HOME
The Info List - Babur


--- Advertisement ---



Babur, a word derived from Persian and meaning "lion" (Persian: بابر‬‎, translit. Bābur, lit. 'Lion';[2][3] 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent. He was a direct descendant of Emperor Timur the Great (Tamurlane) from Transoxiana
Transoxiana
(in modern-day Uzbekistan).[4][5][6] Babur
Babur
was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, governor of Farghana and great grandson of Timur
Timur
the Great. He ascended the throne of Farghana in its capital Akhsikent
Akhsikent
in 1494 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion. He conquered Samarkand
Samarkand
two years later, only to lose the vilayat of Fergana
Fergana
soon after. In his attempt to reconquer Fergana, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501, his attempt to recapture both vilayats went in vain as he was defeated by Muhammad Shaybani Khan. In 1504, he conquered Kabul, which was under the rule of the infant heir of Ulugh Begh. Babur
Babur
formed a partnership with Safavid ruler Ismail I
Ismail I
and reconquered parts of Turkistan, including Samarkand, only to again lose it and the other newly conquered lands to the Sheybanids. After losing Samarkand
Samarkand
for the third time, Babur
Babur
turned his attention to creating his empire in the north. At that time, the Indo-Gangetic Plain of the northern Indian Subcontinent was ruled by Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
of the Afghan Lodi dynasty, whereas Rajputana
Rajputana
was ruled by a Hindu Rajput Confederacy, led by Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
of Mewar. According to historical records and Baburnama
Baburnama
(autobiography written by Babur
Babur
himself) Daulat Khan Lodi invited him to attack on Delhi
Delhi
where Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
was ruling at that time. He sent his ambassador to him to support him in his attack on Delhi. Also in 1524, [Daulat Khan Lodi], a rebel of the Lodhi dynasty, invited Babur
Babur
to overthrow Ibrahim and become ruler. Babur
Babur
defeated Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
at the First Battle of Panipat
First Battle of Panipat
in 1526 CE and founded the Mughal empire. However, he again faced opposition, this time from Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
of Mewar
Mewar
and Medini Rai,another rajput ruler in the battle of Chanderi who considered Babur
Babur
a foreigner. The Rana was defeated in the Battle of Khanwa. Babur
Babur
married several times. Notable among his sons are Humayun, Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
and Hindal Mirza. Babur
Babur
died in 1530 and was succeeded by Humayun. According to Babur's wishes, he was buried in Bagh-e- Babur
Babur
in Kabul, Afghanistan. Being a patrilineal descendant of Timur, Babur considered himself a Timurid and Chagatai Turkic.[7] He is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Kyrgyzstan. Many of his poems also have become popular folk songs. He wrote his autobiography, Baburnama, in Chaghatai Turkic and this was translated into Persian during Akbar's reign.

Contents

1 Name 2 Background 3 Ruler of Central Asia

3.1 As ruler of Fergana 3.2 At Kabul

4 Foreign relations 5 Formation of the Mughal Empire

5.1 First battle of Panipat 5.2 Battle of Khanwa

6 Personal life and relationships 7 Death and legacy

7.1 Babri Masjid

8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Name[edit] Ẓahīr-ud-Dīn is Arabic for "Defender of the Faith" (of Islam), and Muhammad
Muhammad
honours the Islamic prophet. The difficulty of pronouncing the name for his Central Asian Turco- Mongol
Mongol
army may have been responsible for the greater popularity of his nickname Babur,[8] also variously spelled Baber,[2] Babar,[9] and Bābor.[5] The name is generally taken in reference to the Persian babr, meaning "Lion".[2][3] The word repeatedly appears in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh
Shahnameh
and was borrowed into the Turkic languages
Turkic languages
of Central Asia.[9][10] Thackston argues for an alternate derivation from the PIE word "beaver", pointing to similarities between the pronunciation Bābor and the Russian bobr (бобр, "beaver").[11] Babur
Babur
bore the royal titles Badshah and al-ṣultānu 'l-ʿazam wa 'l-ḫāqān al-mukkarram pādshāh-e ġāzī. He and later Mughal emperors used the title of mirza when they were princes (see imperial and royal titles of the Mughal emperors). Background[edit]

Babur
Babur
Family Tree

17th-century portrait of Babur

Babur's memoirs form the main source for details of his life. They are known as the Baburnama
Baburnama
and were written in Chaghatai Turkic, his mother-tongue,[12] though, according to Dale, "his Turkic prose is highly Persianized in its sentence structure, morphology or word formation and vocabulary."[3] Baburnama
Baburnama
was translated into Persian during the rule of Babur's grandson Akbar.[12] Babur
Babur
was born on 14 February 1483 in the city of Andijan, Andijan Province, Fergana
Fergana
Valley, contemporary Uzbekistan. He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza,[13] ruler of the Fergana
Fergana
Valley, the son of Abū Saʿīd Mirza
Mirza
(and grandson of Miran Shah, who was himself son of Timur) and his wife Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, daughter of Yunus Khan, the ruler of Moghulistan
Moghulistan
(and great-great grandson of Tughlugh Timur, the son of Esen Buqa I, who was the great-great-great grandson of Chaghatai Khan, the second-born son of Genghis Khan).[14] Babur
Babur
hailed from the Barlas tribe, which was of Mongol
Mongol
origin and had embraced Turkic[15] and Persian culture.[16] They had also converted to Islam
Islam
centuries earlier and resided in Turkestan
Turkestan
and Khorasan. Aside from the Chaghatai language, Babur
Babur
was equally fluent in Persian, the lingua franca of the Timurid elite.[17] Hence, Babur, though nominally a Mongol
Mongol
(or Moghul in Persian language), drew much of his support from the local Turkic and Iranian people of Central Asia, and his army was diverse in its ethnic makeup. It included Persians (known to Babur
Babur
as "Sarts" and "Tajiks"), ethnic Afghans, Arabs, as well as Barlas and Chaghatayid Turko-Mongols from Central Asia.[18] Ruler of Central Asia[edit] As ruler of Fergana[edit] In 1494, twelve years old Babur
Babur
became the ruler of Fergana, in present-day Uzbekistan, after Umar Sheikh Mirza
Umar Sheikh Mirza
died "while tending pigeons in an ill-constructed dovecote that toppled into the ravine below the palace".[19] During this time, two of his uncles from the neighbouring kingdoms, who were hostile to his father, and a group of nobles who wanted his younger brother Jahangir
Jahangir
to be the ruler, threatened his succession to the throne.[8] His uncles were relentless in their attempts to dislodge him from this position as well as from many of his other territorial possessions to come.[20] Babur
Babur
was able to secure his throne mainly because of help from his maternal grandmother, Aisan Daulat Begum, although there was also some luck involved.[8] Most territories around his kingdom were ruled by his relatives, who were descendants of either Timur
Timur
or Genghis Khan, and were constantly in conflict.[8] At that time, rival princes were fighting over the city of Samarkand
Samarkand
to the west, which was ruled by his paternal cousin.[citation needed] Babur
Babur
had a great ambition to capture the city. In 1497 he besieged Samarkand
Samarkand
for seven months before eventually gaining control over it.[21] He was fifteen years old and for him the campaign was a huge achievement.[8] Babur
Babur
was able to hold the city despite desertions in his army, but he later fell seriously ill.[citation needed] Meanwhile, a rebellion back home, approximately 350 kilometres (220 mi) away, amongst nobles who favoured his brother, robbed him of Fergana.[21] As he was marching to recover it, he lost Samarkand
Samarkand
to a rival prince, leaving him with neither.[8] He had held Samarkand
Samarkand
for 100 days, and he considered this defeat as his biggest loss, obsessing over it even later in his life after his conquests in India.[8] In 1501, Babur
Babur
laid siege to Samarkand
Samarkand
once more, but was soon defeated by his most formidable rival, Muhammad
Muhammad
Shaybani, Khan of the Uzbeks.[21][22] Samarkand, his lifelong obsession, was lost again. He tried to reclaim Fergana
Fergana
but lost it too and escaping with a small band of followers, he wandered to the mountains of central Asia and took refuge with hill tribes. Thus, during the ten years since becoming the ruler of Fergana, Babur
Babur
suffered many short-lived victories and was without shelter and in exile, aided by friends and peasants.[23] He finally stayed in Tashkent, which was ruled by his maternal uncle. Babur
Babur
wrote, "During my stay in Tashkent, I endured much poverty and humiliation. No country, or hope of one!"[23] For three years Babur
Babur
concentrated on building up a strong army, recruiting widely amongst the Tajiks of Badakhshan
Badakhshan
in particular. By 1502, he had resigned all hopes of recovering Fergana; he was left with nothing and was forced to try his luck someplace else.[24] At Kabul[edit] Kabul
Kabul
was ruled by Ulugh Begh
Ulugh Begh
Mirza
Mirza
of the Arghun Dynasty, who died leaving only an infant as heir.[23] The city was then claimed by Mukin Begh, who was considered to be a usurper and was opposed by the local populace. In 1504, Babur
Babur
was able to cross the snowy Hindu Kush mountains and capture Kabul
Kabul
from the remaining Arghunids, who were forced to retreat to Kandahar.[21] With this move, he gained a new kingdom, re-established his fortunes and would remain its ruler until 1526.[24] In 1505, because of the low revenue generated by his new mountain kingdom, Babur
Babur
began his first expedition to India; in his memoirs, he wrote, "My desire for Hindustan had been constant. It was in the month of Shaban, the Sun being in Aquarius, that we rode out of Kabul
Kabul
for Hindustan". It was a brief raid across the Khyber Pass.[23] In the same year, Babur
Babur
united with Sultan
Sultan
Husayn Mirza
Mirza
Bayqarah of Herat, a fellow Timurid and distant relative, against their common enemy, the Uzbek Shaybani.[25] However, this venture did not take place because Husayn Mirza
Mirza
died in 1506 and his two sons were reluctant to go to war.[23] Babur
Babur
instead stayed at Herat
Herat
after being invited by the two Mirza
Mirza
brothers. It was then the cultural capital of the eastern Muslim
Muslim
world. Though he was disgusted by the vices and luxuries of the city,[26] he marvelled at the intellectual abundance there, which he stated was "filled with learned and matched men".[27] He became acquainted with the work of the Chagatai poet Mir Ali Shir Nava'i, who encouraged the use of Chagatai as a literary language. Nava'i's proficiency with the language, which he is credited with founding,[28] may have influenced Babur
Babur
in his decision to use it for his memoirs. He spent two months there before being forced to leave because of diminishing resources;[25] it later was overrun by Shaybani and the Mirzas fled.[26] Babur
Babur
became the only reigning ruler of the Timurid dynasty after the loss of Herat, and many princes sought refuge from him at Kabul because of Shaybani's invasion in the west.[26] He thus assumed the title of Padshah
Padshah
(emperor) among the Timurids—though this tile was insignificant since most of his ancestral lands were taken, Kabul itself was in danger and Shaybani continued to be a threat.[26] Babur prevailed during a potential rebellion in Kabul, but two years later a revolt among some of his leading generals drove him out of Kabul. Escaping with very few companions, Babur
Babur
soon returned to the city, capturing Kabul
Kabul
again and regaining the allegiance of the rebels. Meanwhile, Shaybani was defeated and killed by Ismail I, Shah of Shia Safavid Persia, in 1510.[29] Babur
Babur
and the remaining Timurids used this opportunity to reconquer their ancestral territories. Over the following few years, Babur
Babur
and Shah Ismail formed a partnership in an attempt to take over parts of Central Asia. In return for Ismail's assistance, Babur
Babur
permitted the Safavids to act as a suzerain over him and his followers.[30] Thus, in 1513, after leaving his brother Nasir Mirza
Mirza
to rule Kabul, he managed to take Samarkand
Samarkand
for the third time; he also took Bokhara but lost both again to the Uzbeks.[24][26] Shah Ismail reunited Babur
Babur
with his sister Khānzāda, who had been imprisoned by and forced to marry the recently deceased Shaybani.[31] Babur
Babur
returned to Kabul
Kabul
after three years in 1514. The following 11 years of his rule mainly involved dealing with relatively insignificant rebellions from Afghan tribes, his nobles and relatives, in addition to conducting raids across the eastern mountains.[26] Babur
Babur
began to modernise and train his army despite it being, for him, relatively peaceful times.[32] Foreign relations[edit]

Mughal emperors

Babur
Babur
(Johir) 1526 – 1530

Humayun
Humayun
(Nasir)

1530 – 1540 1555 – 1556

Akbar
Akbar
(Jalal) 1556 – 1605

Jahangir
Jahangir
(Saleem) 1605 – 1627

Shahryar (de facto) 1627 – 1628

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
(Khurram) 1628 – 1658

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Alamgir) 1658 – 1707

Muhammad
Muhammad
Azam Shah (titular) 1707

Bahadur Shah I 1707 – 1712

Jahandar Shah 1712 – 1713

Farrukhsiyar 1713 – 1719

Rafi ud-Darajat 1719

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II 1719

Muhammad
Muhammad
Shah 1719 – 1748

Ahmad Shah Bahadur 1748 – 1754

Alamgir II 1754 – 1759

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III (titular) 1759 – 1760

Shah Alam II 1760 – 1806

Jahan Shah IV (titular) 1788

Akbar
Akbar
II 1806 – 1837

Bahadur Shah II 1837 – 1857

v t e

The meeting between Babur
Babur
and Ali Mirza
Mirza
Safavi near Samarkand

Babur
Babur
began relations with the Safavids when he met Ali Mirza
Mirza
Safavi at Samarkand; their good relations lasted even after Babur
Babur
was approached by the Ottomans. The Safavids army led by Najm-e Sani massacred civilians in Central Asia and then sought the assistance of Babur, who advised the Safavids to withdraw. The Safavids, however, refused and were defeated during the Battle of Ghazdewan
Battle of Ghazdewan
by the warlord Ubaydullah Khan.[33] Babur's early relations with the Ottomans were poor because the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Selim I
Selim I
provided his rival Ubaydullah Khan with powerful matchlocks and cannons.[34] In 1507, when ordered to accept Selim I
Selim I
as his rightful suzerain, Babur
Babur
refused and gathered Qizilbash servicemen in order to counter the forces of Ubaydullah Khan during the Battle of Ghazdewan. In 1513, Selim I
Selim I
reconciled with Babur (fearing that he would join the Safavids), dispatched Ustad Ali Quli the artilleryman and Mustafa Rumi the matchlock marksman, and many other Ottoman Turks, in order to assist Babur
Babur
in his conquests; this particular assistance proved to be the basis of future Mughal-Ottoman relations.[35] From them, he also adopted the tactic of using matchlocks and cannons in field (rather than only in sieges), which would give him an important advantage in India.[32] Formation of the Mughal Empire[edit] Main articles: Lodi dynasty, Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, and Siege
Siege
of Kabul (1504)

Babur's coin, based on Bahlol Lodhi's standard, Qila Agra, AH 936

Babur
Babur
still wanted to escape from the Uzbeks, and he chose India
India
as a refuge instead of Badakhshan, which was to the north of Kabul. He wrote, "In the presence of such power and potency, we had to think of some place for ourselves and, at this crisis and in the crack of time there was, put a wider space between us and the strong foeman."[32] After his third loss of Samarkand, Babur
Babur
gave full attention to the conquest of North
North
India, launching a campaign; he reached the Chenab River, now in Pakistan, in 1519.[24] Until 1524, his aim was to only expand his rule to Punjab, mainly to fulfill the legacy of his ancestor Timur, since it used to be part of his empire.[32] At the time parts of north India
India
were under the rule of Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
of the Lodi dynasty, but the empire was crumbling and there were many defectors. He received invitations from Daulat Khan Lodi, Governor of Punjab and Ala-ud-Din, uncle of Ibrahim.[36] He sent an ambassador to Ibrahim, claiming himself the rightful heir to the throne, but the ambassador was detained at Lahore
Lahore
and released months later.[24] Babur
Babur
started for Lahore, Punjab, in 1524 but found that Daulat Khan Lodi had been driven out by forces sent by Ibrahim Lodi.[37] When Babur
Babur
arrived at Lahore, the Lodi army marched out and his army was routed.[38] In response, Babur
Babur
burned Lahore
Lahore
for two days, then marched to Dipalpur, placing Alam Khan, another rebel uncle of Lodi, as governor.[39] Alam Khan was quickly overthrown and fled to Kabul. In response, Babur
Babur
supplied Alam Khan with troops who later joined up with Daulat Khan Lodi, and together with about 30,000 troops, they besieged Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
at Delhi.[40] He easily defeated and drove off Alam's army and Babur
Babur
realised Lodi would not allow him to occupy the Punjab.[40] First battle of Panipat[edit] Main article: Battle of Panipat
Panipat
(1526)

Mughal artillery and troops in action during the Battle of Panipat (1526)

In November 1525 Babur
Babur
got news at Peshawar
Peshawar
that Daulat Khan Lodi had switched sides, and he drove out Ala-ud-Din.[clarification needed] Babur
Babur
then marched onto Lahore
Lahore
to confront Daulat Khan Lodi, only to see Daulat's army melt away at their approach.[24] Daulat surrendered and was pardoned. Thus within three weeks of crossing the Indus River Babur
Babur
had become the master of Punjab.[41] Babur
Babur
marched on to Delhi
Delhi
via Sirhind. He reached Panipat
Panipat
on 20 April 1526 and there met Ibrahim Lodi's numerically superior army of about 100,000 soldiers and 100 elephants.[24][36] In the battle that began on the following day, Babur
Babur
used the tactic of Tulugma, encircling Ibrahim Lodi's army and forcing it to face artillery fire directly, as well as frightening its war elephants.[36] Ibrahim Lodi
Ibrahim Lodi
died during the battle, thus ending the Lodi dynasty.[24] Babur
Babur
wrote in his memoirs about his victory:

By the grace of the Almighty God, this difficult task was made easy to me and that mighty army, in the space of a half a day was laid in dust.[24]

After the battle, Babur
Babur
occupied Delhi
Delhi
and Agra, took the throne of Lodi, and laid the foundation for the eventual rise of Mughal rule in India. However, before he became North
North
India's ruler, he had to fend off challengers, such as Rana Sanga.[42] Battle of Khanwa[edit] Main article: Battle of Khanwa

Babur
Babur
and the Mughal army at the Urvah valley in Gwalior.

The Battle of Khanwa
Battle of Khanwa
was fought between Babur
Babur
and the Rajput
Rajput
ruler Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
on 17 March 1527. Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
wanted to overthrow Babur, whom he considered to be a foreigner ruling in India, and also to extend the Rajput
Rajput
territories by annexing Delhi
Delhi
and Agra. He was supported by Afghan chiefs who felt Babur
Babur
had been deceptive by refusing to fulfill promises made to them. Upon receiving news of Rana Sangha's advance towards Agra, Babur
Babur
took a defensive position at Khanwa
Khanwa
(currently in the Indian state of Rajasthan), from where he hoped to launch a counterattack later. According to K.V. Krishna Rao, Babur
Babur
won the battle because of his "superior generalship" and modern tactics: the battle was one of the first in India
India
that featured cannons. Rao also notes that Rana Sanga
Rana Sanga
faced "treachery" when the Hindu chief Silhadi joined Babur's army with a garrison of 6,000 soldiers.[43] Personal life and relationships[edit] There are no descriptions about Babur's physical appearance, except from the paintings in the translation of the Baburnama
Baburnama
prepared during the reign of Akbar.[23] In his autobiography, Babur
Babur
claimed to be strong and physically fit, and claimed to have swum across every major river he encountered, including twice across the Ganges River
Ganges River
in North India.[44] Unlike his father, he had ascetic tendencies and did not have any great interest in women. In his first marriage, he was "bashful" towards Aisha Sultan
Sultan
Begum, later losing his affection for her.[45] However, he acquired several more wives and concubines over the years, and as required for a prince, he was able to ensure the continuity of his line; Babur
Babur
treated them and his other women relatives well. In his memoirs, there is a mention of his infatuation for a younger boy when Babur
Babur
was 16 years old.[32] According to the historian Abraham Eraly, bisexuality was common and pederasty high fashion among the central Asian aristocrats of the time.[46]

Babur
Babur
crossing the Indus River

Babur's first wife, Aisha Sultan
Sultan
Begum, was his paternal cousin, the daughter of Sultan
Sultan
Ahmad Mirza, his father's brother. She was an infant when betrothed to Babur, who was himself five years old. They married eleven years later, c. 1498–99. The couple had one daughter, Fakhr-un-Nissa, who died within a year in 1500. Three years later, after Babur's first defeat at Fergana, Aisha left him and returned to her father's household.[47][32] In 1504, Babur
Babur
married Zaynab Sultan
Sultan
Begum, who died childless within two years. In the period 1506–08, Babur
Babur
married four women, Maham Begum (in 1506), Masuma Sultan
Sultan
Begum, Gulrukh Begum and Dildar Begum.[47] Babur
Babur
had four children by Maham Begum, of whom only one survived infancy. This was his eldest son and heir, Humayun. Masuma Sultan Begum died during childbirth; the year of her death is disputed (either 1508 or 1519). Gulrukh bore Babur
Babur
two sons, Kamran and Askari, and Dildar Begum was the mother of Babur's youngest son, Hindal.[47] Babur
Babur
later married Mubaraka Yusufzai, a Pashtun woman of the Yusufzai tribe. Gulnar Aghacha and Nargul Aghacha were two Circassian slaves given to Babur as gifts by Tahmasp Shah Safavi, the Shah of Persia. They became "recognized ladies of the royal household."[47] During his rule in Kabul, when there was a time of relative peace, Babur
Babur
pursued his interests in literature, art, music and gardening.[32] Previously, he never drank alcohol and avoided it when he was in Herat. In Kabul, he first tasted it at the age of thirty. He then began to drink regularly, host wine parties and consume preparations made from opium.[26] Though religion had a central place in his life, Babur
Babur
also approvingly quoted a line of poetry by one of his contemporaries: "I am drunk, officer. Punish me when I am sober". He quit drinking for health reasons before the Battle of Khanwa, just two years before his death, and demanded that his court do the same. But he did not stop chewing narcotic preparations, and did not lose his sense of irony. He wrote, "Everyone regrets drinking and swears an oath (of abstinence); I swore the oath and regret that."[48] Death and legacy[edit] Babur
Babur
died at the age of 47 on 5 January [O.S. 26 December 1530] 1531 and was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun.

Babur
Babur
and his heir Humayun

After death, his body was moved to Kabul, Afghanistan, where it lies in Bagh-e Babur
Bagh-e Babur
( Babur
Babur
Gardens).[49] It is generally agreed that, as a Timurid, Babur
Babur
was not only significantly influenced by the Persian culture, but that his empire also gave rise to the expansion of the Persianate
Persianate
ethos in the Indian subcontinent.[5][6] For example, F. Lehmann states in the Encyclopædia Iranica:

His origin, milieu, training, and culture were steeped in Persian culture and so Babur
Babur
was largely responsible for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, the Mughals of India, and for the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results.[16]

Although all applications of modern Central Asian ethnicities to people of Babur's time are anachronistic, Soviet and Uzbek sources regard Babur
Babur
as an ethnic Uzbek.[50][51][52] At the same time, during the Soviet Union Uzbek scholars were censored for idealising and praising Babur
Babur
and other historical figures such as Ali-Shir Nava'i.[53]

The tomb of the first Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Babur
Babur
in Kabul

Babur
Babur
is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan.[54] On 14 February 2008, stamps in his name were issued in the country to commemorate his 525th birth anniversary.[55] Many of Babur's poems have become popular Uzbek folk songs, especially by Sherali Jo'rayev.[56] Some sources claim that Babur
Babur
is a national hero in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
too.[57] In October 2005, Pakistan
Pakistan
developed the Babur
Babur
Cruise Missile, named in his honour. One of the enduring features of Babur's life was that he left behind the lively and well-written autobiography known as Baburnama.[11] Quoting Henry Beveridge, Stanley Lane-Poole
Stanley Lane-Poole
writes:

His autobiography is one of those priceless records which are for all time, and is fit to rank with the confessions of St. Augustine and Rousseau, and the memoirs of Gibbon and Newton. In Asia it stands almost alone.[58]

In his own words, "The cream of my testimony is this, do nothing against your brothers even though they may deserve it." Also, "The new year, the spring, the wine and the beloved are joyful. Babur
Babur
make merry, for the world will not be there for you a second time."[59]

Tombstone of Babur
Babur
in Bagh-e Babur

Babri Masjid[edit] Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid
("Babur's Mosque") in Ayodhya, India
India
was constructed on the orders of Mir Baqi, one of Babur's generals who led forces sent to the region during his reign. In 2003, by the order of an Indian Court, the Archaeological Survey of India
India
(ASI) was asked to conduct a more indepth study and an excavation to ascertain the type of structure that was beneath the mosque.[60] The excavation was conducted from 12 March 2003 to 7 August 2003, resulting in 1360 discoveries. The ASI submitted its report to the Allahabad high court.[61] The summary of the ASI report indicated the presence of a 10th-century temple under the mosque.[62][63] According to the ASI team, the human activity at the site dates back to the 13th century BCE. The next few layers date back to the Shunga period (second-first century BCE) and the Kushan period. During the early medieval period (11–12th century CE), a huge but short-lived structure of nearly 50 metres north-south orientation was constructed. On the remains of this structure, another massive structure was constructed: this structure had at least three structural phases and three successive floors attached with it. The report concluded that it was over the top of this construction that the disputed structure was constructed during the early 16th century.[64] Notes[edit]

^ Christine Isom-Verhaaren, Allies with the Infidel, (I.B. Tauris, 2013), 58. ^ a b c EB (1878). ^ a b c Dale, Stephen Frederic (2004). The garden of the eight paradises: Bābur and the culture of Empire in Central Asia, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and India
India
(1483–1530). Brill. pp. 15, 150. ISBN 90-04-13707-6.  ^ "Counterview: Taimur's actions were uniquely horrific in Indian history".  ^ a b c F. Lehmann: Ẓahīr-al-Dīn Moḥammad Bābor. In Encyclopædia Iranica. Online Ed. December 1988 (updated August 2011). "Bābor, Ẓahīr-al-Dīn Moḥammad (6 Moḥarram 886-6 Jomādā I 937/14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), Timurid prince, military genius, and literary craftsman who escaped the bloody political arena of his Central Asian birthplace to found the Mughal Empire in India. His origin, milieu, training, and education were steeped in Muslim
Muslim
culture and so Bābor played significant role for the fostering of this culture by his descendants, the Mughals of India, and for the expansion of Islam
Islam
in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and historiographical results." ^ a b Robert L. Canfield, Robert L. (1991). Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, p. 20. "The Mughals-Persianized Turks who invaded from Central Asia and claimed descent from both Timur
Timur
and Genghis – strengthened the Persianate
Persianate
culture of Muslim
Muslim
India". ^ Richards, John F. (1995), The Mughal Empire, Cambridge University Press, p. 6, ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2  ^ a b c d e f g Eraly 2007, pp. 18–20. ^ a b EB (1911). ^ Thumb, Albert, Handbuch des Sanskrit, mit Texten und Glossar, German original, ed. C. Winter, 1953, Snippet, p. 318 ^ a b Babur, Emperor of Hindustan (2002). The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor. translated, edited and annotated by W. M. Thackston. Modern Library. ISBN 0-375-76137-3.  ^ a b Dilip Hiro (2006). Babur
Babur
Nama: Journal of Emperor Babur. Mumbai: Penguin Books
Penguin Books
India. p. xviii. ISBN 978-0-14-400149-1.  ^ " Mirza
Mirza
Muhammad
Muhammad
Haidar". Silk Road Seattle. University of Washington. Retrieved 2006-11-07. On the occasion of the birth of Babar Padishah (the son of Omar Shaikh)  ^ Babur. Babur
Babur
Nama. Penguin Books. p. vii. ISBN 978-0-14-400149-1.  ^ "Bābur (Mughal emperor)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ a b Lehmann, F. "Memoirs of Zehīr-ed-Dīn Muhammed Bābur". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-04-02.  ^ "Iran: The Timurids and Turkmen". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 August 2016.  ^ Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1994). "The Symbiosis of Turk and Tajik". Central Asia in Historical Perspective. Boulder, Colorado & Oxford. p. 58. ISBN 0-8133-3638-4.  ^ "Babu, the first Moghul emperor: Wine and tulips in Kabul". The Economist. 16 December 2010. pp. 80–82. Retrieved 12 June 2015.  ^ Lal, Ruby (25 September 2005). Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World. p. 69. ISBN 0-521-85022-3. It was over these possessions, provinces controlled by uncles, or cousins of varying degrees, that Babur
Babur
fought with close and distant relatives for much of his life.  ^ a b c d Ewans, Martin (September 2002). Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics. HarperCollins. pp. 26–27. ISBN 0-06-050508-7. Babur, while still in his teens, conceived the ambition of conquering Samarkand. In 1497, after a seven months' siege, he took the city, but his supporters gradually deserted him and Ferghana
Ferghana
was taken from him in his absence. Within a few months he was compelled to retire from Samarkand ... Eventually he retook Samarkand, but was again forced out, this time by an Usbek leader, Shaibani Khan ... Babur
Babur
decided in 1504 to trek over the Hindu Kush to Kabul, where the current ruler promptly retreated to Kandahar and left him in undisputed control of the city.  ^ "The Memoirs of Babur". Silk Road Seattle. University of Washington. Retrieved 2006-11-08. After being driven out of Samarkand
Samarkand
in 1501 by the Uzbek Shaibanids ...  ^ a b c d e f Eraly 2007, pp. 21–23. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mahajan, V.D. (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 428–29. ISBN 81-219-0364-5.  ^ a b Brend, Barbara (20 December 2002). Perspectives on Persian Painting: Illustrations to Amir Khusrau's Khamsah. Routledge (UK). p. 188. ISBN 0-7007-1467-7.  ^ a b c d e f g Eraly 2007, pp. 24–26. ^ Lamb, Christina (February 2004). The Sewing Circles of Herat: A Personal Voyage Through Afghanistan. HarperCollins. p. 153. ISBN 0-06-050527-3.  ^ Hickmann, William C. (19 October 1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. p. 473. ISBN 0-691-01078-1. Eastern Turk Mir Ali Shir Neva'i (1441–1501), founder of the Chagatai literary language  ^ Doniger, Wendy (September 1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 539. ISBN 0-87779-044-2.  ^ Sicker, Martin (August 2000). The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege
Siege
in Vienna. p. 189. ISBN 0-275-96892-8. Ismail was quite prepared to lend his support to the displaced Timurid prince, Zahir ad-Din Babur, who offered to accept Safavid suzerainty in return for help in regaining control of Transoxiana.  ^ Erdogan, Eralp, "Babür İmparatorluğu'nun Kuruluş Safhasında Şah İsmail ile Babür İttifakı", History Studies, Volume 6 Issue 4, pp. 31–39, July 2014 ^ a b c d e f g Eraly 2007, pp. 27–29. ^ Stuart Cary Welch. The Emperors' Album: Images of Mughal India. Metroplitian Museum of Art. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-87099-499-9.  ^ Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (2008). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations ... Retrieved 2014-03-25.  ^ Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (2008). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations ... Retrieved 2014-03-25.  ^ a b c Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India : from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D. New Delhi: Atlantic Publ. pp. 89–90. ISBN 81-269-0123-3.  ^ Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, (Har-Anand, 2009), 27. ^ Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, 27. ^ Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, 27–28. ^ a b Satish Chandra, Medieval India:From Sultanat to the Mughals, Vol. 2, 28. ^ Keay, John (2011-04-12). India: A History. Revised and Updated. Grove/Atlantic, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8021-9550-0.  ^ Mahajan, V. D. (2007). History of medieval India
India
(10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 432–36. ISBN 81-219-0364-5.  ^ Rao, K. V. Krishna. Prepare Or Perish: A Study of National Security. Lancer Publishers. p. 453. ISBN 978-81-7212-001-6.  ^ Elliot, Henry Miers (1867–1877). "The Muhammadan Period". The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. John Dowson (ed.). London: Trubner. Retrieved 2008-04-02. ... and on the same journey, he swam twice across the Ganges, as he said he had done with every other river he had met with.  ^ "The Memoirs of Babur, Volume 1, chpt. 71". Memoirs of Zehīr-ed-Dīn Muhammed Bābur Emperor of Hindustan, Written by himself, in the Chaghatāi Tūrki. Translated by John Leyden and William Erskine, Annotated and Revised by Lucas King. Oxford University Press. 1921. Āisha Sultan
Sultan
Begum, the daughter of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, to whom I had been betrothed in the lifetime of my father and uncle, having arrived in Khujand, I now married her, in the month of Shābān. In the first period of my being a married man, though I had no small affection for her, yet, from modesty and bashfulness, I went to her only once in ten, fifteen, or twenty days. My affection afterwards declined, and my shyness increased; in so much, that my mother the Khanum, used to fall upon me and scold me with great fury, sending me off like a criminal to visit her once in a month or forty days.  ^ Eraly 2007, p. 12. ^ a b c d Babur; Dilip Hiro. "Babur's wives and children". In Dilip Hiro. Babur
Babur
Nama:Journal of Emperor Babur
Babur
(2006 ed.). Penguin. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-14-400149-1.  ^ Pope, Hugh (2005). Sons of the Conquerors, Overlook Duckworth, pp. 234–35. ^ Mahajan, V.D. (2007). History of medieval India
India
(10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. p. 438 ed. ISBN 81-219-0364-5.  ^ Prokhorov, A. M., ed. (1969–1978). "Babur". Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 16 September 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013.  ^ Muminov, Ibrohim, ed. (1972). "Bobur". Uzbek Soviet Encyclopedia (in Uzbek). 2. Tashkent: Uzbek Soviet Encyclopedia. pp. 287–95.  ^ Bobur, Zahiriddin Muhammad
Muhammad
(1989). "About This Edition". In Aʼzam Oʻktam. Boburnoma (in Uzbek). Tashkent: Yulduzcha. p. 3.  ^ William Fierman, ed. (1991). Soviet Central Asia. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 147. ISBN 0-8133-7907-5.  ^ "Grandeur and Eternity: Zahiriddin Muhammad
Muhammad
Bobur in Minds of People Forever". Embassy of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
in Korea. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2012.  ^ "The country's history on postage miniatures". Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
Today. Archived from the original on 14 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.  ^ "Sherali Joʻrayev: We Haven't Stopped. We Still Exist". BBC's Uzbek Service (in Uzbek). 13 April 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2013.  ^ Dust in the Wind: Retracing Dharma Master Xuanzang's Western Pilgrimage by 經典雜誌編著, Zhihong Wang, p. 121 ^ Lane-Poole, Stanley. "Babar". pp. 12–13. Retrieved 2015-06-12.  ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 151. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ Ratnagar, Shereen (2004). "Archaeology at the Heart of a Political Confrontation: The Case of Ayodhya". Current Anthropology. 45 (2): 239–59. doi:10.1086/381044.  ^ "ASI submits report on Ayodhya
Ayodhya
excavation". Rediff.com. 22 August 2003. Retrieved 2012-06-20.  ^ Suryamurthy, R (26 August 2003). "ASI findings may not resolve title dispute". The Tribune.  ^ Prasannan, R. (7 September 2003) "Ayodhya: Layers of truth" The Week (India), from Web Archive ^ "Proof of temple found at Ayodhya: ASI report". Rediff.com. 25 August 2003. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 

References[edit]

 Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878), "Baber", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 179   Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Baber", Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 (11th ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 92  "'Turks and Afghan' and 'The Mughal Period'", Cambridge History of India, Vol. III & IV, Cambridge, 1928  Eraly, Abraham (2007), Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls, Penguin Books
Penguin Books
Limited, ISBN 978-93-5118-093-7 

Further reading[edit]

Alam, Muzaffar & Subrahmanyan, Sanjay (Eds.) The Mughal State 1526–1750 (Delhi) 1998 Balabanlilar, Lisa (2012). Imperial Identity in the Mughal Empire: Memory and Dynastic Politics in Early Modern South and Central Asia. London: I.B. Tauris.  Gascoigne, Bamber The Great Moghuls (London) 1971. (Last revised 1987) Gommans, Jos Mughal Warfare (London) 2002 Gordon, Stewart. When Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks who created the "Riches of the East" Da Capo Press, Perseus Books, 2008. ISBN 0-306-81556-7. Hasan, Mohibbul (1985). Babur: Founder of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in India. New Delhi: Manohar Publications.  Irvine, William The Army of the Indian Moghuls. (London) 1902. (Last revised 1985) Jackson, Peter The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. A Political and Military History (Cambridge) 1999 Richards, John F. The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
(Cambridge) 1993

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Babur.

Works by Babur
Babur
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Babur
Babur
at Internet Archive Works by or about Babur
Babur
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog)

Babur Timurid Dynasty Born: 14 February 1483 Died: 26 December 1530

Regnal titles

New title Dynasty
Dynasty
founded

Mughal Emperor 20 April 1526 – 26 December 1530 Succeeded by Humayun

v t e

Mughal Empire

Emperors

Babur Humayun Akbar Jahangir Shah Jahan Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Alamgir) Muhammad
Muhammad
Azam Shah Bahadur Shah I Jahandar Shah Farrukhsiyar Rafi ud-Darajat Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II Muhammad
Muhammad
Shah Ahmad Shah Bahadur Alamgir II Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III Shah Alam II Akbar
Akbar
II Bahadur Shah II

Battles and conflicts

Battle of Panipat
Panipat
(1526) Gujarat conquest Battle of Khanwa Battle of Ghaghra Siege
Siege
of Sambhal Battle of Panipat
Panipat
(1556) Battle of Thanesar Siege
Siege
of Chittorgarh Siege
Siege
of Ranthambore Battle of Tukaroi Battle of Raj Mahal Battle of Haldighati Battle of Bhuchar Mori Siege
Siege
of Kandahar Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) Siege
Siege
of Orchha Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53) Battle of Samugarh Battle of Khajwa Suppression of Tilpat rebellion Ahom–Mughal conflicts Siege
Siege
of Purandhar Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Mughal–Maratha Wars

Siege
Siege
of Bijapur Siege
Siege
of Jinji

Child's War Siege
Siege
of Golconda Battle of Karnal Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Buxar Siege
Siege
of Delhi

Architecture

Taj Mahal Gardens of Babur Fatehpur Sikri

Tomb of Salim Chishti

Humayun's Tomb Red Fort Lahore
Lahore
Fort Jahangir
Jahangir
Mahal Lalbagh Fort Akbar's Tomb Agra
Agra
Fort Chawk Mosque Shalimar Gardens Achabal Gardens Jahangir's Tomb Bibi Ka Maqbara Badshahi Mosque Shahi Bridge Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Mosque, Thatta Sheesh Mahal Sunehri Masjid Tipu Sultan
Sultan
Mosque Wazir Khan Mosque more

Adversaries

Ibrahim Lodi Rana Sanga Sher Shah Suri Hemu Maharana Pratap Malik Ambar Gokula Pratapaditya Shivaji Lachit Borphukan Khushal Khattak Sir Josiah Child Guru Gobind Singh Henry Every Bajirao I Nader Shah Hector Munro

Provinces

Bengal Subah Gujarat Subah

See also

Art Cuisine Culture Flag Gardens Language Military Painting Persians Tribe Weapons Timurid dynasty

family tree

Successor states

Maratha Empire Rajput
Rajput
states Jats Sikh Empire Nawabs of Bengal Awadh Nizam of Hyderabad Carnatic Kingdom of Mysore Rohilkhand

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 97090468 LCCN: n50053659 ISNI: 0000 0001 0845 1285 GND: 118841807 SELIBR: 44209 SUDOC: 026699494 BNF: cb11889779q (data) BIBSYS: 97018368 ULAN: 500212753 NDL: 00709

.