COMMON ERA or CURRENT ERA (CE) is a year-numbering system (calendar era ) for the Julian and Gregorian calendars that refers to the years since the start of this era, i.e., since the beginning of AD 1. The preceding era is referred to as BEFORE THE COMMON or CURRENT ERA (BCE). The Current Era notation system can be used as an alternative to the Dionysian era system, which distinguishes eras as AD (_anno Domini_, " year of Lord") and BC ("before Christ"). The two notation systems are numerically equivalent; thus "2017 CE" corresponds to "AD 2017" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC". The year-numbering system for the Gregorian calendar is the most widespread civil calendar system used in the world today. For decades, it has been the global standard, recognized by international institutions such as the United Nations and the Universal Postal Union .
The expression has been traced back to Latin usage to 1615, as _vulgaris aerae_, and to 1635 in English as "Vulgar Era". The term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708, and became more widely used in the mid-19th century by Jewish academics. In the later 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications, and more generally by authors and publishers wishing to emphasize secularism or sensitivity to non-Christians, by not explicitly referencing Jesus as " Christ " and _Dominus_ ("Lord"), shortened from _anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi_ ("in the year of Our Lord Jesus Christ").
* 1 History
* 2 Contemporary usage
* 3 Rationale
* 3.1 Support * 3.2 Opposition
* 4 Conventions in style guides * 5 Similar conventions in other languages * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links
See also: Anno Domini
The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an initial reference date ("epoch "), an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Dionysius labeled the column of the table in which he introduced the new era as "_Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi_".
Numbering years in this manner became more widespread in Europe with its usage by Bede in England in 731. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus, and the practice of not using a year zero. In 1422, Portugal became the last Western European country to switch to the system begun by Dionysius.
Johannes Kepler first used "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Christian calendar from the regnal year typically used in national law.
The term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar from those of the regnal year , the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law.
The first use of the Latin term _vulgaris aerae_ discovered so far was in a 1615 book by Johannes Kepler . Kepler uses it again in a 1616 table of ephemerides , and again in 1617. A 1635 English edition of that book has the title page in English – so far, the earliest-found usage of _Vulgar Era_ in English. A 1701 book edited by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra, 6". A 1716 book in English by Dean Humphrey Prideaux says, "before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation." A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era of the nativity".
The first so-far-discovered usage of "Christian Era" is as the Latin phrase _aerae christianae_ on the title page of a 1584 theology book. In 1649, the Latin phrase _æræ Christianæ_ appeared in the title of an English almanac. A 1652 ephemeris is the first instance so-far-found for English usage of "Christian Era".
The English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708, and in a 1715 book on astronomy is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era". A 1759 history book uses _common æra_ in a generic sense, to refer to the common era of the Jews. The first-so-far found usage of the phrase "before the common era" is in a 1770 work that also uses _common era_ and _vulgar era_ as synonyms, in a translation of a book originally written in German. The 1797 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the terms _vulgar era_ and _common era_ synonymously. In 1835, in his book _Living Oracles _, Alexander Campbell , wrote: "The vulgar Era, or Anno Domini; the fourth year of Jesus Christ, the first of which was but eight days", and also refers to the _common era_ as a synonym for _vulgar era_ with "the fact that our Lord was born on the 4th year before the vulgar era, called Anno Domini, thus making (for example) the 42d year from his birth to correspond with the 38th of the common era..." The _ Catholic Encyclopedia _ (1909) in at least one article reports all three terms (Christian, Vulgar, Common Era) being commonly understood by the early 20th century.
The phrase "common era", in lower case , also appeared in the 19th century in a _generic_ sense, not necessarily to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews", "the common era of the Mahometans", "common era of the world", "the common era of the foundation of Rome". When it did refer to the Christian Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g., "common era of the Incarnation", "common era of the Nativity", or "common era of the birth of Christ".
An adapted translation of _Common Era_ into pseudo-Latin as _Era Vulgaris_ (in Latin this means _Common Mistress_) was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of Aleister Crowley , and thus the abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for AD.
HISTORY OF THE USE OF THE CE/BCE ABBREVIATION
Although Jews have their own Hebrew calendar , they often use the Gregorian calendar.
As early as 1825, the abbreviation VE (for Vulgar Era) was in use among Jews to denote years in the Western calendar.
Common Era notation has also been in use for Hebrew lessons for "more than a century". Some Jewish academics were already using the _CE_ and _BCE_ abbreviations by the mid-19th century, such as in 1856, when Rabbi and historian Morris Jacob Raphall used the abbreviation in his book _Post-Biblical History of The Jews_.
In the 200 years between 1808 and 2008 the ratio of usage of BCE to BC has increased by about 20% and CE to AD by about 50%, primarily since 1980.
Some academics in the fields of theology , education and history have adopted CE and BCE notation, although there is some disagreement.
More visible uses of Common Era notation have recently surfaced at major museums in the English-speaking world. Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage. Even some style guides for Christian churches prefer its use: for example, the Episcopal Diocese _Maryland Church News_.
In the United States, the usage of the BCE/CE notation in textbooks is growing. Some publications have moved over to using it exclusively. For example, the 2007 World Almanac was the first edition to switch over to the BCE/CE usage, ending a 138-year usage of the traditional BC/AD dating notation. It is used by the College Board in its history tests, and by the Norton Anthology of English Literature . Others have taken a different approach. The US-based History Channel uses BCE/CE notation in articles on non-Christian religious topics such as Jerusalem and Judaism .
In 2002, England and Wales introduced the BCE/CE notation system into the official school curriculum.
In June 2006, in the United States, the Kentucky State School Board reversed its decision to use BCE and CE in the state's new Program of Studies, leaving education of students about these concepts a matter of discretion at the local level.
Also in 2011, media reports suggested that the BC/AD notation in Australian school textbooks would be replaced by BCE/CE notation. The story became national news and drew opposition from some politicians and church leaders. Weeks after the story broke, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority denied the rumour and stated that the BC/AD notation would remain, with CE and BCE as an optional suggested learning activity.
The use of CE in Jewish scholarship was historically motivated by the desire to avoid the implicit "Our Lord" in the abbreviation _AD_. Although other aspects of dating systems are based in Christian origins, AD is a direct reference to Jesus as Lord.
Proponents of the Common Era notation assert that the use of BCE/CE shows sensitivity to those who use the same year numbering system as the one that originated with and is currently used by Christians , but who are not themselves Christian.
he Christian calendar no longer belongs exclusively to Christians. People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of convenience. There is so much interaction between people of different faiths and cultures – different civilizations, if you like – that some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity. And so the Christian Era has become the Common Era.
Adena K. Berkowitz, when arguing at the Supreme Court opted to use BCE and CE because "Given the multicultural society that we live in, the traditional Jewish designations – B.C.E. and C.E. – cast a wider net of inclusion"
Some oppose the Common Era notation for explicitly religious reasons. Because the BC/AD notation is based on the traditional year of the conception or birth of Jesus, some Christians are offended by the removal of the reference to him in era notation. The Southern Baptist Convention supports retaining the BC/AD abbreviations.
There are also secular concerns. English language expert Kenneth G. Wilson speculated in his style guide that "if we do end by casting aside the AD/BC convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system itself, given its Christian basis." The short lived French Republican Calendar , for example, began with the first year of the French First Republic and rejected the seven-day week (with its connections to the Book of Genesis ) for a ten-day week. Priest and writer on interfaith issues Raimon Panikkar contends that using the designation BCE/CE is a "return... to the most bigoted Christian colonialism" towards non-Christians, who do not necessarily consider the time period following the beginning of the calendar to be a "common era".
According to a _ Los Angeles Times _ report, it was a student's use of BCE/CE notation, inspired by its use within Wikipedia , which prompted the teacher and politician Andrew Schlafly to found Conservapedia , a cultural conservative wiki . One of its " Conservapedia Commandments" is that users must always apply BC/AD notation, since its sponsors perceive BCE/CE notation to "deny the historical basis" of the dating system.
CONVENTIONS IN STYLE GUIDES
The abbreviation BCE, just as with BC, always follows the year number. Unlike AD, which traditionally precedes the year number, CE always follows the year number (if context requires that it be written at all). Thus, the current year is written as 2017 in both notations (or, if further clarity is needed, as 2017 CE, or as AD 2017), and the year that Socrates died is represented as 399 BCE (the same year that is represented by 399 BC in the BC/AD notation). The abbreviations are sometimes written with small capital letters, or with periods (e.g., "B.C.E." or "C.E."). Style guides for academic texts on religion generally prefer BCE/CE to BC/AD.
SIMILAR CONVENTIONS IN OTHER LANGUAGES
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Several languages other than English also have both religious and non-religious ways of identifying the era used in dates. In some communist states during the Cold War period, usage of non-religious notation was mandated.
* In Angola , the abbreviations "E.C." (" Era Comum", Common Era) and "A.E.C." ("Antes da Era Comum", Before Common Era) is generally used. * In Arabic , بعد الميلاد (After the Birth) corresponds to CE, while قبل الميلاد (Before the Birth) corresponds to BCE. The "Birth" referenced is that of Jesus. This system is in widespread use in all Arab countries, but is accompanied by the Hijri system. Dates are often given in both in that order. In Saudi Arabia, however, the Hijri system is predominant. * In Brazil , the AD is common use, used as DC "Depois de Cristo (After Christ)" and BC as AC "antes de Cristo" * In the Chinese language, common era (公元, gong yuan) has been predominantly used to refer to the western calendar without any religious connotation. * In Czech , _př.Kr._ (_před Kristem_) and _l.P._ (_léta Páně_) were partially replaced (especially _l.P._, being in conflict with LP record , remaining mostly on signs and cover art, used similarly to est.) by _př.n.l._ and _n.l._, meaning _před naším letopočtem_ and _našeho letopočtu_, literally "before / of our year numbering"). Slovak has the ending _-om_ instead of _-em_ and unaccented _leta_ and _pred_, allowing use of the same abbreviations. * In Danish , the terms _f.Kr._ (_før Kristus_, before Christ) and _e.Kr._ (_efter Kristus_, after Christ) have traditionally been used. They are now in free variation with _f.v.t._ and _e.v.t._ (_før/efter vor tidsregning_, before/after our chronology). * In Dutch the terms _v.C._ or _v.Chr._ (_voor Christus_, before Christ) and _n.C._ or _n.Chr._ (_na Christus_, after Christ) have traditionally been used. There are alternatives _v.g.j._ and _g.j._ (_ gangbare/gewone jaartelling_, conventional/ordinary chronology), _v.o.j._ and _n.o.j._ (_vóór/na onze jaartelling_, before/after our chronology) and _v.d.g.j._ and _n.d.g.j._ (_vóór/na de gewone jaartelling_, before/after the ordinary chronology), but there is still no generally accepted alternative for the Christian notation. The notation v.Chr./n.Chr. remains generally used by the media and scientists. * In Finland , the terms _eKr._ (_ennen Kristusta_, before Christ) and _jKr._ (_jälkeen Kristuksen_, after Christ) were largely used until the 1980s but have been mostly replaced during the last couple of decades with terms _eaa._ (_ennen ajanlaskun alkua_, before start of chronology) and _jaa._ (_jälkeen ajanlaskun alun_, after start of chronology). * In Germany , Jews in Berlin seem to have already been using "(Before the) Common Era" in the 18th century, while others like Moses Mendelssohn opposed this usage as it would hinder the integration of Jews into German society. The formulation seems to have persisted among German Jews in the 19th century in forms like _vor der gewöhnlichen Zeitrechnung_ (before the common chronology).
In 1938 Nazi Germany , the use of this convention was also prescribed by the National Socialist Teachers League . However, it was soon discovered that many German Jews had been using the convention ever since the 18th century, and they found it ironic to see "Aryans following Jewish example nearly 200 years later". The German Democratic Republic (1949–1990) introduced the convention of _v. u. Z._ (_vor unserer Zeitrechnung_, before our chronology) and _u. Z._ (_unserer Zeitrechnung_, of our chronology) instead of _v. Chr._ (_vor Christus_, before Christ) and _n. Chr._ (_nach Christus/Christi Geburt_, after Christ/the Nativity of Christ). The use of these terms persists in contemporary German to some extent, differing regionally and ideologically. In Jewish contexts mostly "v. d. Z." ("vor der Zeitenwende") and "n. d. Z." ("nach der Zeitenwende") is used.
* In Hebrew, the most common term used to refer to BCE/CE is simply לספירה (according to THE count) for CE, and לפני הספירה (before the count) for BCE. An alternative term, expressing an ideological (sometimes religious) approach aimed at distancing oneself from the source of the count, is למניינם (according to their count). The later is sometimes added after the former, especially in the case of BCE (e.g., שנת 150 לפני הספירה למנינם), due to technical linguistic reasons. * In Hungary , similarly to the Bulgarian case, _i. e._ (_időszámításunk előtt_, before our era) and _i. sz._ (_időszámításunk szerint_, according to our era) are still widely used instead of traditional _Kr. e._ (_Krisztus előtt_, Before Christ) and _Kr. u._ (_Krisztus után_, After Christ), which were unofficially reinstituted after the Communist period. * In Indonesia , the terms _SM_ (_Sebelum Masehi_, before Masehi, from Arabic _Masih_, referring to Jesus) and _M_ (_Masehi_, after Masehi) were generally used. The terms "STU" ("SebelumTarikh Umum") and "TU" ("Tarikh Umum") were used to translate "BCE" ("Before Common Era") and "CE" ("Common Era") * In Italy , _e.v._ (" Era Volgare" from Latin expression "Aera Vulgaris") and _p.e.v._ ("Prima dell' Era Volgare", before the vulgar era) may be used (both in lower case), but the historical A.C./D.C. (Avanti Cristo/Dopo Cristo, before Christ/after Christ) are much more frequent. * In Japanese , years reckoned by the Western calendar as opposed to the Japanese Imperial eras are indicated by, for example, 西暦2013年, where 西暦 (_seireki_) literally means "Western calendar" which carries no religious connotation, aside from the fact that Christianity is a Western religion. 紀元前 (_kigenzen_) is used to mean "before the common era (BCE)" "AD", and less commonly, "CE", are also occasionally seen, but the typical Japanese person would not care about the religious connotations. * In Korean , 기원전(紀元前, _giwonjeon_), which means "preceding the era", is used to indicate years BCE. 서기(西紀, _seogi_), "Western era", short for 서력기원(西暦紀元, _seoryeokgiwon_), meaning " the origin year of the Western calendar", is used to indicate years CE. Christians use 주후 (_juhu_), meaning "after the Lord", as a shorthand calque of Anno Domini. * In Macedonian , п.н.е. – пред наша ера (_p.n.e. – pred nasha era_), meaning _before our era_, and н.е. – наша ера (_n.e. – nasha era_), meaning _our era_, are used the same way as BCE and CE, respectively. * In Poland the only term generally used is _naszej ery/przed naszą erą_ (_of our era/before our era_). The terms _przed Chrystusem/po Chrystusie_ (_before Christ/after Christ_) and _roku Pańskiego_ (_year of the Lord_) are possible but almost never used in contemporary Poland. * In Serbia , the common and official terms are p.n.e. ("pre nove ere", Before the new era), and n.e. ("nove ere", new era). * In Romania , throughout most of the communist period, the preferred standard was to use the secularised _î. e. n._ (_înaintea erei noastre_, before our era) and _e. n._ (_era noastră_, our era). After the downfall of communism in the Romanian Revolution , the original convention using _î. Hr._ (_înainte de Hristos_, before Christ) and _d. Hr._ (_după Hristos_, after Christ) has become more widespread. Alternatively, _î. Cr._ and _d. Cr._ are used, mainly due to an alternative spelling of _Hristos_ (Christ) as _Cristos_, the latter being preferred by the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches . * In Russia , the terms _до н.э._ (_до нашей эры_, before our era) and _н.э._ (_нашей эры_, our era) are often used. Their use was nearly universal during Soviet rule, and while their use in mass media is to some extent being mixed with their Christian equivalents (still, AD equivalent, _от рождества Христова_, since the birth of Christ is almost never used), the BCE/CE terms remain the strongly preferred version in scientific literature, business magazines and other "serious" texts. * In Spanish , Common forms used for "BC" are aC and a. de C. (for antes de Cristo, "before Christ"), with variations in punctuation and sometimes the use of J.C.(Jesucristo) instead of C. In scholarly writing, you may use AEC as the equivalent of the English "BCE", antes de la Era Común or Before the Common Era. * In Swedish the terms _f.Kr._ (_före Kristus_, before Christ) and _e.Kr._ (_efter Kristus_, after Christ) have traditionally been used. They are seldom replaced by _f.v.t._ and _e.v.t._ (_före/enligt vår tidräkning_, before/according to our chronology). * In Turkish , the terms M.Ö. (Milattan Önce, before the birth (of Jesus)) and M.S. (Milattan Sonra, after the birth (of Jesus)) are commonly used. İ.Ö. (İsa'dan Önce, before Jesus) and İ.S. (İsa'dan Sonra, after Jesus) can also be seen in academic writing. * In Welsh , OC can be expanded to equivalents of both AD (_Oed Crist_) and CE (_Oes Cyffredin_); for dates before the Common Era, CC (traditionally, _Cyn Crist_) is used exclusively, as _Cyn yr Oes Cyffredin_ would abbreviate to a mild obscenity.
* ^ Two separate systems that also do not use religious titles, the astronomical system and the ISO 8601 standard, do use a year zero. The year 1 BCE (identical to the year 1 BC) is represented as 0 in the astronomical system, and as 0000 in ISO 8601. Presently, ISO 8601 dating requires use of the Gregorian calendar for all dates, however, whereas astronomical dating and Common Era dating allow use of either the Gregorian or Julian calendars. * ^ The word "Vulgar" (from Latin _vulgaris_) originally meant ordinary, common-place, or not regal or regnal . (See wiktionary:vulgar) * ^ As noted in History of the zero , the use of zero in Western civilization was uncommon before the twelfth century. * ^ from the Latin word _vulgus_, the common people, i.e., those who are not royalty. * ^ In Latin, _Common Era_ is written as _Vulgaris Aerae_. It also occasionally appears as _æræ vulgaris_, _aerae vulgaris_, _aeram vulgarem_, _anni vulgaris_, _vulgaris aerae Christianae_, and _anni vulgatae nostrae aerae Christianas_. * ^ The term _common era_ does not appear in this book; the term _Christian era_ does appear a number of times. Nowhere in the book is the abbreviation explained or expanded directly.
* ^ BBC Team (8 February 2005). " History of Judaism 63 BCE – 1086 CE". _BBC Religion & Ethics_. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2016-04-20. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Anno Domini". _Merriam Webster Online Dictionary_. Merriam-Webster. 2003. Retrieved 2011-10-04. Etymology: Medieval Latin, in the year of the Lord * ^ "Controversy over the use of the "CE/BCE" and "AD/BC" dating notation/". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 2011-11-12. * ^ "Common Era". _American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language_ (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1992. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Earliest-found use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1615)". Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johannes Kepler (1615). _Joannis Keppleri Eclogae chronicae: ex epistolis doctissimorum aliquot virorum & suis mutuis, quibus examinantur tempora nobilissima: 1. Herodis Herodiadumque, 2. baptismi & ministerii Christi annorum non plus 2 1/4, 3. passionis, mortis et resurrectionis Dn. N. Iesu Christi, anno aerae nostrae vulgaris 31. non, ut vulgo 33., 4. belli Iudaici, quo funerata fuit cum Ierosolymis & Templo Synagoga Iudaica, sublatumque Vetus Testamentum. Inter alia & commentarius in locum Epiphanii obscurissimum de cyclo veteri Iudaeorum._ (in Latin). Francofurti:Tampach. anno aerae nostrae vulgaris * ^ _A_ _B_ _first so-far-found use of_ common era _in English (1708)_. Printed for H. Rhodes. 1708. Retrieved 2011-05-18. _The History of the Works of the Learned_. 10. London. January 1708. p. 513. * ^ Irvin, Dale T.; Sunquist, Scott (2001). _ History of the World Christian Movement_. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. xi. ISBN 0-567-08866-9 . Retrieved 2011-05-18. The influence of western culture and scholarship upon the rest of the world in turn led to this system of dating becoming the most widely used one across the globe today. Many scholars in historical and religious studies in the West in recent years have sought to lessen the explicitly Christian meaning of this system without abandoning the usefulness of a single, common, global form of dating. For this reason the terms _common era_ and _before the common era_, abbreviated as CE and BCE, have grown in popularity as designations. The terms are meant, in deference to non-Christians, to soften the explicit theological claims made by the older Latin terminology, while at the same time providing continuity with earlier generations of mostly western Christian historical research. * ^ Andrew Herrmann (27 May 2006). "BCE date designation called more sensitive". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2016-09-18. Herrmann observes, "The changes – showing up at museums, in academic circles and in school textbooks – have been touted as more sensitive to people of faiths outside of Christianity." However, Herrmann notes, "The use of BCE and CE have rankled some Christians" * ^ McKim, Donald K (1996). _Common Era entry_. _Westminster dictionary of theological terms_. ISBN 978-0-664-25511-4 . Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pedersen, O. (1983). "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church". In Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.). _The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar_. Vatican Observatory. p. 50. Retrieved 2011-05-18. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * ^ Doggett, L.E., (1992), "Calendars" in Seidelmann, P.K., _The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac_, Sausalito CA: University Science Books, 2.1 * ^ Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). _The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia_. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 9780-802837813 . Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ Pedersen, O., (1983), "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church" in Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.) _The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar_, Vatican Observatory, p. 52. * ^ Bede wrote of the Incarnation of Jesus, but treated it as synonymous with birth. Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), _The Oxford Companion to the Year_, Oxford University Press, 778. * ^ "General Chronology". _New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia_. Vol III. Robert Appleton Company, New York. 1908. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ Kepler, Johann (1616). _ Second use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1616)_. Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Kepler, Johann (1616). _Ephemerides novae motuum caelestium, ab Ānno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII en observationibus potissimum Tychonis Brahei hypothesibus physicis, et tabulis Rudolphinis.._. Plancus. * ^ Kepler, Johannes; Fabricus, David (1617). _Third use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1617)_. sumptibus authoris, excudebat Iohannes Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johannes Kepler , Jakob Bartsch (1617). _Ephemerides novae motuum coelestium, ab anno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII.._. Johannes Plancus. Part 3 has title: Tomi L Ephemeridvm Ioannis Kepleri pars tertia, complexa annos à M.DC.XXIX. in M.DC.XXXVI. In quibus & tabb. Rudolphi jam perfectis, et sociâ operâ clariss. viri dn. Iacobi Bartschii ... Impressa Sagani Silesiorvm, in typographeio Ducali, svmptibvs avthoris, anno M.DC.XXX. * Translation of title (per 1635 English edition): _New Ephemerids for the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeeres of the Vulgar Era 1617–1636_ * ^ Kepler, Johann; Vlacq, Adriaan (1635). _Earliest so-far-found use of_ vulgar era _in English (1635)_. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johann Kepler; Adriaan Vlacq (1635). _Ephemerides of the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeers of the Vulgar Era 1633.._. * ^ Clerc, Jean Le (1701). vulgar era _in English (1701)_. Retrieved 2011-05-18. John LeClerc , ed. (1701). _The Harmony of the Evangelists_. London: Sam Buckley. p. 5. Before Christ according to the Vulgar AEra, 6 * ^ Prideaux, Humphrey (1799). _Prideaux use of "Vulgar Era" (1716)_ (reprint ed.). Retrieved 2011-05-18. reckoning it backward from the vulgar era of Christ's incarnation Humphrey Prideaux, D.D. (1716) . _The Old and New Testament Connected in the History of the Jews and Neighbouring Nations_. 1. Edinburgh. p. 1. This happened in the seventh year after the building of Rome, and in the second year of the eighth Olympiad, which was the seven hundred forty-seventh year before Christ, i. e. before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation. * ^ Merriam Webster accepts the date of 1716, but does not give the source. "Merriam Webster Online entry for _Vulgar Era_". Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ Robert Walker (Rector of Shingham); Newton, Sir Isaac; Falconer, Thomas (1796). _"vulgar era of the nativity" (1796)_. T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Rev. Robert Walker; Isaac Newton; Thomas Falconer (1796). _Analysis of Researches Into the Origin and Progress of Historical Time, from the Creation to .._. London: T. Cadell Jr. and W. Davies. p. 10. Dionysius the Little brought the vulgar era of the nativity too low by four years. * ^ "1584 Latin use of _aerae christianae_". Retrieved 2011-05-18. Grynaeus, Johann Jacob ; Beumler, Marcus (1584). _De Eucharistica controuersia, capita doctrinae theologicae de quibus mandatu, illustrissimi principis ac domini, D. Iohannis Casimiri, Comites Palatini ad Rhenum, Ducis Bauariae, tutoris accessit eiusdem Iohannis Iacobi Grynaeus synopsis orationis, quam de disputationis euentu, congressione nona, quae indicit in 15 Aprilis, publicè habuit._ (in Latin) (Editio tertia ed.). Heidelbergae: Typis Iacobi Mylij. OCLC 123471534 . 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584 * ^ "1649 use of _æræ Christianæ_ in English book – 1st usage found in English". Retrieved 2011-05-18. WING, Vincent (1649). _Speculum uranicum, anni æræ Christianæ, 1649, or, An almanack and prognosication for the year of our Lord, 1649 being the first from bissextile or leap-year, and from the creation of the world 5598, wherein is contained many useful, pleasant and necessary observations, and predictions ... : calculated (according to art) for the meridian and latitude of the ancient borrough town of Stamford in Lincolnshire ... and without sensible errour may serve the 3. kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland_. London: J.L. for the Company of Stationers. anni æræ Christianæ, 1649 * ^ _first appearance of "Christian Era" in English (1652)_. Retrieved 2016-11-02. Sliter, Robert (1652). _A celestiall glasse, or, Ephemeris for the year of the Christian era 1652 being the bissextile or leap-year: contayning the lunations, planetary motions, configurations & ecclipses for this present year ... : with many other things very delightfull and necessary for most sorts of men: calculated exactly and composed for ... Rochester_. London: Printed for the Company of Stationers. * ^ Gregory, David; John Nicholson; John Morphew (1715). _The Elements of Astronomy, Physical and Geometrical_. 1. London: printed for J. Nicholson, and sold by J. Morphew. p. 252. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Some say the World was created 3950 Years before the common Æra of Christ _Before Christ_ and _Christian Era_ appear on the same page 252, while _Vulgar Era_ appears on page 250 * ^ Sale, George; Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John (1759). _1759 use of common æra_. Printed for C. Bathurst. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Sale, George ; Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John (1759). _An Universal History: From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time _. 13. London: C. Bathurst p. 130. at which time they fixed that for their common era In this case, _their_ refers to the Jews. * ^ Von), Jakob Friedrich Bielfeld (Freiherr; Hooper, William (1770). _First-so-far found English usage of "before the common era", with "vulgar era" synonymous with "common era" (1770)_. Printed by G. Scott, for J. Robson and B. Law. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Hooper, William; Bielfeld, Jacob Friedrich (1770). _The Elements of Universal Erudition: Containing an Analytical Abridgment of the Sciences, Polite Arts, and Belles Lettres_. 2. London: G. Scott, printer, for J Robson, bookseller in New-Bond Street, and B. Law in Ave-Mary Lane. pp. 105, 63. in the year of the world 3692, and 312 years before the vulgar era.... The Spanish era began with the year of the world 3966, and 38 years before the common era (p63)
* ^ MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). _"vulgar era" in 1797 EB_. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 228 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Peter). Retrieved 2011-05-18. St Peter died in the 66th year of the vulgar era
MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). _"common era" in 1797 EB_. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 50 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Paul). Retrieved 2011-05-18. This happened in the 33rd year of the common era, fome time after our Saviour's death. George Gleig, ed. (1797). _Encyclopædia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature (Third Edition in 18 volumes)_. Edinburgh. v. 14 pt. 1 P. * ^ Alexander Campbell (1835). _The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition_. pp. 16–20. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ Alexander Campbell (1835). _The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition_. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ "Foremost among these is that which is now adopted by all civilized peoples and known as the Christian, Vulgar or Common Era, in the twentieth century of which we are now living". * ^ Encyclopedia, Popular (1874). _"common era of the Jews" (1874)_. Retrieved 2011-05-18. the common era of the Jews places the creation in BC 3760 A. Whitelaw , ed. (1874). _Conversations Lexicon_. _The Popular Encyclopedia_. V. Oxford University Press. p. 207. * ^ _"common era of the Jews" (1858)_. Wertheim, MacIntosh & Hunt. 1858. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Hence the present year, 1858, in the common era of the Jews, is AM 5618-5619, a difference of more than 200 years from our commonly-received chronology. Rev. Bourchier Wrey Savile, MA (1858). _The first and second Advent: or, The past and the future with reference to the Jew, the Gentile, and the Church of God_. London: Wertheim, Macintosh and Hunt. p. 176. * ^ Gumpach, Johannes von (1856). _"common era of the Mahometans" (1856)_. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Its epoch is the first of March old style. The common era of the Mahometans, as has already been stated, is that of the flight of Mahomet. Johannes von Gumpach (1856). _Practical tables for the reduction of Mahometan dates to the Christian calendar_. Oxford University. p. 4. * ^ Jones, William (1801). _"common era of the world" (1801)_. F. and C. Rivington. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Jones, William (1801). _The Theological, Philosophical and Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. William Jones_. London: Rivington. * ^ Alexander Fraser Tytler, HON (1854). _"common era of the foundation of Rome" (1854)_. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Alexander Fraser Tytler , Lord Woodhouselee (1854). _Universal History: From the Creation of the World to the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century_. Boston: Fetridge and Company. p. 284. * ^ Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1833). _"common era of the Incarnation" (1833)_. A. & C. Black. Retrieved 2011-05-18. _The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature_. V (9 ed.). New York: Henry G. Allen and Company. 1833. p. 711. * ^ Todd, James Henthorn (1864). _"common era" "of the Nativity" (1864)_. Hodges, Smith & co. Retrieved 2011-05-18. It should be observed, however, that these years correspond to 492 and 493, a portion of the annals of Ulster being counted from the Incarnation, and being, therefore, one year before the common era of the Nativity of our Lord. James Henthorn Todd (1864). _St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, A Memoir of his Life and Mission_. Dublin: Hodges, Smith & Co, Publishers to the University. pp. 495, 496, 497. * ^ _"common era of the birth of Christ" (1812)_. printed by A.J. Valpy for T. Payne. 1812. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Heneage Elsley (1812). _Annotations on the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles (2nd edition)_ (2nd ed.). London: A. J. Valpy for T. Payne. xvi. * ^ C.f. every good Latin dictionary, e.g., perseus.tufts.edu, freedict.com, pons (English/German), pons (German) or auxilium-online.net (German) * ^ "What is Thelema?". Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ Tracey R Rich. "Judaism 101". Retrieved 2011-05-18. Jews do not generally use the words "A.D." and "B.C." to refer to the years on the Gregorian calendar. "A.D." means "the year of our L-rd ," and we do not believe Jesus is the L-rd. Instead, we use the abbreviations C.E. (Common or Christian Era) and B.C.E. (Before the Common Era). * ^ "Plymouth, England Tombstone inscriptions". Jewish Communities & Records. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Here is buried his honour Judah ben his honour Joseph, a prince and honoured amongst philanthropists, who executed good deeds, died in his house in the City of Bath, Tuesday, and was buried here on Sunday, 19 Sivan in the year 5585. In memory of Lyon Joseph Esq (merchant of Falmouth, Cornwall). who died at Bath June AM 5585/VE 1825. Beloved and respected. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gormley, Michael (24 April 2005). "Use of B.C. and A.D. faces changing times". Houston Chronicle . p. A–13. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ Raphall, Morris Jacob (1856). Post-Biblical History of The Jews. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=r7CbDH5hTe8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=CE+BCE. * ^ Raphall, Morris Jacob (1856). _Search for_ era _in this book._ Moss & Brother. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=BCE%2CBC%2CCE%2CAD&year_start=1808&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=10&share= convert these expressions to A.D. and B.C." (In section I 5 the Society explains how to use "years B.P." in connection with radiocarbon ages .) Society for Historical Archaeology (December 2006). "Style Guide" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-04-19. Retrieved 2017-01-16. whereas the American Anthropological Association style guide takes a different approach calling for "C.E." and "B.C.E." American Anthropological Society (2009). "AAA Style Guide" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 2015-05-26. * ^ "Submission Guidelines for _The Ostracon_". _The Ostracon – Journal of the Egyptian Studies Society_. Archived from the original on June 12, 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-18. For dates, please use the now-standard "BCE–CE" notation, rather than "BC–AD." Authors with strong religious preferences may use "BC–AD," however. * ^ "Maryland Church News Submission Guide ">(PDF). _Maryland Church News_. 1 April 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ "AP: World History". Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ "Jerusalem Timeline". History Channel. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18. ;"Jerusalem: Biographies". History Channel. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ "AD and BC become CE/BCE". 9 February 2002. Archived from the original on December 20, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05. * ^ "State School Board reverses itself on B.C./A.D. controversy". Family Foundation of Kentucky. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ Joe Biesk (15 June 2006). "School board keeps traditional historic designations". Louisville Courier-Journal. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ "Kentucky Board of Education Report" (PDF). Kentucky Board of Education Report. 10 June 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ "Australia goes all PC with a ban on BC: Birth of Jesus to be removed as reference point for dates in school history books". _Daily Mail_. London. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05. * ^ "AD/BC rock solid in curriculum". _The Age_. Melbourne. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-04. * ^ _The American and English Encyclopedia of Law and Practice_. 1910. p. 1116. It has been said of the Latin words anno Domini, meaning in the year of our Lord * ^ Michael McDowell; Nathan Robert Brown (2009). _World Religions At Your Fingertips_. Penguin. p. 38. ISBN 9781101014691 . Marked by the turn of the Common Era, C.E., originally referred to as A.D., an abbreviation of the Latin _Anno Domini_, meaning " Year of our God/Lord." This was a shortening of _ Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi_, meaning " Year of our God/Lord Jesus Christ." * ^ "Comments on the use of CE and BCE to identify dates in history". ReligiousTolerance.com. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ Lefevere, Patricia (1998-12-11). "Annan: \'Peace is never a perfect achievement\' – United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan". National Catholic Reporter. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2008-02-26. * ^ Annan, Kofi A., (then Secretary-General of the United Nations) (28 June 1999). "Common values for a common era: Even as we cherish our diversity, we need to discover our shared values". Civilization: The Magazine of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1997/08/17/magazine/bc-ad-or-bce-ce.html%7Ctitle=B.C./A.D. or B.C.E./C.E.? author=Safire, William date=17 August 1997 * ^ Whitney, Susan (2 December 2006). "Altering history? Changes have some asking \'Before what?\'". The Deseret News. Retrieved 2011-05-18. I find this attempt to restructure history offensive," Lori Weintz wrote, in a letter to National Geographic publishers.... The forward to your book says B.C. and A.D. were removed so as to 'not impose the standards of one culture on others.'... It's 2006 this year for anyone on Earth that is participating in day-to-day world commerce and communication. Two thousand six years since what? Most people know, regardless of their belief system, and aren't offended by a historical fact. * ^ "On Retaining The Traditional Method Of Calendar Dating (B.C./A.D.)". Southern Baptist Convention . June 2000. Retrieved 2011-05-18. This practice is the result of the secularization, anti-supernaturalism, religious pluralism, and political correctness pervasive in our society... retention is a reminder to those in this secular age of the importance of Christ's life and mission and emphasizes to all that history is ultimately His Story. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). _The Columbia Guide to Standard American English – A.D., B.C., (A.)C.E., B.C.E._ Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-06989-2 . Retrieved 2011-05-18. A.D. appears either before or after the number of the year... although conservative use has long preferred before only; B.C. always follows the number of the year.... Common era (C.E.) itself needs a good deal of further justification, in view of its clearly Christian numbering. Most conservatives still prefer A.D. and B.C. Best advice: don't use B.C.E., C.E., or A.C.E. to replace B.C. and A.D. without translating the new terms for the very large number of readers who will not understand them. Note too that if we do end by casting aside the A.D./B.C. convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system itself, given its Christian basis. * ^ Panikkar, Raimon (2004). "Christophany: The Fullness of Man". Maryville, NY: Orbis Books: 173. ISBN 978-1-57075-564-4 . Retrieved 2011-05-18. Here is an example of the incarnation's historical-sociological implications among those who feel themselves furthest from Christianity. In certain North American academic circles one can see a return-with repercussions elsewhere-to the most bigoted Christian colonialism, along with the good intention of overcoming it. It has been suggested that the terminology of the Western calendar, Christian in origin, be replaced by one that presumably would be neutral and universal. It is understandable that some would protest the use of A.D. (anno Domini), but by eliminating B.C. (before Christ) and substituting B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) scholars betray the depths of the cultural impact of the historico-Christian event. After all, Jesus was not born in the year 1. We select a single event but without any value judgment. To call our age "the Common Era," even though for the Jews, the Chinese, the Tamil, the Muslims, and many others it is not a common era, constitutes the acme of colonialism. * ^ Simon, Stephanie (22 June 2007). "A conservative\'s answer to Wikipedia". _Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved 2011-05-18. * ^ Conservapedia Commandments at Conservapedia * ^ "Major Rule Changes in The Chicago Manual of Style, Fifteenth Edition". University of Chicago Press. 2003. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Certain abbreviations traditionally set in small caps are now in full caps (AD, BCE, and the like), with small caps an option. * ^ _SBL Handbook of Style_ Society of Biblical Literature 1999 "8.1.2 ERAS - The preferred style is B.C.E. and C.E. (with periods). If you use A.D. and B.C., remember that A.D. precedes the date and B.C. follows it. (For the use of these abbreviations in titles, see §220.127.116.11.)" * ^ _A_ _B_ "GERMANY: Jewish Joke". _Time_. 7 March 1938. Retrieved 2012-02-05. * ^ _Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums. Ein unpartheiisches Organ für alles jüdische Interesse_, II. Jahrgang, No. 60, Leipzig, 19. Mai 1838 (19 May 1838). See page 175 in Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums: Ein unpartheiisches Organ für alles jüdische Interesse in Betreff von Politik, Religion, Literatur, Geschichte, Sprachkunde und Belletristik, Volume 2 (Leipzig 1838). * ^ Julius Fürst , _Geschichte des Karäerthums von 900 bis 1575 der gewöhnlichen Zeitrechnung_ (Leipzig 1862–1869). * ^ See page 149 in Weiße Blätter issue May 1938 Archived 2012-01-19 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Writing Dates in Spanish". Retrieved 2012-02-05. * ^ "Welsh-Termau-Cymraeg Archives". JISCMail. 19 October 2006. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
* _ The dictionary definition of Common_Era#Translations at Wiktionary * Whatever happened to B.C. and A.D., and why? (United Church of Christ) * Response by Awake!_ to a reader upset by the use of _B.C.E._ and _C.E._ (Jehovah's Witnesses)
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