B.I.T.), and it may be formally rendered
as B followed by the specialization field, instead of ing.
ir. for those having graduated from technical university after a
minimum of five years, corresponding to a M.Sc., but it may be
formally rendered as M, instead of ir.),
meester in de rechten (mr.; it corresponds to LL.M., but it may be
formally rendered as M instead of mr.) and
doctor (dr.; it corresponds to Ph.D., but it may formally be rendered
as D instead of dr.) are still granted along with their
While the titles ing., bc., ir., mr., drs. and dr. are used before
one's own name, the degrees B, M or D are mentioned after one's name.
It is still allowed to use the traditional titles.
Whether a bachelor's degree is granted by a hogeschool or university
is highly relevant since these parallel systems of higher education
have traditionally served somewhat different purposes, with the
vocational colleges mainly concentrating on skills and practical
training. A B.A. or
B.Sc. from a university grants 'immediate' entry
into a master's program. Moreover, this is usually considered a
formality to allow students to switch to foreign universities master's
programs. Meanwhile, those having completed a HBO from a vocational
college, which represented the highest possible level of vocational
education available, can only continue to a "master's" on completion
of a challenging year of additional study, which in itself can serve
as a type of selection process, with the prospective
being required to cover a great deal of ground in a single year.
Recently, HBO (vocational) master's degrees have been introduced in
the Netherlands. Graduates thereof may use neither the extension "of
Arts" (M.A.) nor "of Science" (M.Sc.). They may use an M followed by
the field of specialization (e.g., M.Des).
This year of study to "convert" from the vocational to academic
(WO-wetenschappelijk onderwijs, literally "scientific education") is
also known as a "bridge" or "premasters" year. Note that despite the
use of the terminology "university of applied science" the higher
vocational colleges are not considered to be "universities" within the
Important aspects of Dutch bachelor's degree courses (and others)
relative to some of those offered abroad include:
Duration. While in many countries courses are completed in a given
time under normal circumstances, degree courses offered at some
(though by no means all) Dutch institutions, including the most
prestigious, can only be completed in three years by the best
Academic year. The Dutch academic year has a formal duration of 42
weeks. In practice students are often expected and required to spend a
great deal of the "free" time revising for examinations. This is not
always true elsewhere, as in many countries a very long summer break
is taken or examinations are before the winter break rather than
Learning curve. Some education systems, notably the British one,
involve a gentle introduction during the first year. This is generally
not the case in the Netherlands, with the difficulty level in the
first year serving as a type of "self-selection" with less committed
and less able students routinely finding it difficult to keep up.
In February, 2011, the Dutch State Secretary of
Education decided to
adhere to the recommendations written in a report by the Veerman
Commission. In the near future, the distinction between academic and
higher vocational degrees will disappear.
In Poland, the licentiate degree corresponds to the bachelor's degree
in Anglophone countries. In Polish, it is called licencjat. To obtain
the licencjat degree, one must complete three years of study. There is
also a similar degree called engineer (Inżynier) which differs from
the licencjat in that it is awarded by technical universities and the
program usually lasts for 3.5 years. After that, the student can
continue education for 2 or 1.5 years, respectively, to obtain the
Polish magisterium degree, which corresponds to a master's degree.
A licenciatura (equivalent to a bachelor) degree diploma from Portugal
Another example of a Portuguese licenciatura degree diploma
Presently, the Portuguese equivalent of a bachelor's degree is the
licenciatura, awarded after three years of study (four in some few
cases) at an accredited university or polytechnical institution. It is
an undergraduate first study cycle program which is required to
advance into further studies such as master's degree programs.
Bologna process (2006/2007), the bacharelato (bachelor's
degree) existed in the Portuguese higher education system. It required
three years of study, being roughly equivalent to the present
licenciatura. At that time, the licenciatura referred to a
licentiate's degree (equivalent to the present master's degree), which
required usually five years of study. A licenciatura could also be
obtained by performing two years of study after obtaining a
Today, the former and current licenciatura degrees are referred in
Portugal, respectively, as pre-
Bologna and post-
Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Armenia
The specialist's degree (Russian: специалист), (Ukrainian:
спецiалiст) was the first academic distinction in the Soviet
Union, awarded to students upon completion of five-year studies at the
university level. The degree can be compared both to the bachelor's
and master's degree. In the early 1990s, Bakalavr (Бакалавр,
"bachelor") degrees were introduced in all the countries of the
Commonwealth of Independent States except Turkmenistan. After the
bakalavr degree (usually four years), one can earn a master's degree
(another one or two years) while preserving the old five-year
In Spain, due to the ongoing transition to a model compliant with the
Bologna agreement, exact equivalents to the typical Anglo-Saxon
bachelor's degree and master's degree are being implemented
progressively. Currently, there is an undergraduate bachelor's degree
called "Título de Grado" or simply "Grado" (its duration generally
being four years), a postgraduate master's degree called "Título de
Máster" or "Máster" (between one and two years), and a doctor's
degree called "Título de Doctor" or "Doctorado". The "Título de
Grado" is now the prerequisite to access to a Master study. The
"Título de Máster" is now the prerequisite to access to doctoral
studies, and its duration and the kind of institutions that can teach
these programs are regulated in the framework of the European Higher
Up until 2009/2010, the system was split into three categories of
degrees. There were the so-called first-cycle degrees: "Diplomado" or
"Ingeniero Técnico", with nominal durations varying between three and
four years; there were also second-cycle degrees: "Licenciado" or
"Ingeniero" with nominal durations varying between four and six years;
and finally the third-cycle degrees: "Doctor." The official
first-cycle degrees are comparable in terms of duration, scope, and
educational outcomes to an Anglo-Saxon bachelor's degree. Meanwhile,
the second-cycle degrees are comparable in terms of duration, scope,
and educational outcomes to an Anglo-Saxon bachelor's + Master's
degrees combination if compared with the Anglo-Saxon system. In this
traditional system the access to doctoral studies was granted only to
the holders of "Licenciado", "Ingeniero" or "Arquitecto"
(second-cycle) degrees, and the "Master" or "Magister" titles were
unregulated (so, there coexisted so-called "Master" programs with
different durations, from some months to two years, backed by
universities or centers without any official recognition) and only the
reputation of the program/institution could back them.
The Swedish equivalent of a bachelor's degree is called
kandidatexamen. It is earned after three years of studies, of which at
least a year and a half in the major subject. A thesis of at least 15
ECTS credits must be included in the degree. Previously, there was a
Bachelor of Law degree (juris kandidat) which required 4.5 years of
study, but this degree now has a new name, juristexamen (and is now a
master's degree called "Master of Laws").
Like Austria and Germany, Switzerland did not have a tradition of
bachelor's and master's degrees. In 2003, after the application of the
Bologna process, bachelor's and graduate master's degrees replaced the
old degrees. As of 1 December 2005 the Rectors' Conference of the
Universities granted holders of a lizentiat or diploma the right
to use the corresponding master title. As of 2006[update],
certificates of equivalence are issued by the university that issued
the original degree. Currently three to four years of study are
required to be awarded a bachelor's degree. A master's degree will
require another two to three years of coursework and a thesis.
See also: British undergraduate degree classification
The bachelor's degree is the standard undergraduate degree in the
United Kingdom, with the most common degrees being the bachelor of
arts (BA) and bachelor of science (BSc). Most bachelor's degree
courses (apart from the very rare postgraduate awards, and those in
medicine, dentistry and veterinary science) lead to honours degrees,
with ordinary degrees generally only being awarded to those who do not
meet the required pass mark for an honours degree. With the exception
of the postgraduate bachelor's degrees and bachelor's degrees in
medicine, dentistry and veterinary science, UK bachelor's degrees
(whether honours or non-honours) are first cycle (end of cycle)
qualifications under the
Bologna Process. Postgraduate bachelor's
degrees and bachelor's degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary
science are second cycle (end of cycle) qualifications. Some
bachelor's degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science offer
intercalated degrees en route to the final qualification.
Bachelor's degrees should not be confused with baccalaureate
qualifications, which derive their name from the same root. In the UK,
baccalaureate qualifications, e.g. International Baccalaureate, Welsh
Baccalaureate, English Baccalaureate, are gained at secondary schools
rather than being degree-level qualifications.
Until the 19th century, a bachelor's degree represented the first
degree in a particular faculty, with Arts representing undergraduate
study, thus the
Bachelor of Civil Law (BCL) at Oxford and the Bachelor
of Laws (LLB) at Cambridge, for example, were postgraduate degrees.
Vestiges of this system still remain in the ancient universities, with
Oxford and Cambridge awarding BAs for undergraduate degrees in both
arts and sciences (although both award undergraduate BTh degrees
through associated theological colleges, and Oxford awards BFA degrees
in addition to the BA) and defining other bachelor's degrees (e.g.
BPhil, BCL) as postgraduate awards equivalent to master's
degrees, although many postgraduate bachelor's degrees have
now been replaced by equivalent master's degrees (e.g. LLM for the LLB
at Cambridge and MSc for the BSc at Oxford). The same
historical usage of indicating an undergraduate degree by it being in
the faculty of arts rather than being a bachelor's degree gives rise
Oxbridge MA and the Scottish MA).
Common bachelor's degrees and abbreviations:
Bachelor of Arts: BA
Bachelor of Science: BSc
Bachelor of Laws: LLB
Bachelor of Civil Law: BCL
Bachelor of Engineering: BEng
Bachelor of Education: BEd
Bachelor of Medicine,
Bachelor of Surgery: MBBS, MBBCh, BMBS, BMBCh
Bachelor of Dental Surgery: BDS
See also: British degree abbreviations
England, Wales and Northern Ireland
In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, bachelor's degrees normally
take three years of study to complete, although courses may take four
years where they include a year abroad or a placement year. Degrees
may have titles related to their broad subject area or faculty, such
as BA or BSc, or may be more subject specific, e.g. BEng or LLB. The
majority of bachelor's degrees are now honours degrees, although this
has not always been the case historically.
Although first degree courses are usually three years (360 credits),
direct second year entry is sometimes possible for students
transferring from other courses or who have completed foundation
degrees, via accreditation of prior learning or more formal credit
transfer arrangements. Some universities compress the three-year
course into two years by teaching for a full calendar year (180
credits) rather than a standard academic year (120 credits), thus
maintaining the full 360-credit size of the course.
In addition to bachelor's degrees, some institutions offer integrated
master's degrees as first degrees in some subjects (particularly in
STEM fields). These integrate teaching at bachelor's and master's
level on a four-year (five-year if with industrial experience) course,
which often shares the first two years with the equivalent bachelor's
The normal academic standard for bachelor's degrees in England, Wales
and Northern Ireland is the honours degree. These are normally
classified in one of four classes of honours, depending upon the marks
gained in examinations and other assessments:
The honours are usually categorised into four classes:
First class honours (1st)
Second class honours, divided into:
Upper division, or upper second (2:1)
Lower division, or lower second (2:2)
Third class honours (3rd)
Some institutions have announced that they intend to replace this
system of classifying honours degrees with an American-style Grade
Point Average. An ordinary (or unclassified) degree, which only
requires passes worth 300 credits rather than the 360 of the honours
degree, may be awarded if a student has completed the full honours
degree course but has not obtained sufficient passes to earn a degree.
Completion of just the first two years of the course can lead to a
Diploma of Higher
Education and completion of only the first year to a
Certificate of Higher Education.
On the Framework for Higher
Education Qualifications, standard
undergraduate bachelor's degrees with and without honours are at level
6, although the courses include learning across levels 4 to 6. Honours
degrees normally require 360 credits with a minimum of 90 at level 6,
while ordinary degrees need 300 credits with s minimum of 60 at level
6. Bachelor's degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science
are at level 7, with learning spanning levels 4 to 7, and are not
normally credit rated. The
Diploma of Higher
Education is a level 5
(second year of bachelor's degree) qualification and requires 240
credits, a minimum of 90 at level 5; The Certificate of Higher
Education is a level 4 (first year of bachelor's degree) qualification
and requires 120 credits, a minimum of 90 at level 4.
Other qualifications at level 6 of the Framework for Higher Education
Qualifications or the Regulated Qualifications Framework, such as
graduate diplomas and certificates, some BTEC Advanced Professional
awards, diplomas and certificates, and the graduateship of the City
& Guilds of London Institute are at the same level as bachelor's
degrees, although not necessarily representing the same credit
At Scottish universities, bachelor's degrees (and the equivalent
Scottish MA awarded by some institutions) are normally honours
degrees, taking four years of study (or five with a year abroad or in
industry), but may also be ordinary degrees (also known as pass,
general or designated degrees) requiring three year of study. Honours
degrees may be awarded as BA (Hons) or MA (Hons) in the arts and
social sciences, or BSc (Hons) for sciences, or have more specific
titles such as BEng. As in the rest of the UK, integrated master's
degrees, taking five years in Scotland, are also offered as first
degrees alongside bachelor's degrees.
An honours degree may be directly linked to professional or vocational
qualifications, particularly in fields such as engineering, surveying
and architecture. These courses tend to have highly specified
curricula, leaving students without many options for broader study.
Others, following a more traditional route, start off with a broad
range of studies across the faculty that has admitted the student or,
via modular study, across the whole university. Students on these
courses specialise later in their degree programmes. Typically
degree grades are based only on the final two years of study, after a
specialisation has been chosen, so broader study courses taken in the
first two years do not affect the final degree grade.
Honours degrees are subdivided into classes in the same way as the
rest of the UK, depending on the overall grade achieved. These are,
from highest to lowest; first class, upper second class (2:1), lower
second class (2:2), and third class.
Ordinary degrees are awarded to students who have completed three
years at university studying a variety of related subjects. These
may be taken over a broad range of subjects or (as with honours
degrees) with a specialisation in a particular subject (in the latter
case, they are sometimes known s designated degrees). As ordinary
degrees in Scotland constitute a distinct course of study, rather than
a grade below honours degrees, they can be graded (from lowest to
highest) as "pass", "merit" or "distinction". As in the rest
of the UK, Certificates and Diplomas of Higher
Education may be earned
by those completing one and two years of a bachelor's degree course
The first two years, sometimes three, of both an ordinary degree and
an honours degree are identical, but candidates for the ordinary
degree study in less depth in their final year and often over a wider
variety of subjects, and do not usually complete a dissertation. A
Scottish ordinary degree is thus different from ordinary degrees in
the rest of the UK in comprising a distinct course of study from the
honours degree. In keeping with the Scottish "broad education"
philosophy, ordinary degrees (and more rarely honours ones) may mix
different disciplines such as sciences and humanities taught in
different faculties and in some cases even different universities.
Bachelor's degrees with honours are at level 10 of the Scottish Credit
and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) and require 480 credits with a
minimum of 90 at level 10 and 90 at level 9. Ordinary degrees are at
level 9 and require 360 credits with a minimum of 90 at level 9.
Both honours degrees and ordinary degrees qualify as first cycle (end
of cycle) qualifications in the
Bologna Process. Bachelor's degrees in
medicine, dentistry and veterinary science are at level 11 of the SCQF
and are second cycle (end of cycle) qualifications in the Bologna
Bachelor's degrees exist in almost every city in Turkey. Mostly
preferred universities of
Turkey are Middle East Technical University,
Boğaziçi University, Yeditepe University, Sabanci University, Koc
University, Hacettepe University, Ankara University, Istanbul
Technical University, Istanbul University, Yildiz Technical
University, Bilkent University, Koç University, by B.A. students.
They all grants
Bachelor of Arts or
Bachelor of Science degrees upon
completion of eight-semester programs offered by its faculties and the
School of Foreign Languages. Also double-major is available in those
universities. Some universities offer the opportunity for ordinary
degree students to transfer to an honours degree course in the same
subject if an acceptable standard is reached after the first or second
year of study. It is called in Turkish "Önlisans Mezunu."
While some of the public and private universities are offering 30%
English in their programs, there are also many universities which
offer 100% English language in the programs such as Middle East
Technical University, Sabanci University, Boğaziçi University,
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Many other specialized bachelor's degrees are offered as well. Some
are in very specialized areas, like the five-year B.I.Des. or
B.Sc.I.Des. degree in industrial design. Others are offered only
at a limited number of universities, such as the Walsh School of
Foreign Service at Georgetown University's
Bachelor of Science in
Foreign Service (BSFS). The University of Delaware offers a Bachelor
of Applied Arts and Science (B.A.A.Sc.) degree, a degree which often
indicates an interdisciplinary course of study for many majors within
its School of Arts and Science. Stanford University's
Arts and Science degree is for students who are receiving one degree
but who have completed two arts and sciences majors, one of which
would ordinarily lead to the B.A. and one of which would ordinarily
lead to the B.Sc.
At many institutions one can only complete a two-degree program if the
bachelor's degrees to be earned are of different types (e.g., one
could earn a B.A. in philosophy and a B.Sc.C.Eng. in chemical
engineering simultaneously, but a person studying philosophy and
English would receive only a single B.A. with the two majors). Rules
on this vary considerably, however.
Bachelor of Science in Agriculture [
B.Sc. (Ag) or
Agriculture] offers a broad training in the sciences. The focus of
this four-year applied degree is on the development of analytical,
quantitative, computing and communication skills. Students learn how
to apply the knowledge and principles of science to the understanding
and management of the production, processing and marketing of
agricultural products, and to the management and conservation of our
natural resources. All students undertake rural field trips and
approved professional experience within agricultural or horticultural
enterprises, natural resource management, agribusiness industries, or
commercial or government organisations active in the field.
Architecture and design
Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) degree is a professional degree
awarded to students who complete the five-year course of study in the
field at some universities. Many universities offer a
B.Sc. or B.A.
(majoring in Architecture) after the first three or four years, and
then a post-graduate diploma, B.Arch. or M.Arch. for the following two
to four years.
Bachelor of Design (B.Des., or S.Des. in Indonesia) is awarded to
those who complete the four- or four-and-a-half-year course of study
in design, usually majoring in a specific field of design, such as
interior design or graphic design.
Bachelor of Arts
Bachelor of Arts degrees (B.A., A.B.; also known as Artium
Baccalaureus) along with the
Bachelor of Science degrees are the most
common undergraduate degrees given. Originally, in the universities of
Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, all undergraduate degrees were in the
faculty of arts, hence the name of the degree. The
Bachelor of Applied
Arts and Sciences (B.A.A.Sc.) is an undergraduate degree that bridges
academic and work-life experiences.
Engineering (Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria) degree
Bachelor of Applied Science degree is a professional degree
awarded to students who have completed the three- or four-year course
of study in engineering. Common abbreviations include B.Eng.,
B.Sc.Eng., B.A.Sc., B.Tech., AMIE, and GradIETE. The B.A.I.
(baccalaureus in arte ingeniaria) is awarded by the University of
Dublin (Trinity College Dublin); some South African universities refer
to their engineering degrees as B.Ing. (Baccalaureus Ingeniaria).
There are more specific variants for many subfields, such as the
B.Sc.E.Eng. degree (
Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering).
The B.Sc.Eng. and B.S.Eng (
Bachelor of Software Engineering) are
awarded by the University of Waterloo, McMaster University, and
University of Victoria, respectively. In India the
Bachelor of Technology, and AMIE (Association of
Membership of Institution of Engineers) are professional degrees
awarded in specific engineering disciplines such as computers,
electrical, electronics, mechanical, communication, civil, plastics,
chemical, etc. Specialization is referred to in brackets (e.g., "BE
Bachelor of Science in
Engineering Technology degree
(B.Sc.Eng.Tech.) is a professional degree awarded to students who have
completed a four-year course of study in engineering technology. There
are variants including general engineering technology, mechanical
engineering technology, electrical engineering technology, and civil
engineering technology. Some of these variants even have optional
areas of concentration within them. For instance mechanical
engineering technology could include mechanical systems design,
manufacturing systems, marine engineering technology, and others.
Engineering technology degrees usually lead to licensing as
engineering technologists requiring further studies for licensing as
Business and management
See: Business education#
Computer science and information systems
There are various undergraduate degrees in information technology
incorporating programming, database design, software engineering,
networks and information systems. These programs prepare graduates for
further postgraduate research degrees or for employment in a variety
of roles in the information technology industry. The program focus may
be on the technical or theoretical aspects of the subject matter,
depending on which course is taken.
Theoretically oriented degrees focus on computer science and are
correspondingly titled. These include the
Bachelor of Computing
Bachelor of Computer Science (B.Comp.Sc.) degrees.
Computer science is also offered as a major within most
The practically oriented degrees cover many disciplines from within
the IT industry including software engineering, information systems,
and data communications. Examples here include the
Bachelor of Science
in Information Technology (B.Sc.I.T.), the
Bachelor of Computer
Applications (B.C.A.), the
Bachelor of Information Technology, and the
Bachelor of Applied Science (Information Technology) (B.A.Sc.I.T.))
degrees. Many of the disciplines taught as part of these degrees are
covered under other degrees, such as engineering, as well.
Degrees combining IT with business study are also offered at many
universities. Specialized programs in information systems—such as
the bachelor of business information systems (BBIS) program—are
often positioned as professionally oriented degrees. More general
degrees here would include business degrees, such as the B.B.A. or
B.Com., with information systems as a concentration.
In countries following British tradition, (the
University of Malta
University of Malta is
an exception) medical students pursue an undergraduate medical
education and receive bachelor's degrees in medicine and surgery
(M.B.B.Chir., M.B.B.S., B.M.B.S., B.M., M.B.Ch.B., etc.). This was
historically taken at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and
Dublin after the initial B.A. degree, and in Oxford, Cambridge, and
Dublin the B.A. is still awarded for the initial three years of
medical study, with the B.M.B.Ch., M.B.B.Chir., or M.B.B.Ch.B.A.O.,
respectively, being awarded for the subsequent clinical stage of
training. Some British universities give a bachelor's degree in
science, or medical science, midway through the medical course, and
most allow students to intercalate a year of more specialized study
for an intercalated
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.),
Bachelor of Medical
Science (B.Med.Sc.), or
Bachelor of Medical Biology (B.Med.Biol.)
degree with honors. Although notionally M.B. and B.S. are two degrees,
they must be taken together. In some Irish universities, a third
Bachelor of Arts in Obstetrics (B.A.O.), is added. However,
this third degree is an anachronism from the 19th century and is not
registerable with the Irish Medical Council. In the UK, these
qualifications, while retaining the title of bachelor's degrees, are
master's degree level qualifications.
Use of the courtesy title of doctor is attached to the profession of
doctor or physician and is granted by registration, not by earning the
qualifying degree. Trainee doctors in the UK are allowed to use the
title once they begin their training and receive provisional
The Canadian MD degree is, despite its name, classified as a
Dentistry is offered both as an undergraduate and a postgraduate
course. In countries following the British model, the first degree in
dentistry is the
Bachelor of Dental Surgery, which is a master's
degree level qualification in the UK. In some parts of the world,
the doctorate of dental surgery (DDS) is the usual undergraduate
program. Postgraduate courses such as the
Bachelor of Dentistry
(B.Dent.)—awarded exclusively by the
University of Sydney
University of Sydney in
Australia—requires a previous bachelor's degree.
Midwifery degree is a professional degree awarded to
students who have complete a three- to five-year (depending on the
country) course of study in midwifery. Common abbreviations include
B.Sc.Mid., B.M., B.Mid., B.H.Sc.Mid.
Physiotherapy is offered both as an undergraduate and a graduate
course of study. Studies leading to the
Bachelor of Physiotherapy
(B.P.T.) degree usually constitute the undergraduate program. In the
graduate program, courses leading to a degree such as the Master of
Physiotherapy degree are offered.
Canadian province of Quebec, French universities offer both
undergraduate and graduate courses leading to the obtention of a
Bachelor of Science degree with a major in physiotherapy and a Master
of Science degree specialized in physiotherapy. McGill University, the
Université de Montréal, and the
Université de Sherbrooke
Université de Sherbrooke are among
the post-secondary institutions that offer such programs.
Optometry is a four-year or five-year course. Although students
graduate with a
B.Sc. after three years of study, passing a further
supervised preregistration year is required to become a fully
qualified optometrist. The National Institute of Ophthalmic Sciences
is among the post-secondary institutions that offer such programs. It
is the academic arm of The Tun Hussein Onn National Eye Hospital and
the only eye hospital based institution in Malaysia.
Nursing degree is a three- to five-year undergraduate
degree that prepares students for a career in nursing. Often the
degree is required to gain "registered nurse", or equivalent,
status—subject to completion of exams in the area of residence.
Sometimes, though, the degree is offered only to nurses who are
already registered. Alternate titles include
Bachelor of Science in
Nursing Science, with abbreviations B.Sc.N.,
Paramedicine is offered both as an undergraduate and a postgraduate
course in some countries. The
Bachelor of Paramedicine degree is a
three- to a five-year undergraduate degree that prepares students for
a career in paramedicine, paramedic services or emergency medical
services. Countries such as Canada, United Kingdom, Ireland,
Australia, New Zealand and South Africa have established paramedicine
degree programs. The United States currently currently does not
require a degree for paramedicine practice. The
Paramedicine, with abbreviations B.Sc.P., B.P., B.H.Sc.P.
Bachelor of Veterinary Science program is generally a five-year
course of study that is required for becoming a veterinarian. It is
also known as the
Bachelor of Veterinary
Medicine and Surgery at some
universities (B.V.M.S.). In the UK, this is a master's degree level
qualification that retains the title of bachelor's for historical
reasons. In the United States, no bachelor's degree of veterinary
science is given, only the
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (D.V.M.)
Pharmacy (B.Pharm.) degree is a common undergraduate
degree for the practice of pharmacy. In the United States, Canada, and
France, however, all colleges of pharmacy have now phased out the
degree in favor of the Pharm.D., or doctor of pharmacy, degree or the
Ph.D., doctor of philosophy, degree in pharmacy. Some universities,
such as the University of Mississippi, award a
Bachelor of Science in
pharmaceutical sciences (B.Sc.P.Sc.) degree as a part of the
Pharm.D. program after the completion of the first four
years. However, the B.ScP.Sc. degree does not qualify the recipient
for the practice of pharmacy, for which it is required that students
Public health is usually studied at the master's degree level. The
Bachelor of Science in Public Health (B.Sc.P.H.) degree is a four-year
undergraduate degree that prepares students for careers in the public,
private, or nonprofit sectors in areas such as public health,
environmental health, health administration, epidemiology, or health
policy and planning.
Medical and Health Sciences
Bachelor of Health Science (B.H.Sc./BSHS) is a specialized degree
awarded to students whose studies have focused on health care, health
sciences, or health professions. Specific areas of study can include
nursing, radiography, health care management, and health education
among the other broad areas of health sciences. Some BHSc/BSHS
programs are intended for pre-requisite study to professional graduate
programs, including physical therapy, physician assistant studies, and
medicine. The degree is typically awarded following four to five years
of collegiate study.
The title B.Med.Sc., B.Bio.Med.Sc., B.Med.Sc. or B.V.Med.Sc. is
granted to students who have qualified in the field of biomedical
science and medical science or veterinary medical science
Universities that offer this course include the
University of Western Ontario
University of Western Ontario in Canada,
University of Birmingham
University of Birmingham in
the UK and the University of New South Wales, the University of
Canberra, the University of Queensland, the University of Sydney, RMIT
University, Flinders University, Griffith University, Monash
Australian National University
Australian National University and the University of
Melbourne in Australia.
The degree of B.Med.Sc. can be awarded for students completing an
intercalated degree whilst studying medicine as an intermediate award.
The degree of B.Med.Sc. may also be awarded to an individual who,
having followed the prescribed course of study for the degrees of
M.B.Ch.B., does not complete the undergraduate clinical training. In
brief, this is normally awarded after the candidate has completed
successfully the first three years of an undergraduate medical degree
at certain UK (and Commonwealth) medical institutions.
Bachelor of Science in human biology degree is awarded by several
universities around the world and focuses on biomedical research,
health care, biotech business, pharmaceutical sciences, or a
Kinesiology degree (B.K. or B.Sc.K.)is a specialized
degree in the field of human movement and kinetics. Some schools still
offer it under the aegis of a School of
Physical Education (B.P.Ed. or
B.H.P.Ed.), although "kinesiology" or "human kinetics" is currently
the more popularly accepted term for the discipline.
Nutrition and Dietetics
Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics (B.S.N.D.),
Food Science and Nutrition (B.F.S.N.) Specific areas of study include
clinical nutrition, food technology, hospitality and services
management, research, community worker, health care management,
educator, sports science, agricultural sciences, private practice and
other allied health fields. The degree is awarded following four to
six years of collegiate study in America (average five years), from
three to four in Europe and Australia. In America (especially Latin
America) Nutrition per se is separated from Dietetics, where the
latter is equivalent to a technical degree.
Aviation (B.Av.) is awarded to students who complete a
four-year course of study in the field of aviation.
Divinity and theology
Bachelor of Divinity,
Bachelor of Theology,
Bachelor of Religious
Bachelor of Biblical Studies, and
Bachelor of Religious
Education (B.D., B.Th., B.R.S., B.B.S., and B.R.E.) degrees are
awarded on completion of a program of study of divinity or related
disciplines, such as theology, religious studies, or religious
Traditionally the B.D. was in fact a graduate degree rather than a
first degree, and typically emphasised academic theology, biblical
languages etc. This has become a less common arrangement, but a B.D.
takes precedence over a
Ph.D. in Cambridge University's order of
While the theological bachelor's degree is generally conferred upon
completion of a four-year program, it is also conferred in some
specialized three-year programs. From there, the next level of
advancement is generally the
Master of Divinity (M.Div.), Master of
Theology (Th.M.), Master of Religious Studies, or Master of Religious
Education (M.R.E.) degree. In the United States the "main line"
Protestant clergy typically take a four-year bachelor's degree in
whatever field they choose, then earn the M.Div. (Master of Divinity)
degree in an additional three years as part of preparation for
Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.) degree is a specialized degree
awarded for courses of study in the fine arts, frequently by an arts
school or conservatory, although it is equally available at a
significant number of traditional colleges and universities. In
contrast to the B.A. or B.S., which are generally considered to be
academic degrees, the B.F.A. is usually referred to as a professional
degree, whose recipients have generally received four years of study
and training in their major field as compared to the two years of
study in the major field usually found in most traditional
Bachelor of Arts or
Bachelor of Science programs.
In the United States, the
Bachelor of Fine Arts degree differs from a
Bachelor of Arts degree in that the majority of the program consists
of a practical studio component, as contrasted with lecture and
discussion classes. A typical B.F.A. program in the United States
consists of two-thirds study in the arts, with one-third in more
general liberal arts studies. For a B.A. in Art, the ratio might be
Film and television
Bachelor of Film and Television (B.F.T.V.) degree is an
undergraduate degree for the study of film and television production
including areas of cinematography, directing, scriptwriting, sound,
animation, and typography.
Bachelor of Integrated Studies (B.I.S.) is an interdisciplinary
bachelor's degree offered by several universities in the United States
and Canada. It allows students to design a customized and specific
course of study to best suit their educational and professional
objectives. Generally, this degree is sponsored by two or more
departments within the university. Schools which confer the B.I.S.
degree include the University of Manitoba, Pittsburg State University,
University of South Carolina Upstate, Weber State University, Ferris
State University, Arizona State University, University of Minnesota,
Miami University (Ohio), the University of Virginia, the University of
New Brunswick, and
Tallinn University of Technology
Tallinn University of Technology amongst others.
Bachelor of Journalism (B.A.J. or B.Sc.J.) degree is a
professional degree awarded to students who have studied journalism at
a four-year accredited university. Not all universities, however,
grant this degree. In the United States, schools tend to offer the
B.A. or B.S. with a major in journalism instead. The world's oldest
school of journalism at the
University of Missouri
University of Missouri offers a B.J.
degree, not to be confused with the bachelor's degree in jurisprudence
at Oxford University. In South Africa,
Rhodes University has the
oldest school of journalism in Africa and allows students to take a
fourth-year specialisation to raise their B.A. to B.A.J. status,
equivalent to a B.A. (Hons).x
Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (B.L.Arch.) degree is awarded
to students who complete the five- (in some countries four-) year
course of study in the field.
Bachelor of Liberal Arts,
Bachelor of General Studies,
Bachelor of Science in general studies, or Bachelor
of Applied Studies (B.L.A., B.G.S., B.L.S., B.Sc.G.S., B.A.S.) degree
is sometimes awarded to students who major in the liberal arts, in
general, or in interdisciplinary studies. The
Bachelor of Professional
Studies is awarded to students who major in professional career
Bachelor of Library Science or
Bachelor of Library and Information
Science (B.L.Sc., B.L.I.Sc.) degree is sometimes awarded to students
who major in library science, although Master's of library science
degrees are more common.
Music (B.Mus.) degree is a professional or academic
undergraduate degree in music at most conservatories in the US and the
UK. It is also commonly awarded at schools of music in large private
or public universities. Areas of study typically include music
performance, music education, music therapy, music composition,
academic fields (music history/musicology, music theory,
ethnomusicology), and may include jazz, commercial music, recording
technology, sacred music/music ministry, or music business. Small
liberal arts colleges and universities without schools of music often
award only B.A. in music, with different sets of requirements. (see
Bachelor of Mortuary Science (B.M.S.) is a professional
undergraduate degree, awarded by the Cincinnati College of Mortuary
Cincinnati, Ohio and Southern Illinois University
Carbondale. It was introduced in 1986 and it is awarded to students
that complete 120 semester hours of course work and receive passing
scores on the National Board Exam administered by The International
Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards.
Philosophy (B.Phil. or Ph.B.) degree is either an
undergraduate or graduate degree. Generally, it entails independent
research or a thesis/capstone project.
Bachelor of Arts or Science in
Psychology (B.A.Psy., B.Sc.Psy.,
B.Psych., or Psy.B.) degree is a degree awarded to students who have
completed a course of study in the field of psychology. Courses
typically last five years, but may last as long as six. In Nepal,
there are three- and four-year courses available for higher-level
students. See Psychologist#Licensing and regulation, Training and
licensing of clinical psychologists.
Education degree (B.Ed.) is a four-year undergraduate
professional degree offered by many American colleges and universities
for those preparing to be licensed as teachers. Variants include the
B.Ed., B.A.Ed, B.A.T. (
Bachelor of Arts for Teaching), and B.S.T.
degrees. Preparation for the M.S. in education, this degree is most
often received by those interested in early childhood, elementary
level, and special education, or by those planning to be school
administrators. Secondary level teachers often major in their subject
area instead (i.e., history, chemistry, or mathematics), with a minor
in education. Some states require elementary teachers to choose a
subject major as well, and minor in education.
In Canada, the bachelor of education is a two-year professional degree
in which students will specialise in either elementary or secondary
education, and that is taken after the completion of a three or four
year bachelor's degree with a major in a teachable subject, such as
English, French, Mathematics, Biology, Chemistry, or a social science.
Some universities also offer concurrent, five year programs with
student completing both a bachelor's degree in arts or science as well
as their B.Ed. The possession of a B.Ed. and a second bachelor's
degree is required to teach in most public anglophone and francophone
schools in Canada. The B.Ed. prepares teachers for completion of
either M.A. (master's of arts) programs in education, M.Ed. (masters
of education) programs, or post graduate certificates in education.
Science with education
Bachelor of Science and/with
Education degree (B.Sc.Ed.) is a
degree awarded to students who complete the four- to five-year course
of study in the field of science (major and minor in General Biology,
Chemistry, Physics, and Mathematics) and education. Although
B.Sc. and B.Ed. are two degrees, they must be taken
together. The graduates will work as science (physics, chemistry,
biology) teachers in high schools, as lecturers in pre university
colleges and matriculation centers and can progress to postgraduate
M.Sc. and Ph.D.) in various areas in science or education.
Bachelor of Science in Forestry (B.Sc.F.) is a degree awarded to
students who complete the four-year course of study in the field of
Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science degrees (B.Sc., Sc.B.) along with the Bachelor
of Arts degrees are the most common undergraduate degrees given. The
Bachelor of Applied Arts and Sciences (B.A.A.Sc.) is an undergraduate
degree that bridges academic and work-life experiences.
Science in law
Bachelor of Science in Law degree (B.Sc.L.) is a special-purpose
degree that allows someone who has had some prior studies but has not
achieved a bachelor's degree to resume his or her education and take
up the study of law with the goal of eventually receiving the juris
Bachelor of Social Science (B.S.Sc.) is a three- or four-year
undergraduate British degree that enables students to specialize in
the area of social science. Compared to the
Bachelor of Arts, which
allows students to study a vast range of disciplines, the
Social Science enables students to develop more central and
specialized knowledge of the social sciences. Many universities place
Bachelor of Social Science between the
Bachelor of Arts and
Bachelor of Science undergraduate degrees.
Bachelor of Social Work (B.S.W.) degree is a four-year
undergraduate degree. Usually the first two years consist of liberal
arts courses and the last two years focus on social work classes in
human development, policy/law, research, and practice. Programs
accredited by the Council on Social Work
Education require B.S.W.
students to complete a minimum of 400 field education or internship
hours. Accredited B.S.W. programs often allow students who are
interested in obtaining a
Master of Social Work degree to complete the
degree in a shorter amount of time or waive courses. In Latin America
this is a four to five year degree that can replace liberal arts
subjects into health sciences, resulting in social work as a type of
community psychology and socioeconomic studies, focused in hospitals,
prisons or pedagogy, among others.
Bachelor of Technology degree (B.Tech) is a three- or four-year
undergraduate degree. Generally, the program is comparable to a
Bachelor of Science degree program, which is additionally supplemented
by either occupational placements (supervised practical or
internships) or practice-based classroom courses.
Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) is the principal academic degree in law
in most common law countries other than the United States, and
anglophone Canada, where it has been superseded by the juris doctor
Bachelor of Talmudic Law degree (B.T.L.) or a First Talmudic
Degree (F.T.D.) is the degree awarded in most
Yeshivas around the
Bachelor of Tourism Studies (B.T.S.) degree is awarded to those
who complete the four- or five-year course of study in tourism, laws
regarding tourism, planning and development, marketing, economics,
sociology, anthropology, arts and world history (dependent on the
country in which one takes the course), ticketing, hospitality,
computer applications, and much more. The course would have an
interdisciplinary approach with a vast range of units so the
tourismologist professional would be able to identify necessary
actions toward a sustainable touristic environment focus on local
community uniqueness, values and traditions. As tourism is a growing
industry, in India there is a lot of opportunity for those who
complete this course of study. It is available in select universities
Bachelor of Mathematics or
Bachelor of Mathematical Sciences
degree (B.Math. and B.Math.Sc.) is given at the conclusion of a
four-year honors program or a three-year general program. Several
universities, mostly in
Canada and Australia, award such degrees. The
usual degree for mathematics in all other countries is the B.Sc.
Urban and regional planning
Bachelor of Urban and Regional Planning or
Bachelor of Urban
Planning or just
Bachelor of Planning degree (B.U.R.P., B.U.P., or
B.Plan) is a degree offered at some institutions as a four or
five-year professional undergraduate degree in urban planning.
Programs vary in their focus on studio work and may or may not involve
Public affairs and policy management
Bachelor of Public Affairs and Policy Management degree
(B.P.A.P.Mgt.) is a specialized four-year honors degree dedicated to
the study of public policy within an interdisciplinary framework. The
degree was created as a direct response to the changing nature of
civic society and the growing need for university graduates who can
work effectively in the new policy environment.
Bachelor of Innovation is a four-year degree in a range of
different fields. The major fields, in engineering business,
arts, science or education, are similar to their associated B.A. or
B.Sc. degrees. The general education elements are restructured to
provide a common core of innovation, entrepreneurship and team
skills. The degree was created as a direct response to the
increasing pace of innovation in today's society and the need for
graduates that understanding effective teaming, as well as the
List of admission tests to colleges and universities
Validation of foreign studies and degrees
^ Baccalaureate from the Online Etymology Dictionary (etymonline.com).
Retrieved 21 December 2011.
^ "Beyond the honours degree classification, The Burgess Group final
Universities UK. October 2007. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2010.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Educational attainment
College.gov, US Department of Education
Education and Learning: Bachelor's Degrees: Qualifications Explained"
UK Government site listing qualifications for bachelor's degrees in
"Meaning of the Baccalaureate", National Forum on College Level
Learning (US) Statistical Pilot Study of the Baccalaureate (2004)
Levels of academic degree
ISCED level 5
Higher National Diploma/
Diploma of Higher Education/Certificate of
ISCED level 6
ISCED level 7
ISCED level 8
Candidate of Sciences
No dominant classification
Ad eundem degree