BT GROUP PLC (trading as BT) is a holding company which owns BRITISH TELECOMMUNICATIONS PLC, a British multinational telecommunications services company with head offices in London, United Kingdom . It has operations in around 180 countries.
BT's origins date back to the founding of the Electric Telegraph Company in 1846 which developed a nationwide communications network. In 1912, the General Post Office , a government department, became the monopoly telecoms supplier in the United Kingdom. The Post Office Act of 1969 led to the GPO becoming a public corporation. British Telecommunications, trading as _British Telecom_, was formed in 1980, and became independent of the Post Office in 1981. British Telecommunications was privatised in 1984, becoming _British Telecommunications plc_, with some 50 percent of its shares sold to investors. The Government sold its remaining stake in further share sales in 1991 and 1993. BT has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange , a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange , and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index .
BT controls a number of large subsidiaries. BT Global Services division supplies telecoms services to corporate and government customers worldwide, and its BT Consumer division supplies telephony , broadband , and subscription television services in Great Britain to around 18 million customers. BT announced in February 2015 that it had agreed to acquire EE for £12.5 billion, and received final regulatory approval from the Competition and Markets Authority on 15 January 2016. The transaction was completed on 29 January 2016.
* 1 History
* 1.1 1878 to 1969 * 1.2 Public corporation * 1.3 1969 to 1982 * 1.4 1982 to 1991 * 1.5 1991 to 2001 * 1.6 2001 to 2006 * 1.7 2007 to 2012 * 1.8 2013 to present
* 2 Operations
* 3 Corporate affairs
* 3.1 Headquarters
* 3.2 Divisions
* 3.2.1 Openreach
* 3.3 Financial performance * 3.4 Pension fund * 3.5 Sponsorships
* 4 Environmental record
* 5 Controversies
* 5.1 Abuse of monopoly position and underinvestment in infrastructure * 5.2 Undermining of National Security * 5.3 World Wide Web hyperlink patent * 5.4 Behavioural targeting * 5.5 Alleged complicity with drone strikes in Yemen and Somalia
* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
BT's origins date back to the establishment of the first telecommunications companies in Britain. Among them was the first commercial telegraph service , the Electric Telegraph Company , established in 1846. As these companies amalgamated and were taken over or collapsed, the remaining companies were transferred to state control under the Post Office in 1912. These companies were merged and rebranded as British Telecom.
1878 TO 1969
The BT Tower , originally the Post Office Tower, constructed between 1961 and 1964
In January 1878 Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his recently developed telephone to Queen Victoria at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight . A few days later the first telephone in Britain was installed, under licence from the General Post Office, by engineers from David Moseley and Sons, to connect the Dantzic Street premises of Manchester hardware merchant, Mr. John Hudson, with his other premises in nearby Shudehill. As the number of installed telephones across the country grew it became sensible to consider constructing telephone exchanges to allow all the telephones in each city to be connected together. The first exchange was opened in London in August 1879, closely followed by the Lancashire Telephonic Exchange in Manchester. From 1878, the telephone service in Britain was provided by private sector companies such as the National Telephone Company , and later by the General Post Office. In 1896, the National Telephone Company was taken over by the General Post Office. In 1912 it became the primary supplier of telecommunications services, after the Post Office took over the private sector telephone service in GB, except for a few local authority services. Those services all folded within a few years, the sole exception being Kingston upon Hull , where the telephone department became present day KCOM Group .
Converting the Post Office into a nationalised industry, as opposed to a governmental department, was first discussed in 1932 by Lord Wolmer. In 1932 the Bridgeman Committee produced a report that was rejected. In 1961, more proposals were ignored. The Post Office remained a department of central government, with the Postmaster General sitting in Cabinet as a Secretary of State .
In March 1965, Tony Benn , the acting Postmaster General , wrote to Harold Wilson , the Prime Minister, proposing that studies be undertaken aimed at converting the Post Office into a nationalised industry . A committee was set up to look into the advantages and disadvantages of the proposal, and its findings were found to be favourable enough for the Government to re-establish a Steering Group on the Organisation of the Post Office. After some initial deliberations that the business should be divided into five divisions; Post , Telecommunications, Savings , Giro and National Data Processing Services, it was decided that there should be two: _Post_ and _Telecommunications_. These events finally resulted in the introduction of the Post Office Act, 1969.
On 1 October 1969, under the Post Office Act of 1969, the Post Office ceased to be a government department and it became established as a public corporation . The Act gave the Post Office the exclusive privilege of operating telecommunications systems with listed powers to authorise others to run such systems. Effectively, the General Post Office retained its telecommunications monopoly.
1969 TO 1982
The British Telecom "T" symbol logo, used from 1980 to 1991
In 1977, the Carter Committee Report recommended a further division of the two main services and for their relocation under two individual corporations. The findings contained in the report led to the renaming of Post Office Telecommunications as British Telecommunications (trading as British Telecom) in 1980, although it remained part of the Post Office.
The British Telecommunications Act 1981 transferred the responsibility for telecommunications services from the Post Office, creating two separate corporations, Post Office Ltd. and British Telecommunications. At this time the first steps were taken to introduce competition into British telecommunications industry. In particular, the Act empowered the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, as well as British Telecommunications, to license other operators to run public telecommunications systems. Additionally, a framework was established which enabled the Secretary of State to set standards with the British Standards Institution (BSI) for apparatus supplied to the public by third parties, and had the effect of requiring British Telecommunications to connect approved apparatus to its systems. The Secretary of State made use of these new powers and began the process of opening up the apparatus supply market, where a phased programme of liberalisation was started in 1981. In 1982, a licence was granted to Cable "> The BT brand and piper logo were introduced in 1991. The logo remained until 2003.
On 2 April 1991, the company started using a new trading name, BT, and branding.
In June 1994, BT and MCI Communication Corporation , the second largest carrier of long distance telecommunications services in the United States, launched Concert Communications Services , a $1 billion joint venture company. This alliance gave BT and MCI a global network for providing end-to-end connectivity for advanced business services. Concert was the first company to provide a single-source broad portfolio of global communications services for multinational customers. On 3 November 1996, BT and MCI announced they had entered into a merger agreement to create a global telecommunications company called Concert plc, to be incorporated in GB, with headquarters in both London and Washington, D.C. As part of the alliance BT acquired a 20% holding in MCI. Nevertheless, following US carrier WorldCom 's rival bid for MCI on 1 October 1997, BT ultimately decided in November, to sell its stake in MCI to WorldCom for $7 billion. The deal with WorldCom resulted in a profit of more than $2 billion on BT's original investment in MCI, with an additional $465 million severance fee for the break-up of the proposed merger.
In December 2000, following modifications to BT's licence in April 2000, BT offered local loop unbundling (LLU) to other telecommunications operators, enabling them to use BT's copper local loops (the connection between the customer's premises and the exchange) to connect directly with their customers.
2001 TO 2006
Following the dot com crash , the group undertook a board restructuring and asset sale to address its large debts. In May 2001, BT announced a three-for-ten rights issue to raise £5.9 billion—still GB's largest ever rights issue—and the sale of Yell Group , the international directories and associated e-commerce business, for £2.14 billion. Both activities were completed in June 2001. The group also sold its property portfolio to Telereal , a property company.
BT renamed its BT Wireless division as O2 in September 2001, and confirmed it planned to demerge the unit in November that year. Shareholders approved the demerger at an extraordinary general meeting held in Birmingham in October 2001, with 4.297 billion British Telecommunications shares voted in favour, and 0.67 million voted against. BT Wireless demerged in 2001, and was relaunched on 18 June 2002 as O2. O2 was acquired by Telefónica in 2005.
In April 2003, BT unveiled its current corporate identity, known as the "Connected World", and brand values. Reflecting the aspirations of a technologically innovative future, the connected world is designed to embody BT's five corporate values: trustworthy, helpful, inspiring, straightforward, heart. The globe device part of the logo was originally designed by the Wolff Olins brand consultancy for BT's Concert joint venture with AT while at the same time BT confirmed that it had been approached by EE to also buy that company. BT confirmed on 15 December 2014 that it had entered into exclusive talks to buy EE. BT confirmed on 5 February 2015 that it had agreed to buy EE for £12.5 billion, subject to regulatory approval. The deal will combine BT's 10 million retail customers and EE's 24.5 million direct mobile subscribers. Deutsche Telekom will own 12% of BT, while Orange S.A. will own 4%.
In March 2015, launched a 4G service as BT Mobile BT Group CEO Gavin Patterson announced that BT plans to migrate all of its customers onto the IP network by 2025, switching off the company's ISDN network.
On 15 January 2016, BT received final unconditional approval by the Competition and Markets Authority to acquire EE . The deal was officially completed on 29 January 2016 with Deutsche Telekom now owning 12% of BT, while Orange S.A. own 4%.
On 1 February 2016, BT announced a new organisational structure that will take effect from April 2016 following the successful acquisition of EE . The EE brand, network and high street stores will be retained and will become a second consumer division, operating alongside BT Consumer . It will serve customers with mobile services, broadband and TV and will continue to deliver the Emergency Services Network contract which was awarded to EE in late 2015. There will be a new BT Business and Public Sector division that will have around £5bn of revenues and will serve small and large businesses as well as the public sector in the UK and Ireland . It will comprise the existing BT Business division along with EE's business division and those parts of BT Global Services that are UK focused. There will also be another new division; BT Wholesale and Ventures that will comprise the existing BT Wholesale division along with EE's MVNO business as well as some specialist businesses such as Fleet, Payphones and Directories. Gerry McQuade, currently Chief Sales and Marketing Officer, Business at EE, will be its CEO.
On 11 February 2016, BT announced they will be launching a new free service later in 2016 to divert nuisance calls within its network before they ring on customers' phones and will use huge computing power to root out 25 million unwanted calls a week. BT customers can currently purchase special phones that will allow them to block nuisance calls or pay to stop calls getting through. However, the new service will identify some of the 5 billion unwanted calls made each year before they arrive, which will then be diverted automatically to a junk voicemail box. BT customers will also be able to add numbers they don't want to hear from to the blacklist, for free.
On 8 June 2017, BT appointed KPMG as its new auditor to replace PwC in the wake of the fraud scandal in Italy that triggered a major profit warning earlier this year. In last April, KPMG fired six US employees over a scandal that calls into question efforts to ensure that public company accounts are being properly scrutinised.
On 8 July 2017, The Daily Telegraph reported that BT "has called in consultants from McKinsey to conduct a review of its businesses in the hope of saving hundreds of millions of pounds per year. The work, dubbed 'Project Novator', is understood to include a potential merger of BT’s struggling global services corporate networking and IT unit with its business and public sector division". The word Novator is quite widely used so it does not necessarily imply a connection with any company using that name.
BT Group is a holding company ; the majority of its businesses and assets are held by its wholly owned subsidiary British Telecommunications plc. BT's businesses are operated under special government regulation by the British telecoms regulator Ofcom (formerly Oftel ). BT has been found to have significant market power in some markets following market reviews by Ofcom. In these markets, BT is required to comply with additional obligations such as meeting reasonable requests to supply services and not to discriminate.
BT runs the telephone exchanges , trunk network and local loop connections for the vast majority of British fixed-line telephones. Currently BT is responsible for approximately 28 million telephone lines in GB. Apart from KCOM Group , which serves Kingston upon Hull, BT is the only UK telecoms operator to have a _Universal Service Obligation ,_ (USO) which means it must provide a fixed telephone line to any address in the UK. It is also obliged to provide public call boxes.
As well as continuing to provide service in those traditional areas in which BT has an obligation to provide services or is closely regulated, BT has expanded into more profitable products and services where there is less regulation. These are principally, broadband internet service and bespoke solutions in telecommunications and information technology.
BT Group's world headquarters and registered office is the BT Centre, a 10-storey office building at 81 Newgate Street in the City of London , opposite St. Paul\'s tube station .
BT Group is organised into the following divisions:
* Customer facing:
* BT Consumer – provides retail telecoms services to consumers including:
* EE - provides mobile and fixed communications services to consumers, businesses, government and the wholesale market * BT Wholesale – operates BT's networks * Openreach – fenced-off wholesale division, responsible for the "last mile" of BT's access network in GB and tasked with ensuring that rival operators have equality of access to BT's local network
* Internal service unit:
* BT Technology, Service & Operations – responsible for the innovation, design, test, build and running of BT’s global networks and systems
* BT Research – part of the BT Technology, Service an actuarial valuation valued the deficit of the scheme at £9.043 billion as of 31 December 2008. Following a change in the regulations governing inflation index linking, the deficit was estimated at £5.2 billion in November 2010.
BT sponsored Scotland's domestic rugby union championship and cup competitions between 1999 and 2006.
On 29 July 2013, it was announced that BT had partnered up with Scottish Rugby Union in a four-year sponsorship deal with its two professional clubs; Edinburgh Rugby and Glasgow Warriors that will commence from August 2013. The deal involves BT Sport becoming the new shirt sponsor for both clubs as well as being promoted with BT Group at their respective home grounds; Scotstoun Stadium and Murrayfield Stadium .
On 28 May 2014, it was announced that BT agreed a £20 million four-year sponsorship deal with Scottish Rugby Union which includes BT securing the naming rights for Murrayfield Stadium which becomes BT Murrayfield Stadium, become sponsor of the Scotland sevens team, become principal and exclusive sponsor of Scotland's domestic league and cup competitions from next season, taking over the role from The Royal Bank of Scotland Group (RBS), and become sponsor of Scottish Rugby's four new academies that aims to drive forward standards for young players who have aspirations to play professionally.
In April 2015, it was announced that as part of BT's current £20 million four-year sponsorship deal with Scottish Rugby Union that was announced in May 2014, BT has completed its sponsorship portfolio following an additional investment of £3.6 million for the 3 years remaining of its sponsorship deal, to become the new shirt sponsor for the Scotland national teams.
BT is the founding and principal partner of the Wayne Rooney Foundation, which was established to improve the lives of children and young people. The Foundation will run events "to raise vital funds to support the work of key organisations dedicated to supporting disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people". These organisations are four chosen charities which are, Manchester United Foundation, NSPCC , Claire House Children\'s Hospice and Alder Hey Children\'s Hospital . The first of these events was Wayne’s testimonial match in August 2016 between Manchester United F.C. and Everton F.C. which raised £1.2 million. The match was screened live through BT Sport with BT MyDonate being the official fundraising platform for the testimonial, with both online and text options for donations promoted during the match.
In 2004 the BT Group signed the world's largest renewable energy deal with npower and British Gas , and now all of their exchanges, satellite networks and offices are powered by renewable energy. BT is a member of the Corporate Leaders Group on Climate Change. They signed a letter urging the government to do more to tackle this problem. Janet Blake, head of global corporate social responsibility at BT, says that she would like to see incentives that find ways of rewarding those companies that focus on climate change by making investments in green business models.
BT has made it clear that it has an ambitious plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Its strategy includes steps to reduce the company's carbon footprint as well as those of customers, suppliers and employees. BT has actually pledged to achieve an 80% reduction by the year 2016, which will require further efficiency improvements.
ABUSE OF MONOPOLY POSITION AND UNDERINVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE
BT have been accused of abusing their control of Openreach, underinvesting in the UK's broadband infrastructure, charging high prices and providing poor customer service. Openreach's services receive hundreds of thousands of complaints on an annual basis.
UNDERMINING OF NATIONAL SECURITY
_ This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2017)_
Between 2010 and 2012 the UK intelligence community initiated an investigation aimed at Huawei , the foreign supplier of BT's new fibre infrastructure with increasing urgency after the USA, Canada and Australia prevented the company from operating in their countries. Although BT had notified the UK government in 2003 of Huawei's interest in their £10b network upgrade contract, they did not raise the security implications as BT failed to explain that the Chinese company would have unfettered access to critical infrastructure. On 16 December 2012 David Cameron was supplied with an in-depth report indicating that the intelligence services had very grave doubts regarding Huawei, and that the UK governmental, military, business community and private citizen's privacy may be under serious threat. Subsequently, BT's Infinity program and other projects are now under urgent review.
On 7 June 2013, British lawmakers concluded that BT should never have allowed the Chinese company access to the UK's critical communications network without ministerial oversight, saying they were 'deeply shocked' that BT did not inform government that they were allowing Huawei and ZTE, both foreign entities with ties to the Chinese military, unfettered access to critical national systems. Furthermore, ministers discovered that the agency with the responsibility to ensure Chinese equipment and code was threat-free was entirely staffed by Huawei employees. Subsequently, parliamentarians confirmed that in case of an attack on the UK there was nothing at this point that could be done to stop Chinese infiltration attacking critical national infrastructure.
ZTE , another Chinese company that supplies extensive network equipment and subscriber hardware to BT Infinity, was also under scrutiny by parliament's intelligence and security committee according to a report in the Guardian on Wednesday 10 October 2012 after the US, Canada, Australia and the European Union declared the company a security risk to its citizens.
WORLD WIDE WEB HYPERLINK PATENT
In 2001, BT discovered it owned a patent (U.S. Patent 4,873,662 ) which it believed gave it patent rights on the use of hyperlink technology on the World Wide Web . The corresponding UK patent had already expired, but the US patent was valid until 2006. On 11 February 2002, BT began a court case relating to its claims in a US federal court against the Internet service provider Prodigy Communications Corporation . In the case _British Telecommunications plc v. Prodigy _, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York ruled on 22 August 2002 that the BT patent was not applicable to web technology and granted Prodigy's request for summary judgment of non-infringement.
In early 2008 it was announced that BT had entered into a contract (along with Virgin Media and Talk Talk ) with the spyware company Phorm (responsible under their 121Media guise for the Apropos rootkit ) to intercept and analyse their users' click-stream data and sell the anonymised aggregate information as part of Phorm's OIX advertising service. The practice, known as "behavioural targeting " and condemned by critics as "data pimping", came under intense fire from various internet communities and other interested-parties who believe that the interception of data without the consent of users and web site owners is illegal under UK law (RIPA). At a more fundamental level, many have argued that the ISPs and Phorm have no right to sell a commodity (a user's data, and the copyright content of web sites) to which they have no claim of ownership. In response to questions about Phorm and the interception of data by the Webwise system Sir Tim Berners-Lee , credited as the creator of the World Wide Web protocol, indicated his disapproval of the concept and is quoted as saying of his data and web history:
It's mine – you can't have it. If you want to use it for something, then you have to negotiate with me. I have to agree, I have to understand what I'm getting in return. I myself feel that it is very important that my ISP supplies internet to my house like the water company supplies water to my house. It supplies connectivity with no strings attached. My ISP doesn't control which websites I go to, it doesn't monitor which websites I go to. — Sir Tim Berners-Lee, 2008
ALLEGED COMPLICITY WITH DRONE STRIKES IN YEMEN AND SOMALIA
In September 2012, BT entered into a $23 million deal with the US military to provide a key communications cable connecting RAF Croughton , a US military base on UK soil, with Camp Lemonnier , a large US base in Djibouti. Camp Lemonnier is used as a base for American drone attacks in Yemen and Somalia, and has been described by _The Economist_ as "the most important base for drone operations outside the war zone of Afghanistan."
Human rights groups including Reprieve and Amnesty International have criticised the use of armed drones outside declared war zones. Evidence produced by The Bureau of Investigative Journalism and Stanford University 's International Human Rights border:solid #aaa 1px">
* London portal * Companies portal
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "BT Annual Report 2017". BT Group plc. Retrieved 16 May 2017. * ^ "LinkedIn". * ^ "Group businesses". BT Group plc. Retrieved 25 October 2015. * ^ "Our company". _ BT Group plc_. Retrieved 4 September 2016. * ^ "BT Global Services". BT Group plc. Archived from the original on 10 August 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010. * ^ "BT Consumer". BT Group. Retrieved 20 December 2014. * ^ "BT to buy mobile firm EE for £12.5bn". _bbc.co.uk_. BBC. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015. * ^ "BT takeover of EE gets final Competition and Markets Authority clearance". _ BBC News_. Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ " BT Group PLC Completion of the acquisition of EE Limited". 4-traders. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016. * ^ Williams, Christopher (4 January 2016). "EE chief Olaf Swantee exits as BT takeover approaches". _The Telegraph_. Retrieved 11 January 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ "The historical development of BT". BT Group. 2010. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Linge, Prof. Nigel (4 February 2013). "First helped put us in touch 135 years ago". _ Manchester Evening News_. MEN Media. p. 9. * ^ "1912to1968". * ^ History of Mercury Communications fundinguniverse.com * ^ Tory conference bombed _Express and Sta_r. Retrieved 24 March 2012 * ^ Privatisation shares – how have they fared? _The Daily Telegraph_ (London), 18 November 2011 * ^ "BT gobbles up Cellnet". BBC News. 27 July 1999. Retrieved 1 May 2010. * ^ "Competition and choice in telecommunications: The Duopoly review consultative document". _Telecommunications Policy_. 15: 10–14. doi :10.1016/0308-5961(91)90039-E . Retrieved 15 March 2015. * ^ " Local loop unbundling". * ^ "Yell History – 2000+". Yell.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2008. * ^ "BT hires demerger specialist". BBC News. 13 June 2001. Retrieved 3 December 2010. * ^ "BT unveils new mobile brand". BBC News. 3 September 2001. Retrieved 20 December 2014. * ^ "BT approves mobiles spin-off". BBC News. 23 October 2001. Retrieved 1 April 2010. * ^ " Telefónica says it has no plans for a UK float of O2". City AM. * ^ _A_ _B_ "BT calls up a new logo in attempt to escape from \'arrogant\' image". _The Independent_. UK. 8 April 2003. Retrieved 25 January 2012. * ^ "ITU: BT launches consulting business". Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. * ^ "DoH extends BT N3 deal". _The Guardian_. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2012. * ^ "BT goes home". Findarticles.com. 1 December 2004. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "BT buys on-line retailer Dabs.com". BBC News. 28 April 2006. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Thomson ships BT home hub". Lightreading.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "BT transfers first customer lines to 21CN network". Highbeam.com. 1 December 2006. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ Thurston, Richard (13 November 2008). "Bt buys PlusNet for CRM system". News.zdnet.co.uk. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "BT buys former Lucent division INS". Computerwire.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Datamonitor ComputerWire – BT Appoints New Chairman to Replace Bland". Computerwire.com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "BT buys Comsat". Telephonyonline.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
* ^ Meyer, David (3 October 2007). "BT buys Lynx Technology". Zdnet.co.uk. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "BT buys Wire One". Archived from the original on 9 July 2008. * ^ Wray, Richard (10 July 2008). "BT buys into social networking directories with £20m for Ufindus". _The Guardian_. London. * ^ "BT buys Ribbit for $105m". Gigaom.com. 29 July 2008. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "BT aimed to get true fibre to 25% of UK. The actual figure? 0.7%". _Alphr_. Retrieved 13 October 2015. * ^ "BT Fibre on Demand: What is it and what will it cost?". _Recombu_. Retrieved 13 October 2015. * ^ " BT Wholesale Suspend New Orders for 330Mbps FTTP on Demand Broadband - ISPreview UK". _www.ispreview.co.uk_. Retrieved 13 October 2015. * ^ "Exclusive: Lynx and Basilica in BT rebrand". * ^ BT to shed a further 15,000 job losses BBC News, 14 May 2009 * ^ "BT offers holidays for pay cuts". BBC News. 4 July 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ Smithers, Rebecca (6 April 2011). "Charitable giving: BT launches website where 100% of donations go to charity". _The Guardian_. UK. Retrieved 14 February 2016. * ^ Warman, Matt (6 April 2011). "BT launches MyDonate JustGiving donations rival". _The Telegraph_. Retrieved 14 February 2016. * ^ Evans, Tara (6 April 2011). "BT launches charity giving service". _This is Money_. Retrieved 14 February 2016. * ^ "800 MHz & 2.6 GHz Combined Award". * ^ "BT launches sports TV channels in battle with Sky". BBC News. 1 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013. * ^ " Premier League rights sold to BT and BSkyB for £3bn". BBC News. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2013. * ^ "BT buys ESPN\'S UK and Ireland TV channels". _The Guardian_. 25 February 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013. * ^ Champions League: BT Sport wins £897m football rights deal. BBC Sport (9 November 2013). Retrieved on 9 December 2013. * ^ "BT has created a new central business services (CBS) organization to deliver superior customer service and maximize efficiency and effectiveness.". * ^ Simon Goodley. "BT in talks with Telefónica to buy O2". _the Guardian_. * ^ "BT in talks to buy EE for £12.5bn". _ BBC News_. 15 December 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2014. * ^ "BT to buy mobile firm EE for £12.5bn". _bbc.co.uk_. BBC. Retrieved 5 February 2015. * ^ Lunden, Ingrid. "BT Confirms New BT Mobile 4G Service on EE\'s Network". * ^ "BT plans to switch off ISDN network by 2025". eCall. 27 June 2015. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015. * ^ "BT takeover of EE gets final Competition and Markets Authority clearance". _ BBC News_. Retrieved 15 January 2016. * ^ " BT Group PLC Completion of the acquisition of EE Limited". _4-traders_. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016. * ^ "BT announces new structure". _BT News_. BT Group PLC. 1 February 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016. * ^ "BT reports a 24% jump in quarterly profits amid revamp". _BBC News_. 1 February 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016. * ^ Palmer, Kate (1 February 2016). "BT unveils management overhaul as it reports \'seven-year high\' in revenue growth". _The Daily Telegraph_. Retrieved 1 February 2016. * ^ Gompertz, Simon (11 February 2016). "BT to divert nuisance calls for free". _ BBC News_. Retrieved 12 February 2016. * ^ Christopher, Williams (8 June 2017). "BT appoints KPMG as auditor as PwC is ousted after 33 years in wake of Italian scandal". _The Telegraph_. Retrieved 10 June 2017. * ^ Financial Times , " KPMG scandal highlights problem of auditing's revolving door", 2017/04/13 * ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2017/07/08/bt-seeks-stem-slump-overhaul/ * ^ _A_ _B_ "Group businesses". BT Group plc. Retrieved 20 December 2014. * ^ "Group businesses". BT Group plc. Retrieved 7 November 2014. * ^ "BT Pension scheme Report and Accounts". Archived from the original on 23 October 2011. * ^ "BT Pension Scheme Valuation 2008". Archived from the original on 10 September 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011. * ^ "BT pension deficit falls £2.9bn on CPI inflation link change". _Yahoo News_. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011. * ^ Reid, Alasdair (28 May 2014). "Scottish rugby\'s home renamed BT Murrayfield Stadium in £20m sponsorship deal with broadcasting giant". _The TDaily elegraph_. Retrieved 6 February 2016. * ^ "Scottish Rugby secures historic sports sponsorship with BT". _Scottish Rugby Union_. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2016. * ^ "Scottish Rugby confirms deal for BT Murrayfield Stadium". _BBC Sport_. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2016. * ^ Rumsby, Ben (29 July 2013). " BT Sport signs Glasgow and Edinburgh rugby shirt sponsorship deal circumventing Sky advertising ban". _The Daily Telegraph_. Retrieved 6 February 2016. * ^ "Scottish Rugby announces partnership with BT Sport". _Scottish Rugby Union_. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2016. * ^ " BT Sport announces partnership with Scottish Rugby". _BT Group PLC_. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2016. * ^ "BT completes Scottish Rugby portfolio as Scotland\'s front of shirt sponsor". Scottish Rugby. 14 April 2015. Retrieved 19 March 2016. * ^ "MyDonate supports Wayne Rooney charity". _BT Today_. BT Group plc. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017. * ^ " Wayne Rooney Foundation". _Wayne Rooney_. Retrieved 17 May 2017. * ^ Herbert, Ian (20 January 2017). " Wayne Rooney reveals his testimonial made £1.2million but hopes to quadruple that amount to aid four causes". _The Independent_. Retrieved 17 May 2017. * ^ Slavin, Harry (20 January 2017). " Wayne Rooney testimonial raises over £1million after Manchester United\'s clash with Everton in the summer". _Mail Online_. Retrieved 17 May 2017. * ^ "Home - Incisive Media". * ^ "Climate change". BT Group. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Climate change – BT\'s Vision and Strategy". BT Group. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ " Ofcom seeks views on splitting BT and Openreach". _ BBC News_. Retrieved 13 October 2015. * ^ "UPDATE Sky Demand Ofcom Open UK Competition Inquiry into BT Openreach - ISPreview UK". _www.ispreview.co.uk_. Retrieved 13 October 2015. * ^ "Broadband firms go to war with BT and Ofcom over competition". _Telegraph.co.uk_. Retrieved 13 October 2015. * ^ Tims, Anna. "BT\'s Openreach slammed for phone and broadband connection delays". _the Guardian_. Retrieved 13 October 2015. * ^ Charles Arthur (8 October 2012). "China\'s Huawei and ZTE pose national security threat, says US committee". _The Guardian_. Retrieved 4 July 2013. * ^ "Government admits slip-ups in BT- Huawei deal". * ^ Cusick, James (16 December 2012). "China telecoms giant could be cyber-security risk to Britain". _The Independent_. * ^ Sandle, Paul (7 June 2013). "Parliamentarians say Huawei-BT deal exposes flawed security controls Reuters". Uk.reuters.com. Retrieved 4 July 2013. * ^ Garside, Juliette; correspondent, telecoms (2012-10-10). "Huawei\'s relationship with BT under investigation by MPs". _The Guardian_. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 2017-06-09. * ^ Shead, Sam (13 December 2012). " Huawei and ZTE could pose security and business threat to Europe, says EU report". ZDNet. Retrieved 4 July 2013. * ^ "BT\'s "Hyperlinking" Patent Litigation Fails". Nswscl.org.au. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ F-Secure Spyware Information Pages: Apropos Archived 10 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "F-Secure Spyware Information Pages: PeopleOnPage". F-secure.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ Williams, Chris (25 February 2008). "ISP data deal with former \'spyware\' boss triggers privacy fears". _The Register_. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ Williams, Chris (29 February 2008). "How Phorm plans to tap your internet connection". _The Register_. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Web users angry at ISPs\' spyware tie-up". _Evening Standard_. London. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ Williams, Chris (4 March 2008). "Data pimping: surveillance expert raises illegal wiretap worries". _The Register_. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ Williams, Chris (17 March 2008). "Net think thank: Phorm is illegal". _The Register_. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "The Phorm "Webwise" System – a Legal Analysis" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ Cellan-Jones, Rory (17 March 2008). "Web creator rejects net tracking". BBC News. Retrieved 18 April 2011. * ^ "Contract Award Notice". Procurement Directorate, Defense Information Systems Agency. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2014. * ^ "Death From Afar". _The Economist_. 3 November 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2014. * ^ "Pakistan Drone Statistics Visualised". The Bureau of Investigative Journalism. 2 July 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2014. * ^ "Living Under Drones". Stanford University. Archived from the original on 3 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014. * ^ "Complaint to UK National Contact Point" (PDF). Reprieve. 15 July 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2014. * ^ "Minister in row over BT\'s link to US drones\' war". _The Independent_. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
* Baldwin, F.G.C. _The History of the Telephone in the United Kingdom_ (1925) * Foreman-Peck, J. "The development and diffusion of telephone technology in Britain, 1900–1940," _Transactions of the Newcomen Society,_ (1991–92). 63, pp165–180. * Foreman-Peck, J., & Millward, R. _Public and private ownership of British industry 1820–1990_ (1994). * Hazlewood, A. "The origins of the state telephone service in Britain" _Oxford Economic Papers_ (1953). 5:13–25. in JSTOR * Holcombe, A. N. (1906). "The Telephone in Great Britain". _Quarterly Journal of Economics_. 21 (1): 96–135.