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The BBC HOME SERVICE was a British national radio station that broadcast from 1939 until 1967, when it became the current BBC Radio 4 .

CONTENTS

* 1 Development * 2 Second World War * 3 Post-war * 4 Regions

* 5 Programming

* 5.1 Music * 5.2 Schools * 5.3 Reorganisation

* 6 BBC Radio 4

* 7 Regional radio legacy

* 7.1 "Broadcasting in the Seventies" * 7.2 National regions * 7.3 South West region * 7.4 East Anglia region * 7.5 English regional news bulletins

* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

DEVELOPMENT

Between the 1920s and the outbreak of the Second World War , the BBC developed two nationwide radio services, the BBC National Programme and the BBC Regional Programme . As well as a "basic" service programmed from London , the Regional Programme included programming originating in six regions. Although the programme items attracting the greatest number of listeners tended to appear on the National, the two services were not streamed: they were each designed to appeal "across the board" to a single, but variegated, audience by offering between them and at most times of the day a choice of programme type, rather than simply catering, each of them exclusively, to two distinct audiences.

SECOND WORLD WAR

On 1 September 1939, the BBC merged the two programmes into one national service from London. The reasons given included the need to prevent enemy aircraft from using differentiated output from the Regional Programme's transmitters as navigational beacons. To this end, the former regional transmitters were synchronised in chains on (initially) two frequencies, 668 (South) and 767 kHz (North), with an additional chain of low-powered transmitters (known as "Group H") on 1474 kHz appearing later. Under this arrangement regional broadcasting in its pre-war form was no longer feasible, but much of the programming was gradually decentralised to the former regional studios because of the risks from enemy attack/bombing/invasion in London, and broadcast nationally.

The new service was named the Home Service, which was also the internal designation at the BBC for domestic radio broadcasting (the organisation had also had Television Service and Overseas Service departments).

POST-WAR

On 29 July 1945, the BBC resumed its previous regional structure, though true regional radio stations would not return till the 1970s, and began "streaming" its radio services. Following the wartime success of the Forces and General Forces Programmes, light entertainment was transferred to the new BBC Light Programme , whilst "heavier" programming – news, drama, discussion, etc – remained on the regionalised Home Service.

Popular light programming, such as _ITMA _, remained on the Home Service, and some speech programming of the type pioneered by the Forces Programmes – the newly launched _Woman\'s Hour _ being very much in this mould – was on the Light Programme.

REGIONS

The Home Service had seven regions. London and South East England was served by the "basic" Home Service, which was not considered a region by the BBC and acted as the sustaining service for the other regions.

A shortage of frequencies meant that the Northern Ireland Regional Home Service was treated as part of the North Regional Home Service, as the Northern Ireland service used the same frequency as a North service booster. The Northern Ireland service was separated from the North region on 7 January 1963.

REGION HOME CITY Wavelength (m ) Frequency (kHz )

_Booster signal wavelengths and frequencies in parentheses_

_n/a_ London 330 (202) 908 (1484)

Midland Birmingham 276 1088

North Manchester 434 (261, 202) 692 (1151, 1484)

West Bristol 285 206 1052 1457

Welsh Cardiff 341 881

Scottish Glasgow 371 809

Northern Ireland Belfast Until 1963: 261 1151

From 1963: 224 1340

PROGRAMMING

The Service provided between five and seven national news bulletins a day from London, and drama, talks and informational programmes. Non-topical talk programmes and heavier drama output were transferred to the BBC Third Programme when it began broadcasting on 29 September 1946.

MUSIC

During the day, the Service included programmes of classical music. These were reduced in number when government limits on radio broadcasting hours were relaxed in 1964 and the BBC Music Programme began broadcasting during the daytime on the frequencies of the (evening-only) Third Programme . They disappeared when the Music Programme began regular 0700–1830 broadcasting daily on 22 March 1965.

SCHOOLS

The Service broadcast educational programmes for schools during the day, backed with booklets and support material.

REORGANISATION

Programmes were reorganised across the three BBC networks on 30 September 1957, with much of the Service's lighter content transferring to the Light Programme and the establishment of the BBC Third Network, which used the frequencies of the Third Programme to carry the Service's adult education content ( BBC Study Session) and the Home and Light's sports coverage ( BBC Sports Service) as well as the Third Programme itself.

BBC RADIO 4

Main article: BBC Radio 4

On 30 September 1967, the BBC split the Light Programme into a pop music service and an entertainment network. The Light Programme became BBC Radio 1 and BBC Radio 2 . The BBC Third Programme became BBC Radio 3 , with the Music Programme losing its separate identity (the Third Programme, Study Session, and Sports Service retained their identities under the banner of BBC Network Three until 4 April 1970). The Home Service was renamed BBC Radio 4 .

REGIONAL RADIO LEGACY

Initially, Radio 4 continued to provide for regional programming and scheduling, and the BBC's programme journal _ Radio Times _ listed the channel's offerings under the heading " BBC Radio Four - Home Service", with particular reference to the seven broadcasting regions: London, Midland, North, Northern Ireland, Scottish, Welsh, and West.

"BROADCASTING IN THE SEVENTIES"

With the introduction of BBC Local Radio , starting with BBC Radio Leicester on 8 November 1967, it was felt that the future of non-national broadcasting lay in local rather than regional services. The BBC produced a report, "Broadcasting in the Seventies", on 10 July 1969, proposing the reorganisation of programmes on the national networks and the end of regional broadcasting.

The report began to be implemented on 4 April 1970 and the Home Service regions gradually disappeared, with some of their frequencies reallocated to Independent Local Radio , until 23 November 1978 when Radio 4 was given the national longwave frequency previously used by Radio 2 and was relaunched as Radio 4 UK, with two additional longwave transmitters opened in Scotland.

NATIONAL REGIONS

The "national regions" became BBC Radio Scotland , BBC Radio Wales / BBC Radio Cymru and BBC Radio Ulster , at first relaying the majority of Radio 4 programming but later becoming completely independent.

SOUTH WEST REGION

The last Regional Home Service was an FM opt-out of Radio 4 for Devon and Cornwall as the "South West Region", also carried on several low power medium-wave transmitters, which continued until BBC Radio Cornwall and BBC Radio Devon opened on 17 January 1983.

EAST ANGLIA REGION

During the 1970s Radio 4 FM in the East of England ( Tacolneston , Peterborough and relays) carried a breakfast magazine programme, _ Roundabout East Anglia _, the region lacking any BBC Local Radio. The service closed in advance of the opening of BBC Radio Norfolk in 1980.

ENGLISH REGIONAL NEWS BULLETINS

Radio 4 FM continued to carry four daily five-minute regional news bulletins on Mondays to Saturdays until the early 1980s, by which time BBC Local Radio had reached most areas of England. The wide coverage of the Holme Moss transmitter meant that listeners in much of Northern England received combined North and North-West news.

SEE ALSO

* BBC Radio * Timeline of the BBC * Stations of the BBC * BBC English Regions * Radio drama

NOTES

* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-04. * ^ _A_ _B_ " BBC Radio Norfolk\'s 25th anniversary". BBC.co.uk . 9 September 2005. Retrieved 10 February 2012.

REFERENCES

* _ BBC Year Book 1947_ (various authors), London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1947. * _ BBC Year Book 1948_ (various authors), London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1948. * _ BBC Handbook 1967_ (various authors), London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1967. * _ BBC Handbook 1972_ (various authors), London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1972. * _ BBC Annual Report and Handbook 1987_ (various authors), London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1986 . ISBN 0-563-20542-3 . * Paulu