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BBC
BBC
News is an operational business division[1] of the British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage.[2][3] The service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world.[4] James Harding has been Director of News and Current Affairs since April 2013.[5] The department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million; it has 3,500 staff, 2,000 of whom are journalists.[2] BBC
BBC
News' domestic, global and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is produced and broadcast from studios in Millbank
Millbank
in London. Through the BBC
BBC
English Regions, the BBC
BBC
also has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes. The BBC
BBC
is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, and required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets, though, it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years 1.2 1950s 1.3 1960s

1.3.1 Television News moves to Television Centre

1.4 1970s 1.5 1980s 1.6 1990s 1.7 2000s 1.8 2010s

2 Broadcasting
Broadcasting
media

2.1 Television 2.2 Radio 2.3 Online

3 Opinions

3.1 Political and commercial independence 3.2 India 3.3 Hutton Inquiry 3.4 Israeli-Palestinian conflict 3.5 Partners 3.6 The view of foreign governments

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

History[edit] Early years[edit]

“ This is London
London
calling – 2LO
2LO
calling. Here is the first general news bulletin, copyright by Reuters, Press Association, Exchange Telegraph and Central News. ”

—  BBC
BBC
news programme opening during the 1920s[6]

The British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station 2LO
2LO
on 14 November 1922.[7] Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC
BBC
from broadcasting news before 7 PM, and to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own.[6] On Easter weekend in 1930 (18 April), this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead.[8] The BBC
BBC
gradually gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.[6] Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC
BBC
producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel
Newsreel
programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel
Newsreel
was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers.[9] The network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben.[6] Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace
Alexandra Palace
in London.[10][not in citation given] The public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people[11] viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time.[12] Those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London
London
to Alexandra Palace for transmission, and then on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event.[13] That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, and four and a half million by 1955. 1950s[edit] Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still firmly under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the then BBC
BBC
television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown.[14] This was then followed by the customary Television Newsreel
Newsreel
with a recorded commentary by John Snagge (and on other occasions by Andrew Timothy). It was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were finally introduced a year later in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall
Kenneth Kendall
(the first to appear in vision), Robert Dougall, and Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950[15] to larger premises – mainly at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs (then known as Talks Department) with it. It was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby
Richard Dimbleby
becoming anchor in 1955.[16] On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it already maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London
London
on the Home Service.[17] In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of News and Current Affairs. He set up a BBC
BBC
study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control (away from radio), and that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day.[18] 1960s[edit] On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC
BBC
Television and BBC
BBC
Television News. BBC
BBC
Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN. The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC
BBC
reporting more similar to ITN
ITN
which had been highly rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too.[19] In 1987, almost thirty years later, John Birt resurrected the practice of correspondents working for both TV and radio with the introduction of bi-media journalism,[20] and 2008 saw tri-media introduced across TV, radio, and online. On 20 June 1960, Nan Winton, the first female BBC
BBC
network newsreader, appeared in vision.[21] 19 September saw the start of the radio news and current affairs programme The Ten O'clock News.[22] BBC2 started transmission on 20 April 1964, and with it came a new news programme for that channel, Newsroom. The World at One, a lunchtime news programme, began on 4 October 1965 on the then Home Service, and the year before News Review had started on television. News Review was a summary of the week's news, first broadcast on Sunday, 26 April 1964[23] on BBC
BBC
2 and harking back to the weekly Newsreel
Newsreel
Review of the Week, produced from 1951, to open programming on Sunday evenings–the difference being that this incarnation had subtitles for the deaf and hard-of-hearing. As this was the decade before electronic caption generation, each superimposition ("super") had to be produced on paper or card, synchronised manually to studio and news footage, committed to tape during the afternoon, and broadcast early evening. Thus Sundays were no longer a quiet day for news at Alexandra Palace. The programme ran until the 1980s[24] – by then using electronic captions, known as Anchor – to be superseded by Ceefax
Ceefax
subtitling (a similar Teletext
Teletext
format), and the signing of such programmes as See Hear (from 1981). On Sunday 17 September 1967, The World This Weekend, a weekly news and current affairs programme, launched on what was then Home Service, but soon-to-be Radio 4. Preparations for colour began in the autumn of 1967 and on Thursday 7 March 1968 Newsroom on BBC2 moved to an early evening slot, becoming the first UK news programme to be transmitted in colour[25] – from Studio A at Alexandra Palace. News Review and Westminster (the latter a weekly review of Parliamentary happenings) were "colourised" shortly after. However, much of the insert material was still in black and white, as initially only a part of the film coverage shot in and around London was on colour reversal film stock, and all regional and many international contributions were still in black and white. Colour facilities at Alexandra Palace
Alexandra Palace
were technically very limited for the next eighteen months, as it had only one RCA
RCA
colour Quadruplex videotape machine and, eventually two Pye plumbicon colour telecines–although the news colour service started with just one. Black and white national bulletins on BBC
BBC
1 continued to originate from Studio B on weekdays, along with Town and Around, the London regional "opt out" programme broadcast throughout the 1960s (and the BBC's first regional news programme for the South East), until it started to be replaced by Nationwide on Tuesday to Thursday from Lime Grove Studios early in September 1969. Town and Around was never to make the move to Television Centre – instead it became London This Week which aired on Mondays and Fridays only, from the new TVC studios.[26] Television News moves to Television Centre[edit]

Television News moved to BBC
BBC
Television Centre in September 1969.

The final news programme to come from Alexandra Palace
Alexandra Palace
was a late night news on BBC2 on Friday 19 September 1969 in colour. It was said that over this September weekend, it took 65 removal vans to transfer the contents of Alexandra Palace
Alexandra Palace
across London.[27] BBC
BBC
Television News resumed operations the next day with a lunchtime bulletin on BBC1 – in black and white – from Television Centre, where it remained until March 2013. This move to better technical facilities, but much smaller studios, allowed Newsroom and News Review to replace back projection with Colour-separation overlay. It also allowed all news output to be produced in PAL
PAL
colour, ahead of the transition of BBC1 to colour from 15 November 1969 – and, like Alexandra Palace
Alexandra Palace
Studio A, these studios too were capable of operating in NTSC
NTSC
for the US, Canada, and Japan as the BBC
BBC
occasionally provided facilities for overseas broadcasters. During the 1960s, satellite communication had become possible,[28] however colour field-store standards converters were still in their infancy in 1968,[29] and it was some years before digital line-store conversion was able to undertake the process seamlessly.[30] 1970s[edit]

Angela Rippon, pictured in 1983, became the first female news presenter in 1975.

On 14 September 1970, the first Nine O'Clock News was broadcast on television. Robert Dougall
Robert Dougall
presented the first week from studio N1[31] – described by The Guardian[32] as "a sort of polystyrene padded cell"[33]—the bulletin having been moved from the earlier time of 20.50 as a response to the ratings achieved by ITN's News at Ten, introduced three years earlier on the rival ITV. Richard Baker and Kenneth Kendall
Kenneth Kendall
presented subsequent weeks, thus echoing those first television bulletins of the mid-1950s. Angela Rippon
Angela Rippon
became the first female news presenter of the Nine O'Clock News in 1975. Her work outside the news was controversial at the time, appearing on The Morecambe and Wise
Morecambe and Wise
Christmas Show in 1976 singing and dancing.[31] The first edition of John Craven's Newsround, initially intended only as a short series and later renamed just Newsround, came from studio N3 on 4 April 1972. Afternoon television news bulletins during the mid to late 1970s were broadcast from the BBC
BBC
newsroom itself, rather than one of the three news studios. The newsreader would present to camera while sitting on the edge of a desk; behind him staff would be seen working busily at their desks. This period corresponded with when the Nine O'Clock News got its next makeover, and would use a CSO background of the newsroom from that very same camera each weekday evening. Also in the mid-1970s, the late night news on BBC2 was briefly renamed Newsnight,[34] but this was not to last, or be the same programme as we know today – that would be launched in 1980 – and it soon reverted to being just a news summary with the early evening BBC2 news expanded to become Newsday. News on radio was to change in the 1970s, and on Radio 4 in particular, brought about by the arrival of new editor Peter Woon from television news and the implementation of the Broadcasting
Broadcasting
in the Seventies report. These included the introduction of correspondents into news bulletins where previously only a newsreader would present, as well as the inclusion of content gathered in the preparation process. New programmes were also added to the daily schedule, PM and The World Tonight as part of the plan for the station to become a "wholly speech network".[32] Newsbeat launched as the news service on Radio 1 on 10 September 1973.[35] On 23 September 1974, a teletext system which was launched to bring news content on television screens using text only was launched. Engineers originally began developing such a system to bring news to deaf viewers, but the system was expanded. The Ceefax
Ceefax
service became much more diverse before it ceased on 23 October 2012: it not only had subtitling for all channels, it also gave information such as weather, flight times and film reviews. By the end of the decade, the practice of shooting on film for inserts in news broadcasts was declining, with the introduction of ENG technology into the UK. The equipment would gradually become less cumbersome – the BBC's first attempts had been using a Philips colour camera with backpack base station and separate portable Sony U-matic
U-matic
recorder in the latter half of the decade. 1980s[edit] By 1982, ENG technology had become sufficiently reliable for Bernard Hesketh to use an Ikegami camera to cover the Falklands War, coverage for which he won the " Royal Television Society Cameraman of the Year" award[36] and a BAFTA
BAFTA
nomination[37] – the first time that BBC
BBC
News had relied upon an electronic camera, rather than film, in a conflict zone. BBC
BBC
News won the BAFTA
BAFTA
for its actuality coverage,[38] however the event has become remembered in television terms for Brian Hanrahan's reporting where he coined the phrase "I'm not allowed to say how many planes joined the raid, but I counted them all out and I counted them all back"[39] to circumvent restrictions, and which has become cited as an example of good reporting under pressure.[40] Two years earlier, the Iranian Embassy Siege
Iranian Embassy Siege
had been shot electronically by the BBC
BBC
Television News Outside broadcasting
Outside broadcasting
team, and the work of reporter Kate Adie, broadcasting live from Prince's Gate, was nominated for BAFTA
BAFTA
actuality coverage, but this time beaten by ITN
ITN
for the 1980 award.[41] Newsnight, the news and current affairs programme, was due to go on air on 23 January 1980, although trade union disagreements meant that its launch from Lime Grove was postponed by a week.[20] On 27 August 1981 Moira Stuart became the first African Caribbean female newsreader to appear on British television. The first BBC
BBC
breakfast television programme, Breakfast Time
Breakfast Time
also launched during the 1980s, on 17 January 1983 from Lime Grove Studio E and two weeks before its ITV rival TV-am. Frank Bough, Selina Scott, and Nick Ross
Nick Ross
helped to wake viewers with a relaxed style of presenting.[42] The Six O'Clock News first aired on 3 September 1984, eventually becoming the most watched news programme in the UK (however, since 2006 it has been overtaken by the BBC
BBC
News at Ten). In October 1984, images of millions of people starving to death in the Ethiopian famine were shown in Michael Buerk's Six O'Clock News reports.[43] The BBC News crew were the first to document the famine, with Buerk's report on 23 October describing it as "a biblical famine in the 20th century" and "the closest thing to hell on Earth".[44] The BBC
BBC
News report shocked Britain, motivating its citizens to inundate relief agencies, such as Save the Children, with donations, and to bring world attention to the crisis in Ethiopia.[45] The news report was also watched by Bob Geldof, who would organise the charity single "Do They Know It's Christmas?" to raise money for famine relief followed by the Live Aid
Live Aid
concert in July 1985.[43] Starting in 1981, the BBC
BBC
gave a common theme to its main news bulletins with new electronic titles–a set of computer animated "stripes" forming a circle[46] on a red background with a " BBC
BBC
News" typescript appearing below the circle graphics, and a theme tune consisting of brass and keyboards. The Nine used a similar (striped) number 9. The red background was replaced by a blue from 1985 until 1987. By 1987, the BBC
BBC
had decided to re-brand its bulletins and established individual styles again for each one with differing titles and music, the weekend and holiday bulletins branded in a similar style to the Nine, although the "stripes" introduction continued to be used until 1989 on occasions where a news bulletin was screened out of the running order of the schedule.[47] 1990s[edit]

The combined newsroom for domestic television and radio was opened at Television Centre in West London
London
in 1998.

During the 1990s, a wider range of services began to be offered by BBC News, with the split of BBC
BBC
World Service Television to become BBC World (news and current affairs), and BBC
BBC
Prime (light entertainment). Content for a 24-hour news channel was thus required, followed in 1997 with the launch of domestic equivalent BBC
BBC
News 24. Rather than set bulletins, ongoing reports and coverage was needed to keep both channels functioning and meant a greater emphasis in budgeting for both was necessary. In 1998, after 66 years at Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House, the BBC
BBC
Radio News operation moved to BBC
BBC
Television Centre.[48] New technology, provided by Silicon Graphics, came into use in 1993 for a re-launch of the main BBC
BBC
1 bulletins, creating a virtual set which appeared to be much larger than it was physically. The relaunch also brought all bulletins into the same style of set with only small changes in colouring, titles, and music to differentiate each. A computer generated glass sculpture of the BBC
BBC
coat of arms was the centrepiece of the programme titles until the large scale corporate rebranding of news services in 1999. In 1999, the biggest relaunch occurred, with BBC
BBC
One bulletins, BBC World, BBC
BBC
News 24, and BBC
BBC
News Online all adopting a common style. One of the most significant changes was the gradual adoption of the corporate image by the BBC
BBC
regional news programmes, giving a common style across local, national and international BBC
BBC
television news. This also included Newyddion, the main news programme of Welsh language channel S4C, produced by BBC
BBC
News Wales. 2000s[edit] Following the relaunch of BBC
BBC
News the previous year, regional headlines were included at the start of the BBC
BBC
One news bulletins in 2000. The English regions did however lose five minutes at the end of their bulletins, due to a new headline round-up at 18:55. 2000 also saw the Nine O'Clock News moved to the later time of 22:00. This was in response to ITN
ITN
who had just moved their popular News at Ten programme to 23:00. ITN
ITN
briefly returned News at Ten but following poor ratings when head to head against the BBC's Ten O'Clock News, the ITN
ITN
bulletin was moved to 22.30, where it remained until 14 January 2008. The retirement of Peter Sissons and departure of Michael Buerk
Michael Buerk
from the Ten O'Clock News led to changes in the BBC
BBC
One bulletin presenting team on 20 January 2003. The Six O'Clock News became double headed with George Alagiah
George Alagiah
and Sophie Raworth
Sophie Raworth
after Huw Edwards and Fiona Bruce moved to present the Ten. A new set design featuring a projected fictional newsroom backdrop was introduced, followed on 16 February 2004 by new programme titles to match those of BBC
BBC
News 24. BBC
BBC
News 24 and BBC
BBC
World introduced a new style of presentation in December 2003, that was slightly altered on 5 July 2004 to mark 50 years of BBC
BBC
Television News.[49] The individual positions of editor of the One and Six O'Clock News were replaced by a new daytime position in November 2005. Kevin Bakhurst became the first Controller of BBC
BBC
News 24, replacing the position of editor. Amanda Farnsworth became daytime editor while Craig Oliver was later named editor of the Ten O'Clock News. The bulletins also began to be simulcast with News 24, as a way of pooling resources. Bulletins received new titles and a new set design in May 2006, to allow for Breakfast to move into the main studio for the first time since 1997. The new set featured Barco videowall screens with a background of the London
London
skyline used for main bulletins and originally an image of cirrus clouds against a blue sky for Breakfast. This was later replaced following viewer criticism.[50] The studio bore similarities with the ITN-produced ITV News
ITV News
in 2004, though ITN uses a CSO Virtual studio rather than the actual screens at BBC
BBC
News. Also, May saw the launch of World News Today
World News Today
the first domestic bulletin focused principally on international news. BBC
BBC
News became part of a new BBC
BBC
Journalism group in November 2006 as part of a restructuring of the BBC. The then-Director of BBC
BBC
News, Helen Boaden
Helen Boaden
reported to the then-Deputy Director-General and head of the journalism group, Mark Byford until he was made redundant in 2010.[51] On 18 October 2007, Mark Thompson announced a six-year plan, Delivering Creative Future, merging the television current affairs department into a new "News Programmes" division.[52][53] Thompson's announcement, in response to a £2 billion shortfall in funding, would, he said, deliver "a smaller but fitter BBC" in the digital age, by cutting its payroll and, in 2013, selling Television Centre.[54] The various separate newsrooms for television, radio and online operations were merged into a single multimedia newsroom. Programme making within the newsrooms was brought together to form a multimedia programme making department. BBC
BBC
World Service director Peter Horrocks said that the changes would achieve efficiency at a time of cost-cutting at the BBC. In his blog, he wrote that by using the same resources across the various broadcast media meant fewer stories could be covered, or by following more stories, there would be fewer ways to broadcast them.[55] A new graphics and video playout system was introduced for production of television bulletins in January 2007. This coincided with a new structure to BBC
BBC
World News bulletins, editors favouring a section devoted to analysing the news stories reported on. The first new BBC
BBC
News bulletin since the Six O'Clock News was announced in July 2007 following a successful trial in the Midlands.[56] The summary, lasting 90 seconds, has been broadcast at 20:00 on weekdays since December 2007 and bears similarities with 60 Seconds on BBC
BBC
Three, but also includes headlines from the various BBC regions and a weather summary. As part of a long-term cost cutting programme, bulletins were renamed the BBC
BBC
News at One, Six and Ten respectively in April 2008 while BBC News 24 was renamed BBC
BBC
News and moved into the same studio as the bulletins at BBC
BBC
Television Centre.[57][58] BBC
BBC
World was renamed BBC World News and regional news programmes were also updated with the new presentation style, designed by Lambie-Nairn.[59] The studio moves also meant that Studio N9, previously used for BBC World, was closed, and operations moved to the previous studio of BBC News 24. Studio N9 was later refitted to match the new branding, and was used for the BBC's UK local elections and European elections coverage in early June 2009. 2010s[edit]

The new newsroom in Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House

A strategy review of the BBC
BBC
in March 2010, confirmed that having "the best journalism in the world" would form one of five key editorial policies, as part of changes subject to public consultation and BBC Trust approval.[60] After a period of suspension in late 2012, Helen Boaden
Helen Boaden
ceased to be the Director of BBC
BBC
News.[61] On 16 April 2013, incoming BBC Director-General Tony Hall named James Harding, a former editor of The Times of London
London
newspaper as Director of News and Current Affairs.[5] From August 2012 to March 2013, all news operations moved from Television Centre to new facilities in the refurbished and extended Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House, in Portland Place. The move began in October 2012, and also included the BBC
BBC
World Service, which moved from Bush House following the expiry of the BBC's lease. This new extension to the north and east, referred to as "New Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House", includes several new state-of-the-art radio and television studios centred around an 11-storey atrium.[62] The move began with the domestic programme The Andrew Marr Show
The Andrew Marr Show
on 2 September 2012, and concluded with the move of the BBC
BBC
News channel and domestic news bulletins on 18 March 2013.[63][64][65] The newsroom houses all domestic bulletins and programmes on both television and radio, as well as the BBC
BBC
World Service international radio networks and the BBC
BBC
World News international television channel. Broadcasting
Broadcasting
media[edit] Television[edit]

BBC
BBC
News helicopter in use over London

BBC
BBC
News is responsible for the news programmes – and some documentary content – on the BBC's general television channels, as well as the news coverage on the BBC
BBC
News Channel in the UK and 22 hours of programming for the corporation's BBC
BBC
World News channel internationally. Coverage for BBC
BBC
Parliament is carried out on behalf of the BBC
BBC
at Millbank
Millbank
Studios though BBC
BBC
News provides editorial and journalistic content. BBC
BBC
News content is also output onto the BBC's digital interactive television services under the BBC Red Button brand, and until 2012, on the Ceefax
Ceefax
teletext system. The distinctive music on all BBC
BBC
television news programmes was introduced in 1999 and composed by David Lowe. It was part of the extensive re-branding which commenced in 1999 and features the classic ' BBC
BBC
Pips'. The general theme was used not only on bulletins on BBC One but News 24, BBC
BBC
World and local news programmes in the BBC's Nations and Regions. Lowe was also responsible for the music on Radio One's Newsbeat. The theme has had several changes since 1999, the latest in March 2013. The BBC
BBC
Arabic Television news channel launched on 11 March 2008, a Persian-language channel followed on 14 January 2009, broadcasting from the Peel wing of Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House; both include news, analysis, interviews, sports and highly cultural programmes and are run by the BBC
BBC
World Service and funded from a grant-in-aid from the British Foreign Office (and not the television licence).[66] Radio[edit] BBC
BBC
Radio News produces bulletins for the BBC's national radio stations and provides content for local BBC
BBC
radio stations via the General News Service (GNS), a BBC-internal[67] news distribution service. BBC
BBC
News does not produce the BBC's regional news bulletins, which are produced individually by the BBC
BBC
nations and regions themselves. The BBC
BBC
World Service broadcasts to some 150 million people in English as well as 27 languages across the globe.[68] BBC Radio News is a patron of The Radio Academy.[69] Online[edit] Main article: BBC
BBC
News Online BBC
BBC
News Online is the BBC's news website. Launched in November 1997, it is one of the most popular news websites in the UK, reaching over a quarter of the UK's internet users, and worldwide, with around 14 million global readers every month.[70] The website contains international news coverage as well as entertainment, sport, science, and political news.[71] Mobile apps for Android, iOS and Windows Phone
Windows Phone
systems have been provided since 2010.[72] Many television and radio programmes are also available to view on the BBC
BBC
iPlayer service. The BBC
BBC
News channel is also available to view 24 hours a day, while video and radio clips are also available within online news articles.[73] Opinions[edit] Main articles: BBC
BBC
controversies and Criticism of the BBC Political and commercial independence[edit] The BBC
BBC
is required by its charter to be free from both political and commercial influence and answers only to its viewers and listeners. This political objectivity is sometimes questioned. For instance, The Daily Telegraph (3 August 2005) carried a letter from the KGB
KGB
defector Oleg Gordievsky, referring to it as "The Red Service". Books have been written on the subject, including anti- BBC
BBC
works like Truth Betrayed by W J West and The Truth Twisters by Richard Deacon. The BBC's Editorial Guidelines on Politics and Public Policy state that whilst "the voices and opinions of opposition parties must be routinely aired and challenged", "the government of the day will often be the primary source of news".[74] The BBC
BBC
is regularly accused by the government of the day of bias in favour of the opposition and, by the opposition, of bias in favour of the government. Similarly, during times of war, the BBC
BBC
is often accused by the UK government, or by strong supporters of British military campaigns, of being overly sympathetic to the view of the enemy. An edition of Newsnight
Newsnight
at the start of the Falklands War
Falklands War
in 1982 was described as "almost treasonable" by John Page, MP, who objected to Peter Snow
Peter Snow
saying "if we believe the British".[75] During the first Gulf War, critics of the BBC
BBC
took to using the satirical name "Baghdad Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation".[76] During the Kosovo War, the BBC
BBC
were labelled the "Belgrade Broadcasting Corporation" (suggesting favouritism towards the FR Yugoslavia government over ethnic Albanian rebels) by British ministers,[76] although Slobodan Milosević
Slobodan Milosević
(then FRY president) claimed that the BBC's coverage had been biased against his nation.[77] Conversely, some of those who style themselves anti-establishment in the United Kingdom or who oppose foreign wars have accused the BBC
BBC
of pro-establishment bias or of refusing to give an outlet to "anti-war" voices. Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
a study, by the Cardiff University School of Journalism, of the reporting of the war, found that nine out of 10 references to weapons of mass destruction during the war assumed that Iraq possessed them, and only one in 10 questioned this assumption. It also found that out of the main British broadcasters covering the war the BBC
BBC
was the most likely to use the British government and military as its source. It was also the least likely to use independent sources, like the Red Cross, who were more critical of the war. When it came to reporting Iraqi casualties the study found fewer reports on the BBC
BBC
than on the other three main channels. The report's author, Justin Lewis, wrote "Far from revealing an anti-war BBC, our findings tend to give credence to those who criticised the BBC
BBC
for being too sympathetic to the government in its war coverage. Either way, it is clear that the accusation of BBC anti-war bias fails to stand up to any serious or sustained analysis."[78] Prominent BBC
BBC
appointments are constantly assessed by the British media and political establishment for signs of political bias. The appointment of Greg Dyke
Greg Dyke
as Director-General was highlighted by press sources because Dyke was a Labour Party member and former activist, as well as a friend of Tony Blair. The BBC's former Political Editor, Nick Robinson, was some years ago a chairman of the Young Conservatives and did, as a result, attract informal criticism from the former Labour government, but his predecessor Andrew Marr
Andrew Marr
faced similar claims from the right because he was editor of The Independent, a liberal-leaning newspaper, before his appointment in 2000. Mark Thompson, former Director-General of the BBC, admitted the organisation has been biased "towards the left" in the past. He said, "In the BBC
BBC
I joined 30 years ago, there was, in much of current affairs, in terms of people's personal politics, which were quite vocal, a massive bias to the left".[79] He then added, "The organization did struggle then with impartiality. Now it is a completely different generation. There is much less overt tribalism among the young journalists who work for the BBC." Historian Mark Curtis finds that BBC
BBC
news resembles a "straightforward state propaganda organ" that provides "critical support for the [British and Western] elite’s promotion of foreign policy", such as the 2003 war of aggression against Iraq. He says this militant nationalism is "not even subtle", and, citing Glasgow university, says BBC
BBC
News is a chief example of "manufactured production of ideology.”[80] India[edit] In 2008, the BBC
BBC
was criticised by some for referring to the terrorists who carried out the November 2008 Mumbai attacks
November 2008 Mumbai attacks
as "gunmen".[81][82] The response to this added to prior criticism from some Indian commentators suggesting that the BBC
BBC
may have an Indophobic bias.[83] In March 2015, the BBC
BBC
was criticised for airing a documentary interviewing one of the rapists in India. In spite of a ban ordered by the Indian High court, the BBC
BBC
still aired the documentary.[84] But, the BBC
BBC
was supported by many others from the world for standing for justice, instead of coming under pressure of some Indian fundamentalist organizations.[85] Hutton Inquiry[edit] Main article: Hutton Inquiry BBC
BBC
News was at the centre of a political controversy following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Three BBC
BBC
News reports (Andrew Gilligan's on Today, Gavin Hewitt's on The Ten O'Clock News and another on Newsnight) quoted an anonymous source that stated the British government (particularly the Prime Minister's office) had embellished the September Dossier with misleading exaggerations of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capabilities. The government denounced the reports and accused the corporation of poor journalism. In subsequent weeks the corporation stood by the report, saying that it had a reliable source. Following intense media speculation, David Kelly was named in the press as the source for Gilligan's story on 9 July 2003. Kelly was found dead, by suicide, in a field close to his home early on 18 July. An inquiry led by Lord Hutton was announced by the British government the following day to investigate the circumstances leading to Kelly's death, concluding that "Dr. Kelly took his own life."[86] In his report on 28 January 2004, Lord Hutton concluded that Gilligan's original accusation was "unfounded" and the BBC's editorial and management processes were "defective". In particular, it specifically criticised the chain of management that caused the BBC
BBC
to defend its story. The BBC
BBC
Director of News, Richard Sambrook, the report said, had accepted Gilligan's word that his story was accurate in spite of his notes being incomplete. Davies had then told the BBC Board of Governors that he was happy with the story and told the Prime Minister that a satisfactory internal inquiry had taken place. The Board of Governors, under the chairman's, Gavyn Davies, guidance, accepted that further investigation of the Government's complaints were unnecessary. Because of the criticism in the Hutton report, Davies resigned on the day of publication. BBC
BBC
News faced an important test, reporting on itself with the publication of the report, but by common consent (of the Board of Governors) managed this "independently, impartially and honestly".[87] Davies' resignation was followed by the resignation of Director General, Greg Dyke, the following day, and the resignation of Gilligan on 30 January. While undoubtedly a traumatic experience for the corporation, an ICM poll in April 2003 indicated that it had sustained its position as the best and most trusted provider of news.[88] Israeli-Palestinian conflict[edit] See also: Criticism of the BBC
BBC
§ Middle East and Israel, and Balen Report The BBC
BBC
has faced accusations of holding both anti- Israel
Israel
and anti-Palestine bias. Douglas Davis, the London
London
correspondent of The Jerusalem Post, has described the BBC's coverage of the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
as "a relentless, one-dimensional portrayal of Israel
Israel
as a demonic, criminal state and Israelis as brutal oppressors [which] bears all the hallmarks of a concerted campaign of vilification that, wittingly or not, has the effect of delegitimising the Jewish state and pumping oxygen into a dark old European hatred that dared not speak its name for the past half-century.".[89] However two large independent studies, one conducted by Loughborough University and the other by Glasgow University's Media Group concluded that Israeli perspectives are given greater coverage.[90][91] Critics of the BBC
BBC
argue that the Balen Report proves systematic bias against Israel
Israel
in headline news programming. Daily Mail
Daily Mail
and The Daily Telegraph criticised the BBC
BBC
for spending hundreds of thousands of British tax payers' pounds from preventing the report being released to the public.[92][93] Jeremy Bowen, the Middle East Editor for BBC
BBC
world news, was singled out specifically for bias by the BBC
BBC
Trust which concluded that he violated " BBC
BBC
guidelines on accuracy and impartiality."[94] An independent panel appointed by the BBC
BBC
Trust was set up in 2006 to review the impartiality of the BBC's coverage of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[95] The panel's assessment was that "apart from individual lapses, there was little to suggest deliberate or systematic bias." While noting a "commitment to be fair accurate and impartial" and praising much of the BBC's coverage the independent panel concluded "that BBC
BBC
output does not consistently give a full and fair account of the conflict. In some ways the picture is incomplete and, in that sense, misleading." It notes that, "the failure to convey adequately the disparity in the Israeli and Palestinian experience, [reflects] the fact that one side is in control and the other lives under occupation". Writing in the Financial Times, Philip Stephens, one of the panellists, later accused the BBC's director-general, Mark Thompson, of misrepresenting the panel's conclusions. He further opined "My sense is that BBC
BBC
news reporting has also lost a once iron-clad commitment to objectivity and a necessary respect for the democratic process. If I am right, the BBC, too, is lost".[96] Mark Thompson published a rebuttal in the FT the next day.[97] The description by one BBC
BBC
correspondent reporting on the funeral of Yassir Arafat
Yassir Arafat
that she had been left with tears in her eyes led to other questions of impartiality, particularly from Martin Walker[98] in a guest opinion piece in The Times, who picked out the apparent case of Fayad Abu Shamala, the BBC
BBC
Arabic Service correspondent, who told a Hamas
Hamas
rally on 6 May 2001, that journalists in Gaza were "waging the campaign shoulder to shoulder together with the Palestinian people."[98] Walker argues that the independent inquiry was flawed for two reasons. Firstly, because the time period over which it was conducted (August 2005 to January 2006) surrounded the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza and Ariel Sharon's stroke, which produced more positive coverage than usual. Furthermore, he wrote, the inquiry only looked at the BBC's domestic coverage, and excluded output on the BBC
BBC
World Service and BBC
BBC
World.[98] Tom Gross
Tom Gross
accused the BBC
BBC
of glorifying Hamas
Hamas
suicide bombers, and condemned its policy of inviting guests such as Jenny Tonge
Jenny Tonge
and Tom Paulin who have compared Israeli soldiers to Nazis. Writing for the BBC, Paulin said Israeli soldiers should be "shot dead" like Hitler's S.S, and said he could "understand how suicide bombers feel."[citation needed] According to Gross, Paulin and Tonge continue to be invited as regular guests, and they are among the most frequent contributors to their most widely screened arts programme.[99] The BBC
BBC
also faced criticism for not airing a Disasters Emergency Committee aid appeal for Palestinians who suffered in Gaza during 22-day war there in late 2008/early 2009. Most other major UK broadcasters did air this appeal, but rival Sky News did not.[citation needed] British journalist Julie Burchill has accused BBC
BBC
of creating a "climate of fear" for British Jews over its "excessive coverage" of Israel
Israel
compared to other nations.[100] Partners[edit] BBC
BBC
and ABC share video segments and reporters as needed in producing their newscasts. with the BBC
BBC
showing ABC World News Tonight
ABC World News Tonight
with David Muir in the UK. However, in July 2017, BBC
BBC
announced a new partnership with CBS News
CBS News
allows both organisations to share video, editorial content, and additional newsgathering resources in New York, London, Washington and around the world.[101] BBC
BBC
News subscribes to wire services from leading international agencies including Press Association, Reuters, and Agence France-Press. In April 2017, the BBC
BBC
dropped Associated Press
Associated Press
in favour of an enhanced service from AFP.[102] The view of foreign governments[edit] BBC
BBC
News reporters and broadcasts are now and have in the past been banned in several countries primarily for reporting which has been unfavourable to the ruling government. For example, correspondents were banned by the former apartheid régime of South Africa. The BBC was banned in Zimbabwe under Mugabe[103] for eight years as a terrorist organisation until being allowed to operate again over a year after the 2008 elections.[104] The BBC
BBC
was banned in Burma (officially Myanmar) after their coverage and commentary on anti-government protests there in September 2007. The ban was lifted four years later in September 2011. Other cases have included Uzbekistan,[105] China,[106] and Pakistan.[107] The BBC online news site's Persian version was blocked from the Iranian internet in 2006.[108] The BBC
BBC
News website was made available in China again in March 2008,[109] but as of October 2014, was blocked again.[110] In June 2015, the Rwandan government placed an indefinite ban on BBC broadcasts following the airing of a controversial documentary regarding the 1994 Rwandan genocide, Rwanda's Untold Story, broadcast on BBC2 on 1 October 2014. The UK's Foreign Office recognised "the hurt caused in Rwanda by some parts of the documentary".[111] In February 2017, reporters from the BBC
BBC
(as well as the Daily Mail, The New York Times, Politico, CNN, and others) were denied access to a United States White House
White House
briefing.[112] See also[edit]

BBC
BBC
portal Journalism portal

BBC
BBC
newsreaders and journalists BBC
BBC
television news programmes List of BBC
BBC
newsreaders and reporters List of former BBC
BBC
newsreaders and journalists

References[edit]

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