Era or Current
Era (CE) is a name for a calendar era widely
used around the world today. The era preceding CE is known as before
the Common or Current
Era (BCE). The Current
Era notation system can
be used as an alternative to the
Dionysian era system, which
distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, "[the] year of [the] Lord")
and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically
equivalent; thus "2018 CE" corresponds to "AD 2018" and "400 BCE"
corresponds to "400 BC".[a] Both notations refer to the
Gregorian calendar (and its predecessor, the Julian calendar). The
year-numbering system as used for the
Gregorian calendar is the most
widespread civil calendar system used in the world today.
The expression has been traced back to 1615, when it first appeared in
a book by
Johannes Kepler as the Latin usage vulgaris aerae, and
to 1635 in English as "Vulgar Era".[b] The term "Common Era" can be
found in English as early as 1708, and became more widely used in
the mid-19th century by Jewish academics. In the later 20th century,
the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific
publications, and more generally by authors and publishers wishing to
emphasize secularism or sensitivity to non-Christians, by not
Jesus as "Christ" and Dominus ("Lord") through
use of the abbreviation[c] "AD".
1.2 Vulgar Era
History of the use of the CE/BCE abbreviation
2 Contemporary usage
4 Conventions in style guides
5 Similar conventions in other languages
6 See also
9 External links
See also: Anno Domini
The year numbering system used with Common
Era notation was devised by
the Christian monk
Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the
Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory
of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number
years from an initial reference date ("epoch"), an event he referred
to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Dionysius labeled the
column of the table in which he introduced the new era as "Anni Domini
Nostri Jesu Christi".
Numbering years in this manner became more widespread in Europe with
its usage by
Bede in England in 731.
Bede also introduced the practice
of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of
Jesus, and the practice of not using a year zero.[d] In 1422,
Portugal became the last Western European country to switch to the
system begun by Dionysius.
Johannes Kepler first used "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the
Christian calendar from the regnal year typically used in national
The term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as
"Vulgar Era"[e] to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar from
those of the regnal year, the year of reign of a sovereign, typically
used in national law.
The first use of the Latin term vulgaris aerae[f] discovered so far
was in a 1615 book by Johannes Kepler. Kepler uses it again in a
1616 table of ephemerides, and again in 1617. A 1635 English
edition of that book has the title page in English – so far, the
earliest-found usage of Vulgar
Era in English. A 1701 book edited
by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra,
6". A 1716 book in English by Dean
Humphrey Prideaux says, "before
the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years
from his incarnation." A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era
of the nativity".
The first so-far-discovered usage of "Christian Era" is as the Latin
phrase aerae christianae on the title page of a 1584 theology
book. In 1649, the Latin phrase æræ Christianæ appeared in the
title of an English almanac. A 1652 ephemeris is the first
instance so-far-found for English usage of "Christian Era".
The English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708,
and in a 1715 book on astronomy is used interchangeably with
"Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era". A 1759 history book uses common
æra in a generic sense, to refer to the common era of the Jews.
The first-so-far found usage of the phrase "before the common era" is
in a 1770 work that also uses common era and vulgar era as synonyms,
in a translation of a book originally written in German. The 1797
edition of the
Encyclopædia Britannica uses the terms vulgar era and
common era synonymously. In 1835, in his book Living Oracles,
Alexander Campbell, wrote: "The vulgar Era, or Anno Domini; the fourth
Jesus Christ, the first of which was but eight days", and
also refers to the common era as a synonym for vulgar era with "the
fact that our Lord was born on the 4th year before the vulgar era,
called Anno Domini, thus making (for example) the 42d year from his
birth to correspond with the 38th of the common era..." The
Catholic Encyclopedia (1909) in at least one article reports all three
terms (Christian, Vulgar, Common Era) being commonly understood by the
early 20th century.
The phrase "common era", in lower case, also appeared in the 19th
century in a generic sense, not necessarily to refer to the Christian
Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a
civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews", "the common
era of the Mahometans", "common era of the world", "the common
era of the foundation of Rome". When it did refer to the Christian
Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g., "common era of the
Incarnation", "common era of the Nativity", or "common era of
the birth of Christ".
An adapted translation of Common
Era into pseudo-Latin as
(in Latin this means Common Mistress) was adopted in the 20th
century by some followers of Aleister Crowley, and thus the
abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for
History of the use of the CE/BCE abbreviation
Although Jews have their own Hebrew calendar, they often use the
As early as 1825, the abbreviation VE (for Vulgar Era) was in use
among Jews to denote years in the Western calendar.
Era notation has also been in use for Hebrew lessons for "more
than a century". Some Jewish academics were already using the CE
and BCE abbreviations by the mid-19th century, such as in 1856, when
Rabbi and historian
Morris Jacob Raphall used the abbreviation in his
History of The Jews.[g]
In the 200 years between 1808 and 2008 the ratio of usage of BCE to BC
has increased by about 20% and CE to AD by about 50%, primarily since
Some academics in the fields of theology, education and history have
adopted CE and BCE notation, although there is some disagreement.
More visible uses of Common
Era notation have recently surfaced at
major museums in the English-speaking world. Furthermore, several
style guides now prefer or mandate its usage. Even some style
guides for Christian churches prefer its use: for example, the
Episcopal Diocese Maryland Church News.
In the United States, the usage of the BCE/CE notation in textbooks is
growing. Some publications have moved over to using it
exclusively. For example, the 2007 World Almanac was the first edition
to switch over to the BCE/CE usage, ending a 138-year usage of the
traditional BC/AD dating notation. It is used by the
College Board in
its history tests, and by the Norton Anthology of English
Literature. Others have taken a different approach. The US-based
History Channel uses BCE/CE notation in articles on non-Christian
religious topics such as Jerusalem and Judaism.
England and Wales
England and Wales introduced the BCE/CE notation system into
the official school curriculum.
In June 2006, in the United States, the Kentucky State School Board
reversed its decision to use BCE and CE in the state's new Program of
Studies, leaving education of students about these concepts a matter
of discretion at the local level.
Also in 2011, media reports suggested that the BC/AD notation in
Australian school textbooks would be replaced by BCE/CE notation.
The story became national news and drew opposition from some
politicians and church leaders. Weeks after the story broke, the
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority denied the
rumour and stated that the BC/AD notation would remain, with CE and
BCE as an optional suggested learning activity.
The use of CE in Jewish scholarship was historically motivated by the
desire to avoid the implicit "Our Lord" in the abbreviation
AD. Although other aspects of dating systems are
based in Christian origins, AD is a direct reference to
Proponents of the Common
Era notation assert that the use of BCE/CE
shows sensitivity to those who use the same year numbering system as
the one that originated with and is currently used by Christians, but
who are not themselves Christian.
Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan, himself a
Protestant, has argued:
[T]he Christian calendar no longer belongs exclusively to Christians.
People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of
convenience. There is so much interaction between people of different
faiths and cultures – different civilizations, if you like – that
some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity. And so the Christian
Era has become the Common Era.
Adena K. Berkowitz, when arguing at the Supreme Court opted to use BCE
and CE because "Given the multicultural society that we live in, the
traditional Jewish designations – B.C.E. and C.E. – cast a wider
net of inclusion" 
Some oppose the Common
Era notation for explicitly religious reasons.
Because the BC/AD notation is based on the traditional year of the
conception or birth of Jesus, some Christians are offended by the
removal of the reference to him in era notation. The Southern
Baptist Convention supports retaining the BC/AD abbreviations.
There are also secular concerns. English language expert Kenneth G.
Wilson speculated in his style guide that "if we do end by casting
aside the AD/BC convention, almost certainly some will argue that we
ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system [that
is, the method of numbering years] itself, given its Christian
basis." The short lived French Republican Calendar, for example,
began with the first year of the
French First Republic
French First Republic and rejected
the seven-day week (with its connections to the Book of Genesis) for a
ten-day week. Priest and writer on interfaith issues Raimon Panikkar
contends that using the designation BCE/CE is a "return... to the most
bigoted Christian colonialism" towards non-Christians, who do not
necessarily consider the time period following the beginning of the
calendar to be a "common era".
According to a
Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times report, it was a student's use of
BCE/CE notation, inspired by its use within, which prompted
the teacher and politician
Andrew Schlafly to found Conservapedia, a
cultural conservative wiki. One of its "Conservapedia
Commandments" is that users must always apply BC/AD notation, since
its sponsors perceive BCE/CE notation to "deny the historical basis"
of the dating system.
Conventions in style guides
The abbreviation BCE, just as with BC, always follows the year number.
Unlike AD, which traditionally precedes the year number, CE always
follows the year number (if context requires that it be written at
all). Thus, the current year is written as 2018 in both notations
(or, if further clarity is needed, as 2018 CE, or as AD 2018), and the
Socrates died is represented as 399 BCE (the same year that
is represented by 399 BC in the BC/AD notation). The abbreviations are
sometimes written with small capital letters, or with periods (e.g.,
"B.C.E." or "C.E."). Style guides for academic texts on religion
generally prefer BCE/CE to BC/AD.
Similar conventions in other languages
In Germany, Jews in
Berlin seem to have already been using "(Before
the) Common Era" in the 18th century, while others like Moses
Mendelssohn opposed this usage as it would hinder the integration of
Jews into German society. The formulation seems to have persisted
among German Jews in the 19th century in forms like vor der
gewöhnlichen Zeitrechnung (before the common chronology).
In 1938 Nazi Germany, the use of this convention was also prescribed
by the National Socialist Teachers League.
However, it was soon discovered that many German Jews had been using
the convention ever since the 18th century, and they found it ironic
to see "Aryans following Jewish example nearly 200 years later".
In Spanish, Common forms used for "BC" are aC and a. de C. (for antes
de Cristo, "before Christ"), with variations in punctuation and
sometimes the use of J.C.(Jesucristo) instead of C. In scholarly
writing, you may use AEC as the equivalent of the English "BCE", antes
Era Común or Before the Common Era.
In Welsh, OC can be expanded to equivalents of both AD (Oed Crist) and
CE (Oes Cyffredin); for dates before the Common Era, CC
(traditionally, Cyn Crist) is used exclusively, as Cyn yr Oes
Cyffredin would abbreviate to a mild obscenity.
Ante Christum Natum
List of calendars
^ Two separate systems that also do not use religious titles, the
astronomical system and the
ISO 8601 standard, do use a year zero. The
year 1 BCE (identical to the year 1 BC) is represented as 0 in the
astronomical system, and as 0000 in ISO 8601. Presently, ISO 8601
dating requires use of the
Gregorian calendar for all dates, however,
whereas astronomical dating and Common
Era dating allow use of either
the Gregorian or Julian calendars.
^ The word "Vulgar" (from Latin vulgaris) originally meant ordinary,
common-place, or not regal or regnal. (See wiktionary:vulgar)
^ AD is shortened from anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi ("in the year
of Our Lord
^ As noted in
History of the zero, the use of zero in Western
civilization was uncommon before the twelfth century.
^ from the Latin word vulgus, the common people, i.e., those who are
not royalty.
^ In Latin, Common
Era is written as Vulgaris Aerae. It also
occasionally appears as æræ vulgaris, aerae vulgaris, aeram
vulgarem, anni vulgaris, vulgaris aerae Christianae, and anni vulgatae
nostrae aerae Christianas.
^ The term common era does not appear in this book; the term Christian
era [lowercase] does appear a number of times. Nowhere in the book is
the abbreviation explained or expanded directly.
^ BBC Team (8 February 2005). "
History of Judaism 63 BCE – 1086 CE".
BBC Religion & Ethics. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved
^ a b "Anno Domini". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary.
Merriam-Webster. 2003. Retrieved 2011-10-04. Etymology: Medieval
Latin, in the year of the Lord
^ "Controversy over the use of the "CE/BCE" and "AD/BC" dating
notation/". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved
^ "Common Era". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
(3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1992.
^ Coolman, Robert. "Keeping Time: The Origin of B.C. & A.D." Live
Science. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
^ a b "Earliest-found use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era)
(1615)". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Johannes Kepler (1615). Joannis
Keppleri Eclogae chronicae: ex epistolis doctissimorum aliquot virorum
& suis mutuis, quibus examinantur tempora nobilissima: 1. Herodis
Herodiadumque, 2. baptismi & ministerii Christi annorum non plus 2
1/4, 3. passionis, mortis et resurrectionis Dn. N. Iesu Christi, anno
aerae nostrae vulgaris 31. non, ut vulgo 33., 4. belli Iudaici, quo
funerata fuit cum Ierosolymis & Templo Synagoga Iudaica,
sublatumque Vetus Testamentum. Inter alia & commentarius in locum
Epiphanii obscurissimum de cyclo veteri Iudaeorum. (in Latin).
Francofurti:Tampach. anno aerae nostrae vulgaris
^ a b first so-far-found use of common era in English (1708). Printed
for H. Rhodes. 1708. Retrieved 2011-05-18. The
History of the
Works of the Learned. 10. London. January 1708. p. 513.
^ Irvin, Dale T.; Sunquist, Scott (2001).
History of the World
Christian Movement. Continuum International Publishing Group.
p. xi. ISBN 0-567-08866-9. Retrieved 2011-05-18. The
influence of western culture and scholarship upon the rest of the
world in turn led to this system of dating becoming the most widely
used one across the globe today. Many scholars in historical and
religious studies in the West in recent years have sought to lessen
the explicitly Christian meaning of this system without abandoning the
usefulness of a single, common, global form of dating. For this reason
the terms common era and before the common era, abbreviated as CE and
BCE, have grown in popularity as designations. The terms are meant, in
deference to non-Christians, to soften the explicit theological claims
made by the older Latin terminology, while at the same time providing
continuity with earlier generations of mostly western Christian
^ Andrew Herrmann (27 May 2006). "BCE date designation called more
sensitive". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2016-09-18. Herrmann
observes, "The changes – showing up at museums, in academic circles
and in school textbooks – have been touted as more sensitive to
people of faiths outside of Christianity." However, Herrmann notes,
"The use of BCE and CE have rankled some Christians"
^ McKim, Donald K (1996). Common
Era entry. Westminster dictionary of
theological terms. ISBN 978-0-664-25511-4. Retrieved
^ a b Pedersen, O. (1983). "The Ecclesiastical
Calendar and the Life
of the Church". In Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.). The Gregorian Reform of
the Calendar. Vatican Observatory. p. 50. Retrieved
2011-05-18. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link)
^ Doggett, L.E., (1992), "Calendars" in Seidelmann, P.K., The
Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Sausalito CA:
University Science Books, 2.1
^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). The International Standard Bible
Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-3781-3.
^ Pedersen, O., (1983), "The Ecclesiastical
Calendar and the Life of
the Church" in Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.) The Gregorian Reform of the
Calendar, Vatican Observatory, p. 52.
Bede wrote of the Incarnation of Jesus, but treated it as synonymous
with birth. Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), The Oxford
Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, 778.
^ "General Chronology". New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol III.
Robert Appleton Company, New York. 1908. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ Kepler, Johann (1616).
Second use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for
Common Era) (1616). Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Kepler,
Johann (1616). Ephemerides novae motuum caelestium, ab Ānno vulgaris
aerae MDCXVII en observationibus potissimum Tychonis Brahei
hypothesibus physicis, et tabulis Rudolphinis... Plancus.
^ Kepler, Johannes; Fabricus, David (1617). Third use of "vulgaris
aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1617). sumptibus authoris, excudebat
Iohannes Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johannes Kepler, Jakob
Bartsch (1617). Ephemerides novae motuum coelestium, ab anno vulgaris
aerae MDCXVII[-XXXVI]... Johannes Plancus. Part 3 has title: Tomi L
Ephemeridvm Ioannis Kepleri pars tertia, complexa annos à M.DC.XXIX.
in M.DC.XXXVI. In quibus & tabb. Rudolphi jam perfectis, et sociâ
operâ clariss. viri dn. Iacobi Bartschii ... Impressa Sagani
Silesiorvm, in typographeio Ducali, svmptibvs avthoris, anno
M.DC.XXX. * Translation of title (per 1635 English edition): New
Ephemerids for the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeeres of the Vulgar
^ Kepler, Johann; Vlacq, Adriaan (1635). Earliest so-far-found use of
vulgar era in English (1635). Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johann
Kepler; Adriaan Vlacq (1635). Ephemerides of the Celestiall Motions,
for the Yeers of the Vulgar
^ Clerc, Jean Le (1701). vulgar era in English (1701). Retrieved
2011-05-18. John LeClerc, ed. (1701). The Harmony of the
Evangelists. London: Sam Buckley. p. 5. Before Christ according
to the Vulgar AEra, 6
^ Prideaux, Humphrey (1799). Prideaux use of "Vulgar Era" (1716)
(reprint ed.). Retrieved 2011-05-18. reckoning it backward from the
vulgar era of Christ's incarnation Humphrey Prideaux, D.D.
(1716) [from Oxford University Press 1799 (1716 edition not online,
1749 online is Vol 2)]. The Old and New Testament Connected in the
History of the Jews and Neighbouring Nations. 1. Edinburgh. p. 1.
This happened in the seventh year after the building of Rome, and in
the second year of the eighth Olympiad, which was the seven hundred
forty-seventh year before Christ, i. e. before the beginning of the
vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his
^ Merriam Webster accepts the date of 1716, but does not give the
source. "Merriam Webster Online entry for Vulgar Era". Retrieved
^ Robert Walker (Rector of Shingham); Newton, Sir Isaac; Falconer,
Thomas (1796). "vulgar era of the nativity" (1796). T. Cadell jun. and
W. Davies. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Rev. Robert Walker; Isaac
Newton; Thomas Falconer (1796). Analysis of Researches Into the Origin
and Progress of Historical Time, from the Creation to ... London: T.
Cadell Jr. and W. Davies. p. 10. Dionysius the Little brought the
vulgar era of the nativity too low by four years.
^ "1584 Latin use of aerae christianae". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Grynaeus, Johann Jacob; Beumler, Marcus (1584). De Eucharistica
controuersia, capita doctrinae theologicae de quibus mandatu,
illustrissimi principis ac domini, D. Iohannis Casimiri, Comites
Palatini ad Rhenum, Ducis Bauariae, tutoris & administratoris
Electoralis Palatinatus, octonis publicis disputationibus (quarum
prima est habita 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584, Marco Beumlero
respondente) praeses Iohannes Iacobus Grynaeus, orthodoxae fidei
rationem interrogantibus placidè reddidit ; accessit eiusdem
Iohannis Iacobi Grynaeus synopsis orationis, quam de disputationis
euentu, congressione nona, quae indicit in 15 Aprilis, publicè habuit
(in Latin) (Editio tertia ed.). Heidelbergae: Typis Iacobi Mylij.
OCLC 123471534. 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584
^ "1649 use of æræ Christianæ in English book – 1st usage found
in English". Retrieved 2011-05-18. WING, Vincent (1649).
Speculum uranicum, anni æræ Christianæ, 1649, or, An almanack and
prognosication for the year of our Lord, 1649 being the first from
bissextile or leap-year, and from the creation of the world 5598,
wherein is contained many useful, pleasant and necessary observations,
and predictions ... : calculated (according to art) for the
meridian and latitude of the ancient borrough town of Stamford in
Lincolnshire ... and without sensible errour may serve the 3. kingdoms
of England, Scotland, and Ireland. London: J.L. for the Company of
Stationers. anni æræ Christianæ, 1649
^ first appearance of "Christian Era" in English (1652). Retrieved
2016-11-02. Sliter, Robert (1652). A celestiall glasse, or,
Ephemeris for the year of the Christian era 1652 being the bissextile
or leap-year: contayning the lunations, planetary motions,
configurations & ecclipses for this present year ... : with
many other things very delightfull and necessary for most sorts of
men: calculated exactly and composed for ... Rochester. London:
Printed for the Company of Stationers.
^ Gregory, David; John Nicholson;
John Morphew (1715). The Elements of
Astronomy, Physical and Geometrical. 1. London: printed for J.
Nicholson, and sold by J. Morphew. p. 252. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Some say the World was created 3950 Years before the common Æra of
Christ Before Christ and Christian
Era appear on the same page
252, while Vulgar
Era appears on page 250
^ Sale, George; Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke,
George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John (1759). 1759 use of common æra.
Printed for C. Bathurst. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Sale, George;
Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell,
John; Swinton, John (1759). An Universal History: From the Earliest
Accounts to the
Present Time. 13. London: C. Bathurst [etc.]
p. 130. at which time they fixed that for their common era
In this case, their refers to the Jews.
^ Von), Jakob Friedrich Bielfeld (Freiherr; Hooper, William (1770).
First-so-far found English usage of "before the common era", with
"vulgar era" synonymous with "common era" (1770). Printed by G. Scott,
for J. Robson and B. Law. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Hooper, William;
Bielfeld, Jacob Friedrich (1770). The Elements of Universal Erudition:
Containing an Analytical Abridgment of the Sciences, Polite Arts, and
Belles Lettres. 2. London: G. Scott, printer, for J Robson, bookseller
in New-Bond Street, and B. Law in Ave-Mary Lane. pp. 105, 63. in
the year of the world 3692, and 312 years before the vulgar era....
Spanish era began with the year of the world 3966, and 38 years
before the common era (p63)
^ MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). "vulgar era" in 1797 EB.
A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 228 v. 14 pt. 1 P
(Peter). Retrieved 2011-05-18. St Peter died in the 66th year of the
MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). "common era" in 1797 EB. A.
Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 50 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Paul).
Retrieved 2011-05-18. This happened in the 33rd year of the common
era, fome time after our Saviour's death.
George Gleig, ed. (1797). Encyclopædia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary
of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature (Third Edition in 18
volumes). Edinburgh. v. 14 pt. 1 P.
^ Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition.
pp. 16–20. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition.
pp. 15–16. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03738a.htm#christian "Foremost among
these [various eras] is that which is now adopted by all civilized
peoples and known as the Christian, Vulgar or Common Era, in the
twentieth century of which we are now living".
^ Encyclopedia, Popular (1874). "common era of the Jews" (1874).
Retrieved 2011-05-18. the common era of the Jews places the creation
in BC 3760 A. Whitelaw, ed. (1874). Conversations Lexicon. The
Popular Encyclopedia. V. Oxford University Press. p. 207.
^ "common era of the Jews" (1858). Wertheim, MacIntosh & Hunt.
1858. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Hence the present year, 1858, in the
common era of the Jews, is AM 5618-5619, a difference of more than 200
years from our commonly-received chronology. Rev. Bourchier Wrey
Savile, MA (1858). The first and second Advent: or, The past and the
future with reference to the Jew, the Gentile, and the Church of God.
London: Wertheim, Macintosh and Hunt. p. 176.
^ Gumpach, Johannes von (1856). "common era of the Mahometans" (1856).
Retrieved 2011-05-18. Its epoch is the first of March old style. The
common era of the Mahometans, as has already been stated, is that of
the flight of Mahomet. Johannes von Gumpach (1856). Practical
tables for the reduction of Mahometan dates to the Christian calendar.
Oxford University. p. 4.
^ Jones, William (1801). "common era of the world" (1801). F. and C.
Rivington. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Jones, William (1801). The
Theological, Philosophical and Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. William
Jones. London: Rivington.
^ Alexander Fraser Tytler, HON (1854). "common era of the foundation
of Rome" (1854). Retrieved 2011-05-18. Alexander Fraser Tytler,
Lord Woodhouselee (1854). Universal History: From the Creation of the
World to the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century. Boston: Fetridge and
Company. p. 284.
^ Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1833). "common era of the Incarnation"
(1833). A. & C. Black. Retrieved 2011-05-18. The
Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General
Literature. V (9 ed.). New York: Henry G. Allen and Company. 1833.
^ Todd, James Henthorn (1864). "common era" "of the Nativity" (1864).
Hodges, Smith & co. Retrieved 2011-05-18. It should be observed,
however, that these years correspond to 492 and 493, a portion of the
annals of Ulster being counted from the Incarnation, and being,
therefore, one year before the common era of the Nativity of our
James Henthorn Todd
James Henthorn Todd (1864). St. Patrick, Apostle of
Ireland, A Memoir of his Life and Mission. Dublin: Hodges, Smith &
Co, Publishers to the University. pp. 495, 496, 497.
^ "common era of the birth of Christ" (1812). printed by A.J. Valpy
for T. Payne. 1812. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Heneage Elsley (1812).
Annotations on the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles (2nd
edition) (2nd ed.). London: A. J. Valpy for T. Payne. xvi.
^ C.f. every good Latin dictionary, e.g., perseus.tufts.edu,
freedict.com, pons (English/German) Archived 2013-12-27 at the Wayback
Machine., pons (German) or auxilium-online.net (German)
^ "What is Thelema?". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ Tracey R Rich. "Judaism 101". Retrieved 2011-05-18. Jews do not
generally use the words "A.D." and "B.C." to refer to the years on the
Gregorian calendar. "A.D." means "the year of our L-rd," and we do not
Jesus is the L-rd. Instead, we use the abbreviations C.E.
(Common or Christian Era) and B.C.E. (Before the Common Era).
^ "Plymouth, England Tombstone inscriptions". Jewish Communities &
Records. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Here is buried his honour Judah ben his
honour Joseph, a prince and honoured amongst philanthropists, who
executed good deeds, died in his house in the City of Bath, Tuesday,
and was buried here on Sunday, 19 Sivan in the year 5585. In memory of
Lyon Joseph Esq (merchant of Falmouth, Cornwall). who died at Bath
June AM 5585/VE 1825. Beloved and respected. [19 Sivan 5585 AM is
June 5, 1825. VE is likely an abbreviation for Vulgar Era.]
^ a b Gormley, Michael (24 April 2005). "Use of B.C. and A.D. faces
changing times". Houston Chronicle. p. A–13. Retrieved
^ Raphall, Morris Jacob (1856). Post-Biblical
History of The Jews.
^ Raphall, Morris Jacob (1856). Search for era in this book. Moss
& Brother. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ "Google Ngram Viewer". books.google.com.
^ See, for example, the Society for Historical
Archaeology states in
its more recent style guide "Do not use C.E. (common era), B.P.
(before present), or B.C.E.; convert these expressions to A.D. and
B.C." (In section I 5 the Society explains how to use "years B.P." in
connection with radiocarbon ages.) Society for Historical Archaeology
(December 2006). "Style Guide" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original
on 2016-04-19. Retrieved 2017-01-16. whereas the American
Anthropological Association style guide takes a different approach
calling for "C.E." and "B.C.E." American Anthropological Society
(2009). "AAA Style Guide" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved
^ "Submission Guidelines for The Ostracon". The Ostracon – Journal
of the Egyptian Studies Society. Archived from the original on June
12, 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-18. For dates, please use the now-standard
"BCE–CE" notation, rather than "BC–AD." Authors with strong
religious preferences may use "BC–AD," however.
^ "Maryland Church News Submission Guide & Style Manual" (PDF).
Maryland Church News. 1 April 2005. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ "AP: World History". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ "Jerusalem Timeline".
History Channel. Archived from the original on
May 20, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18. ;"Jerusalem: Biographies".
History Channel. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved
^ "AD and BC become CE/BCE". 9 February 2002. Archived from the
original on December 20, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
^ "State School Board reverses itself on B.C./A.D. controversy".
Family Foundation of Kentucky. Archived from the original on April 27,
2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ Joe Biesk (15 June 2006). "School board keeps traditional historic
designations". Louisville Courier-Journal. Archived from the original
on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ "Kentucky Board of
Education Report" (PDF). Kentucky Board of
Education Report. 10 June 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26
September 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ "Australia goes all PC with a ban on BC: Birth of
Jesus to be
removed as reference point for dates in school history books". Daily
Mail. London. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
^ "AD/BC rock solid in curriculum". The Age. Melbourne. 21 October
2011. Retrieved 2012-03-04.
^ The American and English Encyclopedia of Law and Practice. 1910.
p. 1116. It has been said of the Latin words anno Domini, meaning
in the year of our Lord [...]
^ Michael McDowell; Nathan Robert Brown (2009). World Religions At
Your Fingertips. Penguin. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-101-01469-1.
Marked by the turn of the Common Era, C.E., originally referred to as
A.D., an abbreviation of the Latin Anno Domini, meaning "
Year of our
God/Lord." This was a shortening of
Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi,
Year of our God/Lord
^ "Comments on the use of CE and BCE to identify dates in history".
ReligiousTolerance.com. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
^ Lefevere, Patricia (11 December 1998). "Annan: 'Peace is never a
perfect achievement' – United Nations Secretary General Kofi
Annan". National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on
2012-07-13. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
^ Annan, Kofi A., (then Secretary-General of the United Nations) (28
June 1999). "Common values for a common era: Even as we cherish our
diversity, we need to discover our shared values". Civilization: The
Magazine of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May
1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors
or B.C.E./C.E.? author=Safire, William date=17 August 1997
^ Whitney, Susan (2 December 2006). "Altering history? Changes have
some asking 'Before what?'". The Deseret News. Archived from the
original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-18. I find this attempt
to restructure history offensive," Lori Weintz wrote, in a letter to
National Geographic publishers.... The forward to your book says B.C.
and A.D. were removed so as to 'not impose the standards of one
culture on others.'... It's 2006 this year for anyone on Earth
that is participating in day-to-day world commerce and communication.
Two thousand six years since what? Most people know, regardless of
their belief system, and aren't offended by a historical fact.
^ "On Retaining The Traditional Method Of
(B.C./A.D.)". Southern Baptist Convention. June 2000. Retrieved
2011-05-18. This practice [of BCE/CE] is the result of the
secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism, and
political correctness pervasive in our society... retention [of BC/AD]
is a reminder to those in this secular age of the importance of
Christ's life and mission and emphasizes to all that history is
ultimately His Story.
^ a b Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). The Columbia Guide to Standard
American English – A.D., B.C., (A.)C.E., B.C.E. Columbia University
Press. ISBN 978-0-231-06989-2. Retrieved 2011-05-18. A.D. appears
either before or after the number of the year... although conservative
use has long preferred before only; B.C. always follows the number of
the year.... Common era (C.E.) itself needs a good deal of further
justification, in view of its clearly Christian numbering. Most
conservatives still prefer A.D. and B.C. Best advice: don't use
B.C.E., C.E., or A.C.E. to replace B.C. and A.D. without translating
the new terms for the very large number of readers who will not
understand them. Note too that if we do end by casting aside the
A.D./B.C. convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought
to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system itself, given
its Christian basis.
^ Panikkar, Raimon (2004). "Christophany: The Fullness of Man".
Maryville, NY: Orbis Books: 173. ISBN 978-1-57075-564-4.
Retrieved 2011-05-18. Here is an example of the incarnation's
historical-sociological implications among those who feel themselves
furthest from Christianity. In certain North American academic circles
one can see a return-with repercussions elsewhere-to the most bigoted
Christian colonialism, along with the good intention of overcoming it.
It has been suggested that the terminology of the Western calendar,
Christian in origin, be replaced by one that presumably would be
neutral and universal. It is understandable that some would protest
the use of A.D. (anno Domini), but by eliminating B.C. (before Christ)
and substituting B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) scholars betray the
depths of the cultural impact of the historico-Christian event. After
Jesus was not born in the year 1. We select a single event but
without any value judgment. To call our age "the Common Era," even
though for the Jews, the Chinese, the Tamil, the Muslims, and many
others it is not a common era, constitutes the acme of
^ Simon, Stephanie (22 June 2007). "A conservative's answer to
Wikipedia". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
Conservapedia Commandments at Conservapedia
^ "Major Rule Changes in The Chicago Manual of Style, Fifteenth
Edition". University of Chicago Press. 2003. Archived from the
original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Certain
abbreviations traditionally set in small caps are now in full caps
(AD, BCE, and the like), with small caps an option.
^ SBL Handbook of Style
Society of Biblical Literature 1999 "8.1.2
ERAS – The preferred style is B.C.E. and C.E. (with periods). If you
use A.D. and B.C., remember that A.D. precedes the date and B.C.
follows it. (For the use of these abbreviations in titles, see
^ a b "GERMANY: Jewish Joke". Time. 7 March 1938. Retrieved
^ Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums. Ein unpartheiisches Organ für
alles jüdische Interesse, II. Jahrgang, No. 60, Leipzig, 19. Mai 1838
(19 May 1838). See page 175 in Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums: Ein
unpartheiisches Organ für alles jüdische Interesse in Betreff von
Politik, Religion, Literatur, Geschichte, Sprachkunde und
Belletristik, Volume 2 (Leipzig 1838).
^ Julius Fürst, Geschichte des Karäerthums von 900 bis 1575 der
gewöhnlichen Zeitrechnung (Leipzig 1862–1869).
^ von und zu Guttenberg, Karl Ludwig Freiherr (May 1938). (PDF).
Archived from the original (PDF) on January 19, 2012. Missing or
empty title= (help)
^ "Writing Dates in Spanish". Retrieved 2012-02-05.
^ "Welsh-Termau-Cymraeg Archives". JISCMail. 19 October 2006.
The dictionary definition of Common_Era#Translations at Wiktionary
Whatever happened to B.C. and A.D., and why? (United Church of Christ)
Response by Awake! to a reader upset by the use of B.C.E. and C.E.
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