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BRICS
BRICS
is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China
China
and South Africa. Originally the first four were grouped as "BRIC" (or "the BRICs"), before the induction of South Africa
South Africa
in 2010.[4] The BRICS
BRICS
members are all leading developing or newly industrialized countries, but they are distinguished by their large, sometimes fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional affairs; all are members.[5] Since 2009, the BRICS
BRICS
nations have met annually at formal summits. China hosted the 9th BRICS summit
9th BRICS summit
in Xiamen
Xiamen
on September 3, 4 and 5, 2017.[6] The term does not include countries such as South Korea, Mexico
Mexico
and Turkey
Turkey
for which other acronyms and group associations were later created. In 2015, the five BRICS
BRICS
countries represent over 3.6 billion people, or about 41% of the world population; all five members are in the top 25 of the world by population, and four are in the top 10. The five nations have a combined nominal GDP of US$16.6 trillion, equivalent to approximately 22% of the gross world product, combined GDP (PPP) of around US$37 trillion and an estimated US$4 trillion in combined foreign reserves.[7][8] Overall the BRICS
BRICS
are forecasted to expand 4.6% in 2016, from an estimated growth of 3.9% in 2015. The World Bank expects BRICS
BRICS
growth to pick up to 5.3% in 2017.[9] The BRICS
BRICS
have received both praise and criticism from numerous commentators.[10][11][12] Bilateral relations among BRICS
BRICS
nations have mainly been conducted on the basis of non-interference, equality, and mutual benefit.[13]

Contents

1 History

1.1 First BRIC
BRIC
summit 1.2 Entry of South Africa 1.3 Developments

2 Geography 3 Summits 4 Member countries

4.1 Potential additional members

5 Financial structure

5.1 New Development Bank 5.2 BRICS
BRICS
CRA 5.3 BRICS
BRICS
payment system

6 Reception 7 Current leaders of member states 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] The term "BRIC" was coined in 2001 by then-chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management, Jim O'Neill, in his publication Building Better Global Economic BRICs.[14] The foreign ministers of the initial four BRIC
BRIC
states (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) met in New York City
New York City
in September 2006 at the margins of the General Debate of the UN General Assembly, beginning a series of high-level meetings.[15] A full-scale diplomatic meeting was held in Yekaterinburg, Russia, on 16 June 2009.[16] First BRIC
BRIC
summit[edit] The BRIC
BRIC
grouping's first formal summit, also held in Yekaterinburg, commenced on 16 June 2009,[17] with Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the respective leaders of Brazil, Russia, India
India
and China, all attending.[18] The summit's focus was on means of improving the global economic situation and reforming financial institutions, and discussed how the four countries could better co-operate in the future.[17][18] There was further discussion of ways that developing countries, such as 3/5 of the BRIC
BRIC
members, could become more involved in global affairs.[18] In the aftermath of the Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
summit, the BRIC
BRIC
nations announced the need for a new global reserve currency, which would have to be "diverse, stable and predictable".[19] Although the statement that was released did not directly criticise the perceived "dominance" of the US dollar – something that Russia
Russia
had criticised in the past – it did spark a fall in the value of the dollar against other major currencies.[20] Entry of South Africa[edit] In 2010, South Africa
South Africa
began efforts to join the BRIC
BRIC
grouping, and the process for its formal admission began in August of that year.[21] South Africa
South Africa
officially became a member nation on 24 December 2010, after being formally invited by the BRIC
BRIC
countries to join the group.[21] The group was renamed BRICS
BRICS
– with the "S" standing for South Africa
South Africa
– to reflect the group's expanded membership.[22] In April 2011, the President of South Africa, Jacob Zuma, attended the 2011 BRICS summit
2011 BRICS summit
in Sanya, China, as a full member.[23][24][25] Developments[edit]

The BRICS
BRICS
leaders in 2016. Left to right: Temer, Modi, Xi, Putin and Zuma.

The BRICS
BRICS
Forum, an independent international organisation encouraging commercial, political and cultural cooperation between the BRICS nations, was formed in 2011.[26] In June 2012, the BRICS
BRICS
nations pledged $75 billion to boost the lending power of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, this loan was conditional on IMF
IMF
voting reforms.[27] In late March 2013, during the fifth BRICS
BRICS
summit in Durban, South Africa, the member countries agreed to create a global financial institution which they intended to rival the western-dominated IMF
IMF
and World Bank.[28] After the summit, the BRICS stated that they planned to finalise the arrangements for this New Development Bank by 2014.[29] However, disputes relating to burden sharing and location slowed down the agreements. At the BRICS
BRICS
leaders meeting in St Petersburg
St Petersburg
in September 2013, China committed $41 billion towards the pool; Brazil, India
India
and Russia
Russia
$18 billion each; and South Africa
South Africa
$5 billion. China, holder of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves and who is to contribute the bulk of the currency pool, wants a greater managing role, said one BRICS
BRICS
official. China
China
also wants to be the location of the reserve. " Brazil
Brazil
and India
India
want the initial capital to be shared equally. We know that China
China
wants more," said a Brazilian official. "However, we are still negotiating, there are no tensions arising yet."[30] On 11 October 2013, Russia's Finance Minister Anton Siluanov
Anton Siluanov
said that a decision on creating a $100 billion fund designated to steady currency markets would be taken in early 2014. The Brazilian finance minister, Guido Mantega
Guido Mantega
stated that the fund would be created by March 2014.[31] However, by April 2014, the currency reserve pool and development bank had yet to be set up, and the date was rescheduled to 2015.[32] One driver for the BRICS
BRICS
development bank is that the existing institutions primarily benefit extra- BRICS
BRICS
corporations, and the political significance is notable because it allows BRICS
BRICS
member states "to promote their interests abroad... and can highlight the strengthening positions of countries whose opinion is frequently ignored by their developed American and European colleagues." In March 2014, at a meeting on the margins of the Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague, the BRICS
BRICS
Foreign Ministers issued a communique that "noted with concern, the recent media statement on the forthcoming G20
G20
Summit to be held in Brisbane
Brisbane
in November 2014. The custodianship of the G20
G20
belongs to all Member States equally and no one Member State can unilaterally determine its nature and character." In light of the tensions surrounding the 2014 Crimean crisis, the Ministers remarked that "The escalation of hostile language, sanctions and counter-sanctions, and force does not contribute to a sustainable and peaceful solution, according to international law, including the principles and purposes of the United Nations
United Nations
Charter."[33] This was in response to the statement of Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop, who had said earlier that Russian President Vladimir Putin might be barred from attending the G20
G20
Summit in Brisbane.[34] In July 2014, the Governor of the Russian Central Bank, Elvira Nabiullina, claimed that the " BRICS
BRICS
partners the establishment of a system of multilateral swaps that will allow to transfer resources to one or another country, if needed" in an article which concluded that "If the current trend continues, soon the dollar will be abandoned by most of the significant global economies and it will be kicked out of the global trade finance."[35] Over the weekend of 13 July 2014, when the final game of the FIFA World Cup was held, and in advance of the BRICS
BRICS
Fortaleza
Fortaleza
summit, Putin met fellow leader Dilma Rouseff
Dilma Rouseff
to discuss the BRICS
BRICS
development bank, and sign some other bilateral accords on air defence, gas and education. Rouseff said that the BRICS
BRICS
countries "are among the largest in the world and cannot content themselves in the middle of the 21st century with any kind of dependency."[36] The Fortaleza summit was followed by a BRICS
BRICS
meeting with the Union of South American Nations president's in Brasilia, where the development bank and the monetary fund were introduced.[37] The development bank will have capital of US$50 billion with each country contributing US$10 billion, while the monetary fund will have US$100 billion at its disposal.[37]

The BRICS
BRICS
leaders in 2017. Left to right: Temer, Putin, Xi, Zuma and Modi.

On 15 July, the first day of the BRICS
BRICS
6th summit in Fortaleza, Brazil, the group of emerging economies signed the long-anticipated document to create the US$100 billion New Development Bank
New Development Bank
(formerly known as the " BRICS
BRICS
Development Bank") and a reserve currency pool worth over another US$100 billion. Documents on cooperation between BRICS
BRICS
export credit agencies and an agreement of cooperation on innovation were also inked.[38] At the end of October 2014, Brazil
Brazil
trimmed down its US government holdings to US$261.7 billion; India, US$77.5 billion; China, US$1.25 trillion; South Africa, US$10.3 billion.[39] In March 2015, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
stated that India
India
and Indonesia
Indonesia
had escaped from the 'fragile five' (the five major emerging markets with the most fragile currencies) by instituting economic reforms. Previously, in August 2013, Morgan Stanley
Morgan Stanley
rated India
India
and Indonesia, together with Brazil, Turkey
Turkey
and South Africa, as the 'fragile five' due to their vulnerable currencies. But since then, India
India
and Indonesia
Indonesia
have reformed their economies, completing 85% and 65% of the necessary adjustments respectively, while Brazil
Brazil
had only achieved 15%, Turkey
Turkey
only 10%, and South Africa
South Africa
even less.[40] After the 2015 summit, the respective communications ministers, under a Russian proposal, had a first summit for their ministries in Moscow in October where the host minister, Nikolai Nikiforov, proposed an initiative to further tighten their information technology sectors and challenge the monopoly of the United States in the sector.[41] Since 2012, the BRICS
BRICS
group of countries have been planning an optical fibre submarine communications cable system to carry telecommunications between the BRICS
BRICS
countries, known as the BRICS Cable.[42] Part of the motivation for the project was the spying of the National Security Agency
National Security Agency
on all telecommunications that flowed across the US.[43][44] Geography[edit]

Iguazu Falls
Iguazu Falls
in Paraná, Brazil, is the largest waterfalls system in the world.

Mount Elbrus
Mount Elbrus
in Caucasus, is the highest point of Russia
Russia
and Europe.

The BRICS
BRICS
is an association formed by countries in four continents: Brazil
Brazil
in the Americas, Russia
Russia
in Europe, India
India
and China
China
in Asia
Asia
and South Africa
South Africa
in Africa. Its member states cover an area of over 39,000,000 square kilometers, which is approximately 27% of the world's land surface. Summits[edit]

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The grouping has held annual summits since 2009, with member countries taking turns to host. Prior to South Africa's admission, two BRIC summits were held, in 2009 and 2010. The first five-member BRICS summit was held in 2011. The most recent BRICS
BRICS
summit took place in Xiamen, China, from 3 to 5 September 2017.[45]

Sr. No. Date(s) Host country Host leader Location Notes

1st 16 June 2009  Russia Dmitry Medvedev Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
(Sevastianov's House)

2nd 15 April 2010  Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Brasília Guests: Jacob Zuma
Jacob Zuma
(President of South Africa) and Riyad al-Maliki (Foreign Minister of the Palestinian National Authority)

3rd 14 April 2011  China Hu Jintao Sanya
Sanya
(Sheraton Sanya
Sanya
Resort) First summit to include South Africa
South Africa
alongside the original BRIC countries.

4th 29 March 2012  India Manmohan Singh New Delhi
New Delhi
(Taj Mahal Hotel) The BRICS Cable
BRICS Cable
announced an optical fibre submarine communications cable system that carries telecommunications between the BRICS countries.

5th 26–27 March 2013  South Africa Jacob Zuma Durban
Durban
( Durban
Durban
ICC)

6th 14–17 July 2014  Brazil Dilma Rousseff Fortaleza
Fortaleza
(Centro de Eventos do Ceará)[46] Brasília BRICS
BRICS
New Development Bank
New Development Bank
and BRICS
BRICS
Contingent Reserve Arrangement agreements signed. Guest: Leaders of Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(UNASUR)[47][48]

7th 8–9 July 2015  Russia Vladimir Putin Ufa
Ufa
(Congress Hall)[49] Joint summit with SCO-EEU

8th 15–16 October 2016  India Narendra Modi Benaulim
Benaulim
(Taj Exotica) Joint summit with BIMSTEC

9th 3–5 September 2017  China Xi Jinping Xiamen
Xiamen
( Xiamen
Xiamen
International Conference Center) Joint summit with EMDCD

10th 3–5 September 2018 (expect)  South Africa Cyril Ramaphosa Johannesburg

11th TBD 2019  Brazil

12th TBD 2020  Russia

Chelyabinsk[50] Joint summit with SCO

Member countries[edit]

Country Population (2016)[3] Nom. GDP mil. USD (2017 est.)[51] PPP GDP bil. USD (2017 est.)[51] Nom. GDP per capita USD (2017 est.)[51] PPP GDP per capita USD (2017 est.)[51] GDP Growth (2017 est.)[52] Foreign Exchange Reserves (2015) HFCE (2013) Government spending Exports[53] Imports[54] Literacy rate[55] Life expectancy (years, avg.)[56][57] HDI (2015)

 Brazil 207,652,865 2,140.9 Bn 3,216.0 Bn 10,308 15,485 0.2% $362.744 bn $1,401,620 bn $846.6 bn $189.7 bn $143.9 bn 92.6% 75.0 0.754 (high)

 Russia 143,964,513 1,560.7 Bn 3,938.0 Bn 10,885 27,466 1.1% $358.500 bn $1,089,144 bn $414.0 bn $259.3 bn $165.1 bn 99.7% 70.5 0.804 (very high)

 India 1,324,171,354 2,454.4 Bn 9,489.3 Bn 1,850 7,153 7.2% $352.131 bn $1,106,702 bn $616.0 bn $271.6 bn $402.4 bn 72% 68.3 0.624 (medium)

 China 1,403,500,365 11,795.2 Bn 23,194.4 Bn 8,480 16,676 6.5% $3,899.285 bn $3,320,652 bn $2,031.0 bn $2,011.0 bn $1,437.0 bn 96.4% 76.1 0.738 (high)

 South Africa 56,015,473 317.5 Bn 761.9 Bn 5,588 13,409 1% $47.190 bn $221,990 bn $95.27 bn $83.1 bn $85.0 bn 94.3% 62.9 0.666 (medium)

Average 627,060,914 3,653.7 Bn 8,119.9 Bn 7,422 19,041 3,2% $1,003.970 bn $1,428,022 bn $800.574 bn $562.94 bn $446.68 bn 93% 70.56 0.711 (high)

[58] Potential additional members[edit] Afghanistan, Argentina, Lebanon, Indonesia, Mexico
Mexico
and Turkey
Turkey
have expressed strong interest in full membership of the BRICS, while Egypt, Iran, Nigeria, Sudan, Syria
Syria
and most recently Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Greece
Greece
have also expressed interest in joining BRICS.[59][60][61][62] Financial structure[edit] Currently, there are two components that make up the financial architecture of BRICS, namely, the New Development Bank
New Development Bank
(NDB) or sometimes referred to as the BRICS Development Bank
BRICS Development Bank
and the Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA). Both of these components were signed into treaty in 2014 and became active in 2015. New Development Bank[edit] Further information: New Development Bank

The New Development Bank
New Development Bank
(NDB) is based in Shanghai.

The New Development Bank
New Development Bank
(NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank,[63] is a multilateral development bank operated by the BRICS
BRICS
states. The bank's primary focus of lending will be infrastructure projects[64][65] with authorized lending of up to $34 billion annually.[65] South Africa
South Africa
will be the African Headquarters of the Bank named the " New Development Bank
New Development Bank
Africa
Africa
Regional Centre".[66] The bank will have starting capital of $50 billion, with capital increased to $100 billion over time.[67] Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa
South Africa
will initially contribute $10 billion each to bring the total to $50 billion.[66][67] BRICS
BRICS
CRA[edit] Further information: BRICS
BRICS
Contingent Reserve Arrangement

The New Development Bank
New Development Bank
(NDB) and Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) were signed into treaty at the 2014 BRICS
BRICS
summit in Brazil.

The BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) is a framework for providing protection against global liquidity pressures.[64][67][68] This includes currency issues where members' national currencies are being adversely affected by global financial pressures.[64][68] It is found that emerging economies that experienced rapid economic liberalization went through increased economic volatility, bringing uncertain macroeconomic environment.[69] The CRA is generally seen as a competitor to the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and along with the New Development Bank
New Development Bank
is viewed as an example of increasing South-South cooperation.[64] It was established in 2015 by the BRICS countries. The legal basis is formed by the Treaty for the Establishment of a BRICS
BRICS
Contingent Reserve Arrangement, signed at Fortaleza, Brazil
Brazil
on 15 July 2014. With its inaugural meetings of the BRICS
BRICS
CRA Governing Council and Standing Committee, held on September 4, 2015, in Ankara, Turkey[70] it entered into force upon ratification by all BRICS
BRICS
states, announced at the 7th BRICS summit
7th BRICS summit
in July 2015. BRICS
BRICS
payment system[edit] At the 2015 BRICS
BRICS
summit in Russia, ministers from BRICS
BRICS
nations, initiated consultations for a payment system that would be an alternative to the SWIFT system. Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergey Ryabkov stated in an interview, "The finance ministers and executives of the BRICS
BRICS
central banks are negotiating ... setting up payment systems and moving on to settlements in national currencies. SWIFT or not, in any case we’re talking about ... a transnational multilateral payment system that would provide greater independence, would create a definite guarantee for BRICS."[71] The Central Bank of Russia
Russia
(CBR) also started consultations with BRICS nations for a payment system that would be an alternative to the SWIFT system. The main benefits highlighted were backup and redundancy in case there were disruptions to the SWIFT system. The Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of the Russia, Olga Skorobogatova stated in an interview, "The only topic that may be of interest to all of us within BRICS
BRICS
is to consider and talk over the possibility of setting up a system that would apply to the BRICS
BRICS
countries, used as a backup."[72] China
China
has also initiated development of their own payment system called CIPS that would be an alternative to the SWIFT system. The Cross-Border Inter-Bank Payments System (CIPS) is a planned alternative payments system to SWIFT which would provide a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure, standardized and reliable environment.[73] Reception[edit] In 2012, Hu Jintao, the then President of China
China
and Paramount leader, described the BRICS
BRICS
countries as defenders and promoters of developing countries and a force for world peace.[10] Western analysts have highlighted potential divisions and weaknesses in the grouping, including significant economic instabilities,[74][75][76][77] disagreements between the members over UN Security Council reform,[78] and India
India
and China's disputes[79] over territorial issues.[11] In June 2015, Jim Rogers
Jim Rogers
said that he does not see any current alternative to the US dollar and that "The world needs something to compete with the US-dominated institutions, some of them - the World Bank and the IMF. So, if BRICS
BRICS
offer any new structures that can compete with these long-standing…institutions, it will be very good."[80] On 9 April 2013, Isobel Coleman from the Council on Foreign Relations, director of CFR's Civil Society, Markets and Democracy Program said that members of BRICS
BRICS
share a lack of consensus. They uphold drastically different political systems, from active democracy in Brazil
Brazil
to entrenched Oligarchy in Russia, and their economies are little integrated and are different in size by orders of magnitude. Also she states that the great difference in GDP, influences the reserves, for China
China
taking up of over 41% of the contribution, which in turn leads to bigger political say within the association.[81] Current leaders of member states[edit]

 Brazil Michel Temer, President (Head of State and Government)

 Russia Vladimir Putin, President (Head of State)

 India Narendra Modi, Prime Minister (Head of Government)

 China Xi Jinping, President (Head of State) (General Secretary as de facto leader since 15 November 2012)

 South Africa Cyril Ramaphosa, President (Head of State and Government)

See also[edit]

List of BRICS
BRICS
leaders List of business region acronyms List of country groupings List of multilateral free-trade agreements Emerging and growth-leading economies Group of Two List of potential superpowers Shanghai
Shanghai
Cooperation Organization

References[edit]

"Eighth Annual BRICS
BRICS
Summit in Goa: (Narendra Modi, Vladimir Putin, Michel Temer, and Xi Jinping)", Dainik Bhaskar, 15 October 2016.

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invites Greece
Greece
to join BRICS". IBtimes.  ^ "EurActiv Sections".  ^ " BRICS
BRICS
Bank to be headquartered in Shanghai, India
India
to hold presidency". Indiasnaps.com. 16 July 2014 ^ a b c d "What the new bank of BRICS
BRICS
is all about". The Washington Post. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.  ^ a b "New BRICS
BRICS
Bank a Building Block of Alternative World Order". The Huffington Post. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.  ^ a b " BRICS
BRICS
countries launch $100 billion developmental bank, currency pool". Russia
Russia
& India
India
Report. 16 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.  ^ a b c " BRICS
BRICS
Bank ready for launch - Russian Finance Minister". Russia
Russia
& India
India
Report. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.  ^ a b " BRICS
BRICS
currency fund to protect members from volatility - Russia's top banker". Russia
Russia
& India
India
Report. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2014.  ^ Biziwick, Mayamiko(20 August 2015)The rationale for and potential role of the BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement South African Journal of International Affairs. Retrieved 22 September 2016 ^ On the BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) Governing Council and Standing Committee inaugural meetings 4 September 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2016 ^ " BRICS
BRICS
starts examining SWIFT alternative". RT News. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2016.  ^ " Russia
Russia
offers to discuss BRICS
BRICS
prototype of SWIFT global system". Russia
Russia
& India
India
Report. 1 June 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2016.  ^ "Exclusive: China's international payments system ready, could launch by end-2015 - sources". Reuters. March 9, 2015. Retrieved 2015-03-10.  ^ "Broken BRICs: Why the Rest Stopped Rising". Foreign Affairs. November–December 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.  ^ " China
China
Loses Control of Its Frankenstein Economy". Bloomberg. 24 June 2013. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013.  ^ " Brazil
Brazil
Stocks In Bear Market As Economy Struggles". Investors.com. 26 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.  ^ "Emerging economies: The Great Deceleration". The Economist. 27 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.  ^ " BRICS
BRICS
Leaders Fail to Create Rival to World Bank". New York Times. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2013. ^ Global, IndraStra. "EXCERPT A Test of China– India
India
Cooperative Dynamics within the BRICS
BRICS
Framework". IndraStra. ISSN 2381-3652.  ^ " World Bank
World Bank
& IMF
IMF
'corroded' – Jim Rogers
Jim Rogers
to RT". Retrieved 11 September 2015.  ^ Coleman, Isobel. "Ten Questions for the New BRICS
BRICS
Bank". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 24 September 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Carmody, Pádraig (2013). The Rise of BRICS
BRICS
in Africa: The Geopolitics of South-South Relations. Zed Books. ISBN 9781780326047. Chun, Kwang (2013). The BRICs Superpower
Superpower
Challenge: Foreign and Security Policy Analysis. Ashgate Pub Co. ISBN 9781409468691.

External links[edit]

Official sites

Official BRICS
BRICS
Website - Joint Site of Ministries of Foreign Affairs of BRICS
BRICS
Member States The official Webpage of BRICS—in 2015 hosted by Russia BRICS
BRICS
Information Sharing and Exchanging Platform, Fudan University

Information and publications

BRICS
BRICS
Law Journal BRICS
BRICS
Online Dossier—German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA) Centre for Rising Powers, University of Cambridge The BRICS
BRICS
Post – News website with a focus on the BRICS. BRICS
BRICS
Information Centre. University of Toronto. Retrieved 29 June 2013.

Articles

"Appendix B :: International Organizations and Groups". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 24 January 2017. "What the BRICS
BRICS
Are Building". The Harvard Crimson. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014. Lopes, Gutemberg P., Jr. (13 May 2015). "The Sino-Brazilian Principles in a Latin American and BRICS
BRICS
Context: The Case for Comparative Public Budgeting Legal Research" (PDF). Wisconsin International Law Journal. 31 (1). Retrieved September 7, 2016.  "Goldman's O'Neill: Time to Move Beyond BRICs". MarketWatch.com. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013. "United States should learn from emerging powers such as India
India
and Brazil
Brazil
in the economic arena". Reuters. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013. " BRICS
BRICS
flame continues to shine". Russia
Russia
& India
India
Report. 29 February 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013. " BRICS
BRICS
– Multi-format Cooperation". Russian Business Council for Cooperation with India. 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013. Sidaway, James D. (2012). "Geographies of Development: New Maps, New Visions?" The Professional Geographer. 64:1, pp. 49–62. Retrieved 8 August 2013. Zhang Chunyan (13 April 2011). "BRIC(S) nations have become growth markets for the world economy and are no longer emerging markets". China
China
Daily. Retrieved 17 June 2013.

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