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The British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in Westminster, London
London
and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation[3] and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting.[4][5][6][7][8] The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included.[9] The BBC
BBC
is established under a Royal Charter[10] and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport.[11] Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee[12] which is charged to all British households, companies, and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up.[13] The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament,[14] and used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, and online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has also funded the BBC
BBC
World Service (launched in 1932 as the BBC
BBC
Empire Service), which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, radio, and online services in Arabic
Arabic
and Persian. Around a quarter of BBC
BBC
revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd (formerly BBC
BBC
Worldwide), which sells BBC
BBC
programmes and services internationally and also distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC
BBC
World News, and from BBC.com, provided by BBC
BBC
Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War (where its broadcasts helped to unite the nation), to the 21st century, the BBC
BBC
has played a prominent role in British culture. It has also been known as “The Beeb”, and “Auntie”.

Contents

1 History

1.1 The birth of British broadcasting, 1920 to 1922 1.2 From private company towards public service corporation, 1923 to 1926 1.3 1927 to 1939 1.4 BBC
BBC
versus other media 1.5 1939 to 2001 1.6 2000 to 2011 1.7 2011 to present

2 Governance and corporate structure

2.1 Charter 2.2 BBC
BBC
Board 2.3 Executive Committee 2.4 Operational divisions 2.5 Commercial divisions

3 Finances

3.1 Revenue 3.2 Expenditure

4 Headquarters and regional offices 5 Technology ( Atos
Atos
service) 6 Services

6.1 Television

6.1.1 Genome Project

6.2 Radio 6.3 News 6.4 Internet 6.5 Interactive television 6.6 Music 6.7 Other 6.8 Ceefax 6.9 BritBox

7 Commercial activities 8 Cultural significance

8.1 Attitudes toward the BBC
BBC
in popular culture

9 Controversy and criticism 10 Logos and symbols of the BBC 11 See also 12 References

12.1 Citations 12.2 Sources

13 External links

History Further information: Timeline of the BBC The birth of British broadcasting, 1920 to 1922 Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe
Lord Northcliffe
and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio.[15] However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office
General Post Office
(GPO), was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.[16] But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests[17] and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members.[18] Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast.[19] The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC
BBC
wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers. To this day, the BBC
BBC
aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform, educate and entertain".[20] From private company towards public service corporation, 1923 to 1926 The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets.[21] By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC
BBC
had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee. The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, and an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired. The BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC
BBC
was also banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now the BBC
BBC
under Reith's leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified (monopoly) broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC
BBC
be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike
1926 general strike
broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, and with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC
BBC
suddenly became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis.[22] The crisis placed the BBC
BBC
in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC
BBC
at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC
BBC
were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently. The Government was divided on how to handle the BBC
BBC
but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC
BBC
was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives largely in a manner of its own choosing. The resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment, or that the BBC
BBC
had banned broadcasts from the Labour Party and delayed a peace appeal by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Supporters of the strike nicknamed the BBC
BBC
the BFC for British Falsehood Company. Reith personally announced the end of the strike which he marked by reciting from Blake's "Jerusalem" signifying that England had been saved.[23] While the BBC
BBC
tends to characterise its coverage of the general strike by emphasising the positive impression created by its balanced coverage of the views of government and strikers, Jean Seaton, Professor of Media History and the Official BBC
BBC
Historian has characterised the episode as the invention of "modern propaganda in its British form".[22] Reith argued that trust gained by 'authentic impartial news' could then be used. Impartial news was not necessarily an end in itself.[24] The BBC
BBC
did well out of the crisis, which cemented a national audience for its broadcasting, and it was followed by the Government's acceptance of the recommendation made by the Crawford Committee (1925–26) that the British Broadcasting Company be replaced by a non-commercial, Crown-chartered organisation: the British Broadcasting Corporation. 1927 to 1939

Masthead from the 25 December 1931 edition of the Radio
Radio
Times, including the BBC
BBC
motto "Nation shall speak peace unto Nation"

Television
Television
pioneer John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird
(seen here in 1917) televised the BBC's first drama, The Man with the Flower in His Mouth, on 14 July 1930, and the first live outside broadcast, The Derby, on 2 June 1931.[25][26]

The British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation came into existence on 1 January 1927, and Reith – newly knighted – was appointed its first Director General. To represent its purpose and (stated) values, the new corporation adopted the coat of arms, including the motto "Nation shall speak peace unto Nation".[27] British radio audiences had little choice apart from the upscale programming of the BBC. Reith, an intensely moralistic executive, was in full charge. His goal was to broadcast "All that is best in every department of human knowledge, endeavour and achievement.... The preservation of a high moral tone is obviously of paramount importance."[28] Reith succeeded in building a high wall against an American-style free-for-all in radio in which the goal was to attract the largest audiences and thereby secure the greatest advertising revenue. There was no paid advertising on the BBC; all the revenue came from a tax on receiving sets. Highbrow audiences, however, greatly enjoyed it.[29] At a time when American, Australian and Canadian stations were drawing huge audiences cheering for their local teams with the broadcast of baseball, rugby and hockey, the BBC emphasized service for a national, rather than a regional audience. Boat races were well covered along with tennis and horse racing, but the BBC
BBC
was reluctant to spend its severely limited air time on long football or cricket games, regardless of their popularity.[30] BBC
BBC
versus other media

King George V
George V
giving the 1934 Royal Christmas Message
Royal Christmas Message
on BBC
BBC
Radio. The annual message typically chronicles the year's major events.

The success of broadcasting provoked animosities between the BBC
BBC
and well established media such as theatres, concert halls and the recording industry. By 1929, the BBC
BBC
complained that the agents of many comedians refused to sign contracts for broadcasting, because they feared it harmed the artist "by making his material stale" and that it "reduces the value of the artist as a visible music-hall performer". On the other hand, the BBC
BBC
was "keenly interested" in a cooperation with the recording companies who "in recent years ... have not been slow to make records of singers, orchestras, dance bands, etc. who have already proved their power to achieve popularity by wireless." Radio
Radio
plays were so popular that the BBC
BBC
had received 6,000 manuscripts by 1929, most of them written for stage and of little value for broadcasting: "Day in and day out, manuscripts come in, and nearly all go out again through the post, with a note saying 'We regret, etc.'"[31] In the 1930s music broadcasts also enjoyed great popularity, for example the friendly and wide-ranging organ broadcasts at St George's Hall, Langham Place, by Reginald Foort, who held the official role of BBC
BBC
Staff Theatre Organist from 1936 to 1938; Foort continued to work for the BBC
BBC
as a freelance into the 1940s and enjoyed a nationwide following. Experimental television broadcasts were started in 1930, using an electromechanical 30-line system developed by John Logie Baird. Limited regular broadcasts using this system began in 1934, and an expanded service (now named the BBC Television
BBC Television
Service) started from Alexandra Palace
Alexandra Palace
in 1936, alternating between an improved Baird mechanical 240 line system and the all electronic 405 line
405 line
Marconi-EMI system. The superiority of the electronic system saw the mechanical system dropped early the following year.[32] 1939 to 2001

Statue of George Orwell
Statue of George Orwell
outside Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House, headquarters of the BBC. A defence of free speech in an open society, the wall behind the statue is inscribed with the words "If liberty means anything at all, it means the right to tell people what they do not want to hear”, words from George Orwell's proposed preface to Animal Farm.[33]

Television
Television
broadcasting was suspended from 1 September 1939 to 7 June 1946, during the Second World War, and it was left to BBC
BBC
Radio broadcasters such as Reginald Foort
Reginald Foort
to keep the nation's spirits up. The BBC
BBC
moved much of its radio operations out of London, initially to Bristol, and then to Bedford. Concerts were broadcast from the Corn Exchange; the Trinity Chapel in St Paul's Church, Bedford
St Paul's Church, Bedford
was the studio for the daily service from 1941 to 1945, and, in the darkest days of the war in 1941, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York came to St Paul's to broadcast to the UK and all parts of the world on the National Day of Prayer. BBC
BBC
employees during the war included George Orwell who spent two years with the broadcaster.[33] During his role as Prime Minister during the Second World War, Winston Churchill would deliver 33 major wartime speeches by radio, all of which were carried by the BBC
BBC
within the UK.[34] On 18 June 1940, French general Charles de Gaulle, in exile in London
London
as the leader of the Free French, made a speech, broadcast by the BBC, urging the French people not to capitulate to the Nazis.[35] There was a widely reported urban myth that, upon resumption of the BBC
BBC
television service after the war, announcer Leslie Mitchell started by saying, "As I was saying before we were so rudely interrupted ..." In fact, the first person to appear when transmission resumed was Jasmine Bligh and the words said were "Good afternoon, everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh ... ?"[36] The European Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Union was formed on 12 February 1950, in Torquay
Torquay
with the BBC
BBC
among the 23 founding broadcasting organisations.[37] Competition to the BBC
BBC
was introduced in 1955, with the commercial and independently operated television network of ITV. However, the BBC monopoly on radio services would persist until 8 October 1973 when under the control of the newly renamed Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA), the UK's first Independent local radio station, LBC came on-air in the London
London
area. As a result of the Pilkington Committee report of 1962, in which the BBC
BBC
was praised for the quality and range of its output, and ITV was very heavily criticised for not providing enough quality programming,[38] the decision was taken to award the BBC
BBC
a second television channel, BBC2, in 1964, renaming the existing service BBC1. BBC2 used the higher resolution 625 line standard which had been standardised across Europe. BBC2 was broadcast in colour from 1 July 1967, and was joined by BBC1
BBC1
and ITV on 15 November 1969. The 405 line
405 line
VHF transmissions of BBC1
BBC1
(and ITV) were continued for compatibility with older television receivers until 1985.

BBC Television
BBC Television
Centre at White City, West London, which opened in 1960 and closed in 2013.

Starting in 1964, a series of pirate radio stations (starting with Radio
Radio
Caroline) came on the air and forced the British government finally to regulate radio services to permit nationally based advertising-financed services. In response, the BBC
BBC
reorganised and renamed their radio channels. On 30 September 1967, the Light Programme was split into Radio
Radio
1 offering continuous "Popular" music and Radio
Radio
2 more "Easy Listening".[39] The "Third" programme became Radio
Radio
3 offering classical music and cultural programming. The Home Service became Radio
Radio
4 offering news, and non-musical content such as quiz shows, readings, dramas and plays. As well as the four national channels, a series of local BBC
BBC
radio stations were established in 1967, including Radio
Radio
London.[40] In 1969, the BBC
BBC
Enterprises department was formed to exploit BBC
BBC
brands and programmes for commercial spin-off products. In 1979, it became a wholly owned limited company, BBC
BBC
Enterprises Ltd.[41] In 1974, the BBC's teletext service, Ceefax, was introduced, created initially to provide subtitling, but developed into a news and information service. In 1978, BBC
BBC
staff went on strike just before the Christmas of that year, thus blocking out the transmission of both channels and amalgamating all four radio stations into one.[42][43] Since the deregulation of the UK television and radio market in the 1980s, the BBC
BBC
has faced increased competition from the commercial sector (and from the advertiser-funded public service broadcaster Channel 4), especially on satellite television, cable television, and digital television services. In the late 1980s, the BBC
BBC
began a process of divestment by spinning off and selling parts of its organisation. In 1988, it sold off the Hulton Press Library, a photographic archive which had been acquired from the Picture Post magazine by the BBC
BBC
in 1957. The archive was sold to Brian Deutsch and is now owned by Getty Images.[44] During the 1990s, this process continued with the separation of certain operational arms of the corporation into autonomous but wholly owned subsidiaries of the BBC, with the aim of generating additional revenue for programme-making. BBC
BBC
Enterprises was reorganised and relaunched in 1995, as BBC Worldwide Ltd.[41] In 1998, BBC
BBC
studios, outside broadcasts, post production, design, costumes and wigs were spun off into BBC
BBC
Resources Ltd.[45] The BBC Research Department has played a major part in the development of broadcasting and recording techniques. The BBC
BBC
was also responsible for the development of the NICAM stereo standard. In recent decades, a number of additional channels and radio stations have been launched: Radio
Radio
5 was launched in 1990, as a sports and educational station, but was replaced in 1994, with Radio
Radio
5 Live, following the success of the Radio
Radio
4 service to cover the 1991 Gulf War. The new station would be a news and sport station. In 1997, BBC News
BBC News
24, a rolling news channel, launched on digital television services and the following year, BBC Choice launched as the third general entertainment channel from the BBC. The BBC
BBC
also purchased The Parliamentary Channel, which was renamed BBC
BBC
Parliament. In 1999, BBC Knowledge
BBC Knowledge
launched as a multi media channel, with services available on the newly launched BBC
BBC
Text digital teletext service, and on BBC
BBC
Online. The channel had an educational aim, which was modified later on in its life to offer documentaries. 2000 to 2011 In 2002, several television and radio channels were reorganised. BBC Knowledge was replaced by BBC Four
BBC Four
and became the BBC's arts and documentaries channel. CBBC, which had been a programming strand as Children's BBC
BBC
since 1985, was split into CBBC
CBBC
and CBeebies, for younger children, with both new services getting a digital channel: the CBBC
CBBC
Channel and CBeebies
CBeebies
Channel. In addition to the television channels, new digital radio stations were created: 1Xtra, 6 Music and BBC7. BBC
BBC
1Xtra was a sister station to Radio
Radio
1 and specialised in modern black music, BBC
BBC
6 Music specialised in alternative music genres and BBC7 specialised in archive, speech and children's programming.

England fans in Manchester
Manchester
during a 2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
game shown on the BBC
BBC
Big Screen

The following few years resulted in repositioning of some of the channels to conform to a larger brand: in 2003, BBC Choice
BBC Choice
was replaced by BBC
BBC
Three, with programming for younger generations and shocking real life documentaries, BBC News 24
BBC News 24
became the BBC
BBC
News Channel in 2008, and BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
7 became BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
4 Extra in 2011, with new programmes to supplement those broadcast on Radio
Radio
4. In 2008, another channel was launched, BBC
BBC
Alba, a Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
service. During this decade, the corporation began to sell off a number of its operational divisions to private owners; BBC
BBC
Broadcast was spun off as a separate company in 2002,[46] and in 2005. it was sold off to Australian-based Macquarie Capital Alliance Group and Macquarie Bank Limited and rebranded Red Bee Media.[47] The BBC's IT, telephony and broadcast technology were brought together as BBC
BBC
Technology Ltd in 2001,[46] and the division was later sold to the German company Siemens IT Solutions and Services (SIS).[48] SIS was subsequently acquired from Siemens
Siemens
by the French company Atos.[49] Further divestments included BBC Books
BBC Books
(sold to Random House in 2006);[50] BBC Outside Broadcasts Ltd (sold in 2008. to Satellite Information Services);[51] Costumes and Wigs (stock sold in 2008 to Angels The Costumiers);[52] and BBC Magazines (sold to Immediate Media Company in 2011).[53] After the sales of OBs and costumes, the remainder of BBC Resources was reorganised as BBC Studios
BBC Studios
and Post Production, which continues today as a wholly owned subsidiary of the BBC. The 2004 Hutton Inquiry and the subsequent Report raised questions about the BBC's journalistic standards and its impartiality. This led to resignations of senior management members at the time including the then Director General, Greg Dyke. In January 2007, the BBC
BBC
released minutes of the board meeting which led to Greg Dyke's resignation.[54] Unlike the other departments of the BBC, the BBC World Service
BBC World Service
was funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, more commonly known as the Foreign Office or the FCO, is the British government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
abroad.

BBC Pacific Quay
BBC Pacific Quay
in Glasgow, which was opened in 2007.

In 2006, BBC HD
BBC HD
launched as an experimental service, and became official in December 2007. The channel broadcast HD simulcasts of programmes on BBC
BBC
One, BBC
BBC
Two, BBC Three
BBC Three
and BBC Four
BBC Four
as well as repeats of some older programmes in HD. In 2010, an HD simulcast of BBC One
BBC One
launched: BBC One
BBC One
HD. The channel uses HD versions of BBC One's schedule and uses upscaled versions of programmes not currently produced in HD. The BBC HD
BBC HD
channel closed in March 2013 and was replaced by BBC2 HD in the same month. On 18 October 2007, BBC
BBC
Director General Mark Thompson announced a controversial plan to make major cuts and reduce the size of the BBC as an organisation. The plans included a reduction in posts of 2,500; including 1,800 redundancies, consolidating news operations, reducing programming output by 10% and selling off the flagship Television Centre building in London.[55] These plans have been fiercely opposed by unions, who have threatened a series of strikes; however, the BBC have stated that the cuts are essential to move the organisation forward and concentrate on increasing the quality of programming. On 20 October 2010, the Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
George Osborne announced that the television licence fee would be frozen at its current level until the end of the current charter in 2016. The same announcement revealed that the BBC
BBC
would take on the full cost of running the BBC World Service
BBC World Service
and the BBC Monitoring
BBC Monitoring
service from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and partially finance the Welsh broadcaster S4C.[56] 2011 to present

BBC
BBC
New Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House, London
London
which came into use during 2012–13

Further cuts were announced on 6 October 2011, so the BBC
BBC
could reach a total reduction in their budget of 20%, following the licence fee freeze in October 2010, which included cutting staff by 2,000 and sending a further 1,000 to the MediaCityUK
MediaCityUK
development in Salford, with BBC Three
BBC Three
moving online only in 2016, the sharing of more programmes between stations and channels, sharing of radio news bulletins, more repeats in schedules, including the whole of BBC
BBC
Two daytime and for some original programming to be reduced. BBC HD
BBC HD
was closed on 26 March 2013, and replaced with an HD simulcast of BBC
BBC
Two; however, flagship programmes, other channels and full funding for CBBC and CBeebies
CBeebies
would be retained.[57][58][59] Numerous BBC
BBC
facilities have been sold off, including New Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
on Oxford Road in Manchester. Many major departments have been relocated to Broadcasting House and MediaCityUK, particularly since the closure of BBC Television
Television
Centre in March 2013.[60] On 16 February 2016, the BBC Three television service was discontinued and replaced by an digital outlet under the same name, targeting its young adult audience with web series and other content.[61][62][63] Under the new royal charter instituted 2017, the corporation must publish an annual report to Ofcom, outlining its plans and public service obligations for the next year. In its 2017–18 report, released July 2017, the BBC
BBC
announced plans to "re-invent" its output to better compete against commercial streaming services such as Netflix. These plans included increasing the diversity of its content on television and radio, a major increase in investments towards digital children's content, and plans to make larger investments in other nations of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
besides England to "rise to the challenge of better reflecting and representing a changing UK"[64][65] Governance and corporate structure The BBC
BBC
is a statutory corporation, independent from direct government intervention, with its activities being overseen from April 2017 by the BBC Board and regulated by Ofcom.[66][67] The Chairman
Chairman
is Sir David Clementi.[68] Charter The BBC
BBC
operates under a Royal Charter.[10] The current Charter came into effect on 1 January 2017 and runs until 31 December 2026.[69] The 2017 charter abolished the BBC Trust
BBC Trust
and replaced it with external regulation by Ofcom, with governance by the BBC
BBC
Board.[69] Under the Royal Charter, the BBC
BBC
must obtain a licence from the Home Secretary.[70] This licence is accompanied by an agreement which sets the terms and conditions under which the BBC
BBC
is allowed to broadcast.[70] BBC
BBC
Board Main article: BBC
BBC
Board The BBC Board was formed in April 2017. It replaced the previous governing body, the BBC
BBC
Trust, which in itself had replaced the Board of Governors in 2007. The Board sets the strategy for the corporation, assesses the performance of the BBC
BBC
Executive Board in delivering the BBC's services, and appoints the Director-General. Regulation of the BBC
BBC
is now the responsibility of Ofcom. The Board consists of the following members.[71][72]

Name Position

Sir David Clementi Chairman

Tony Hall Director-General of the BBC

Simon Burke Non-executive Director

Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson Non-executive Director

Ian Hargreaves Non-executive Director

Tom Ilube Non-executive Director

Sir Nicholas Serota Non-executive Director

Steve Morrison Member for Scotland

Dr Ashley Steel Member for England

Professor Elan Closs Stephens Member for Wales

Anne Bulford Deputy Director-General

Tim Davie CEO, BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
& Director, Global

Ken MacQuarrie Director, Nations and Regions

Executive Committee

John Reith 1927–1938 Frederick Ogilvie
Frederick Ogilvie
1938–1942 Cecil Graves 1942–1943 Jointly with Robert Foot Robert Foot 1942–1944 Jointly with Cecil Graves until 1943 William Haley
William Haley
1944–1952 Ian Jacob 1952–1959 Hugh Carleton Greene 1960–1969 Charles Curran 1969–1977 Ian Trethowan 1977–1982 Alasdair Milne 1982–1987 Michael Checkland 1987–1992 John Birt 1992–2000 Greg Dyke
Greg Dyke
2000–2004 Mark Thompson 2004–2012 George Entwistle 17 September to 10 November 2012 Tim Davie (Acting Director-General) 11 November 2012 to 2 April 2013 Tony Hall 2 April 2013 – present

List of BBC
BBC
Directors General

The Executive Committee is responsible for the day-to-day operations of the broadcaster. Consisting of senior managers of the BBC, the Committee meets once per month and is responsible for operational management and delivery of services within a framework set by the Board, and is chaired by the Director-General, currently Tony Hall. The Director-General is chief executive and (from 1994) editor-in-chief.[73]

Name Position

Tony Hall Chairman; Director-General

Anne Bulford Deputy Director-General

Charlotte Moore Director of Content

Mark Linsey Director of BBC
BBC
Studios

James Harding Director of News & Current Affairs

Matthew Postgate Chief Technology & Research Officer

Ken MacQuarrie Director of Nations & Regions

James Purnell Director of Radio
Radio
& Education

Tim Davie CEO, BBC
BBC
Worldwide

Valerie Hughes D'Aeth Director of HR

Operational divisions The Corporation has the following in-house divisions covering the BBC's output and operations:[74]

Content, headed by Charlotte Moore is in charge of the corporation's television channels including the commissioning of programming. Radio
Radio
and Education headed by James Purnell
James Purnell
is in charge of BBC
BBC
Radio and music content across the BBC
BBC
under the BBC Music
BBC Music
brand, including music programmes on BBC
BBC
Television, events such as the BBC Proms
BBC Proms
and the numerous orchestras such as the BBC
BBC
Philharmonic, as well as Children's BBC. News and Current Affairs headed by James Harding operates the BBC
BBC
News operation, including the national, regional and international output on television, radio and online, as well as the output of the BBC Global News division. It is also in charge of the corporation's Current Affairs programming and have some responsibility for sports output. The Deputy Director General Group headed by Anne Bulford, contains Design & Engineering, which is in charge of all digital output, such as BBC
BBC
Online, BBC
BBC
iPlayer, BBC Red Button
BBC Red Button
service and developing new technologies through BBC
BBC
Research & Development. The division also includes other pan- BBC
BBC
functions including Finance, HR, Strategy, Security and Property.[74] Nations and Regions, headed by Ken MacQuarrie is responsible for the Corporation's divisions in Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, the English Regions.

Commercial divisions The BBC
BBC
also operates a number of wholly owned commercial divisions:

BBC Studios
BBC Studios
Ltd, headed by Tim Davie, is the former in-house television production; Entertainment, Music & Events, Factual and Scripted (drama and comedy). Following a merger with BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
in April 2018, it also operates international channels and sells programmes and merchandise in the UK and abroad to gain additional income that is returned to BBC
BBC
programmes. It is kept separate from the corporation due to its commercial nature. BBC World News
BBC World News
department is in charge of the production and distribution of its commercial global television channel. It works closely with the BBC News
BBC News
group, but is not governed by it, and shares the corporation's facilities and staff. It also works with BBC Studios, the channel's distributor. BBC Studioworks
BBC Studioworks
is also separate and officially owns and operates some of the BBC's studio facilities, such as the BBC
BBC
Elstree Centre, leasing them out to productions from within and outside of the corporation.[74]

Finances The BBC
BBC
has the second largest budget of any UK-based broadcaster with an operating expenditure of £4.722 billion in 2013/14[75] compared to £6.471 billion for British Sky Broadcasting
Broadcasting
in 2013/14[76] and £1.843 billion for ITV in the calendar year 2013.[77] Revenue See also: Television
Television
licence and Television
Television
licensing in the United Kingdom The principal means of funding the BBC
BBC
is through the television licence, costing £147 per year per household since April 2017. Such a licence is required to legally receive broadcast television across the UK, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. No licence is required to own a television used for other means, or for sound only radio sets (though a separate licence for these was also required for non-TV households until 1971). The cost of a television licence is set by the government and enforced by the criminal law. A discount is available for households with only black-and-white television sets. A 50% discount is also offered to people who are registered blind or severely visually impaired,[78] and the licence is completely free for any household containing anyone aged 75 or over. As a result of the UK Government's recent spending review, an agreement has been reached between the government and the corporation in which the current licence fee will remain frozen at the current level until the Royal Charter is renewed at the beginning of 2017.[79] The BBC
BBC
pursues its licence fee collection and enforcement under the trading name "TV Licensing". The revenue is collected privately by Capita, an outside agency, and is paid into the central government Consolidated Fund, a process defined in the Communications Act 2003. Funds are then allocated by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) and the Treasury and approved by Parliament via legislation. Additional revenues are paid by the Department for Work and Pensions to compensate for subsidised licences for eligible over-75-year-olds. The licence fee is classified as a tax,[80] and its evasion is a criminal offence. Since 1991, collection and enforcement of the licence fee has been the responsibility of the BBC
BBC
in its role as TV Licensing Authority.[81] Thus, the BBC
BBC
is a major prosecuting authority in England and Wales
Wales
and an investigating authority in the UK as a whole. The BBC
BBC
carries out surveillance (mostly using subcontractors) on properties (under the auspices of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000) and may conduct searches of a property using a search warrant.[82] According to the BBC, "more than 204,000 people in the UK were caught watching TV without a licence during the first six months of 2012."[83] Licence fee evasion makes up around one tenth of all cases prosecuted in magistrates' courts.[84] Income from commercial enterprises and from overseas sales of its catalogue of programmes has substantially increased over recent years,[85] with BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
contributing some £145 million to the BBC's core public service business. According to the BBC's 2013/14 Annual Report, its total income was £5 billion (£5.066 billion),[86] which can be broken down as follows:

£3.726 billion in licence fees collected from householders; £1.023 billion from the BBC's commercial businesses; £244.6 million from government grants, of which £238.5 million is from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
for the BBC
BBC
World Service; £72.1 million from other income, such as rental collections and royalties from overseas broadcasts of programming.[86]

The licence fee has, however, attracted criticism. It has been argued that in an age of multi stream, multi-channel availability, an obligation to pay a licence fee is no longer appropriate. The BBC's use of private sector company Capita Group
Capita Group
to send letters to premises not paying the licence fee has been criticised, especially as there have been cases where such letters have been sent to premises which are up to date with their payments, or do not require a TV licence.[87] The BBC
BBC
uses advertising campaigns to inform customers of the requirement to pay the licence fee. Past campaigns have been criticised by Conservative MP Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
and former MP Ann Widdecombe for having a threatening nature and language used to scare evaders into paying.[88][89] Audio clips and television broadcasts are used to inform listeners of the BBC's comprehensive database.[90] There are a number of pressure groups campaigning on the issue of the licence fee.[91] The majority of the BBC's commercial output comes from its commercial arm BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
who sell programmes abroad and exploit key brands for merchandise. Of their 2012/13 sales, 27% were centred on the five key "superbrands" of Doctor Who, Top Gear, Strictly Come Dancing (known as Dancing with the Stars
Dancing with the Stars
internationally), the BBC's archive of natural history programming (collected under the umbrella of BBC Earth) and the (now sold) travel guide brand Lonely Planet.[92] Expenditure The following expenditure figures are from 2012/13[93] and show the expenditure of each service they are obliged to provide:

Department Total cost (£million)

Television
Television
including BBC
BBC
Red Button 2,471.5

Radio 669.5

BBC
BBC
Online 176.6

Licence fee collection 111.1

Orchestras and performing groups 29.2

S4C 30

Digital switchover 56.9

Restructuring 23.1

Property 181.6

Technology 175.1

BBC
BBC
Trust 11.9

Libraries, learning support and community events 33.6

Other, including training, marketing, finance and policy 925.9

Total 4,896

A significantly large portion of the BBC's income is spent on the corporation's Television
Television
and Radio
Radio
services with each service having a different budget based upon their content.[93]

Service 2012/13 total cost (£million) Comparison with 2011/12 (£million)

BBC One
BBC One
including regions 1,463.2 + 125.6

BBC
BBC
Two 543.1 + 6

BBC
BBC
Three 121.7 + 8.8

BBC
BBC
Four 70.2 + 2.4

CBBC 108.7 + 1.4

CBeebies 43 + 0.6

BBC
BBC
News 61.5 + 4

BBC
BBC
Parliament 10.5 + 1.2

BBC
BBC
Alba 7.8 – 0.2

BBC
BBC
Red Button 41.8 + 4.6

Total 2,471.5 + 136.6

Service 2012/13 total cost (£million) Comparison with 2011/12 (£million)

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
1 54.2 + 3.6

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
1Xtra 11.8 + 0.7

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
2 62.1 + 1.6

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
3 54.3 + 1.8

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
4 122.1 + 6.2

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
4 Extra 7.2 – 1

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
5 Live 76 + 6.7

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
5 Live Sports Extra 5.6 + 0.3

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
6 Music 11.5 – 0.2

BBC
BBC
Asian Network 13 0

BBC
BBC
Local Radio 152.5 + 6

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Scotland 32.7 + 0.6

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
nan Gàidheal 6.3 + 0.3

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Wales 18.8 + 1.1

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Cymru 17.6 + 1.7

BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Ulster and BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Foyle 23.8 0

Total 669.5 + 29.4

Headquarters and regional offices Main article: List of BBC
BBC
properties Further information: Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House, Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
(Belfast), Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
(Cardiff), and BBC Television
BBC Television
Centre

The headquarters of the BBC
BBC
at Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in Portland Place, London, England. This section of the building is called "Old Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House".

Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
in Portland Place, London, is the official headquarters of the BBC. It is home to six of the ten BBC
BBC
national radio networks, BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
1, BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
1xtra, BBC
BBC
Asian Network, BBC Radio
Radio
3, BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
4, and BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
4 Extra. It is also the home of BBC
BBC
News, which relocated to the building from BBC Television
BBC Television
Centre in 2013. On the front of the building are statues of Prospero
Prospero
and Ariel, characters from William Shakespeare's play The Tempest, sculpted by Eric Gill. Renovation of Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
began in 2002, and was completed in 2013. Until it closed at the end of March 2013,[94] BBC Television
BBC Television
was based at BBC Television
BBC Television
Centre, a purpose built television facility and the second built in the country located in White City, London. This facility has been host to a number of famous guests and programmes through the years, and its name and image is familiar with many British citizens. Nearby, the BBC White City
BBC White City
complex contains numerous programme offices, housed in Centre House, the Media Centre and Broadcast Centre. It is in this area around Shepherd's Bush
Shepherd's Bush
that the majority of BBC
BBC
employees work. As part of a major reorganisation of BBC
BBC
property, the entire BBC
BBC
News operation relocated from the News Centre at BBC Television
BBC Television
Centre to the refurbished Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
to create what is being described as "one of the world's largest live broadcast centres".[95] The BBC News Channel and BBC World News
BBC World News
relocated to the premises in early 2013.[96] Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
is now also home to most of the BBC's national radio stations, and the BBC
BBC
World Service. The major part of this plan involves the demolition of the two post-war extensions to the building and construction of an extension[97] designed by Sir Richard MacCormac
Richard MacCormac
of MJP Architects. This move will concentrate the BBC's London
London
operations, allowing them to sell Television
Television
Centre, which is expected to be completed by 2016.[98] In addition to the scheme above, the BBC
BBC
is in the process of making and producing more programmes outside London, involving production centres such as Belfast, Cardiff, Glasgow, Newcastle and, most notably, in Greater Manchester
Manchester
as part of the " BBC North
BBC North
Project" scheme where several major departments, including BBC North
BBC North
West, BBC Manchester, BBC
BBC
Sport, BBC
BBC
Children's, CBeebies, Radio
Radio
5 Live, BBC Radio
Radio
5 Live Sports Extra, BBC
BBC
Breakfast, BBC Learning and the BBC Philharmonic have all moved from their previous locations in either London
London
or New Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House, Manchester
Manchester
to the new 200-acre (80ha) MediaCityUK
MediaCityUK
production facilities in Salford, that form part of the large BBC North
BBC North
Group division and will therefore become the biggest staffing operation outside London.[99][100] As well as the two main sites in London
London
( Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
and White City), there are seven other important BBC
BBC
production centres in the UK, mainly specialising in different productions. Broadcasting
Broadcasting
House Cardiff, has been home to BBC
BBC
Cymru Wales, which specialises in drama production. Open since October 2011, and containing 7 new studios, Roath Lock[101] is notable as the home of productions such as Doctor Who and Casualty. Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
Belfast, home to BBC
BBC
Northern Ireland, specialises in original drama and comedy, and has taken part in many co-productions with independent companies and notably with RTÉ
RTÉ
in the Republic of Ireland. BBC
BBC
Scotland, based in Pacific Quay, Glasgow
Glasgow
is a large producer of programmes for the network, including several quiz shows. In England, the larger regions also produce some programming. Previously, the largest hub of BBC
BBC
programming from the regions is BBC North West. At present they produce all Religious and Ethical programmes on the BBC, as well as other programmes such as A Question of Sport. However, this is to be merged and expanded under the BBC North project, which involved the region moving from New Broadcasting House, Manchester, to MediaCityUK. BBC
BBC
Midlands, based at The Mailbox in Birmingham, also produces drama and contains the headquarters for the English regions and the BBC's daytime output. Other production centres include Broadcasting House
Broadcasting House
Bristol, home of BBC West
BBC West
and famously the BBC Natural History Unit
BBC Natural History Unit
and to a lesser extent, Quarry Hill in Leeds, home of BBC
BBC
Yorkshire. There are also many smaller local and regional studios throughout the UK, operating the BBC regional television services and the BBC
BBC
Local Radio
Radio
stations. The BBC
BBC
also operates several news gathering centres in various locations around the world, which provide news coverage of that region to the national and international news operations. Technology ( Atos
Atos
service) In 2004, the BBC
BBC
contracted out its former BBC
BBC
Technology division to the German engineering and electronics company Siemens
Siemens
IT Solutions and Services (SIS), outsourcing its IT, telephony and broadcast technology systems.[48] When Atos
Atos
Origin acquired the SIS division from Siemens
Siemens
in December 2010 for €850 million (£720m),[102] the BBC
BBC
support contract also passed to Atos, and in July 2011, the BBC announced to staff that its technology support would become an Atos service.[49] Siemens
Siemens
staff working on the BBC
BBC
contract were transferred to Atos
Atos
and BBC
BBC
technology systems (including the BBC website) are now managed by Atos. In 2011, the BBC's Chief Financial Officer Zarin Patel stated to the House of Commons Public Accounts Committee that, following criticism of the BBC's management of major IT projects with Siemens
Siemens
(such as the Digital Media Initiative), the BBC
BBC
partnership with Atos
Atos
would be instrumental in achieving cost savings of around £64 million as part of the BBC's "Delivering Quality First" programme.[103] In 2012, the BBC's Chief Technology Officer, John Linwood, expressed confidence in service improvements to the BBC's technology provision brought about by Atos. He also stated that supplier accountability had been strengthened following some high-profile technology failures which had taken place during the partnership with Siemens.[104] Services

Weekly reach of the BBC's domestic services from 2011 to 2012[105][106] Reach is the number of people who use the service at any point for more than 15 minutes in a week.[106]

Television Main article: BBC
BBC
Television The BBC
BBC
operates several television channels in the UK. BBC One
BBC One
and BBC Two
BBC Two
are the flagship television channels; others are BBC
BBC
Four, BBC News, BBC
BBC
Parliament, and two children's channels, CBBC
CBBC
and CBeebies. Digital television
Digital television
is now entrenched in the UK, with analogue transmission completely phased out as of December 2012.[107] It also operates the internet television service BBC
BBC
Three, which ceased broadcasting as a linear television channel in February 2016.

Weekly reach of the BBC's domestic television channels 2011–12[106]

BBC One
BBC One
is a regionalised TV service which provides opt-outs throughout the day for local news and other local programming. These variations are more pronounced in the BBC
BBC
"Nations", i.e. Northern Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales, where the presentation is mostly carried out locally on BBC One
BBC One
and Two, and where programme schedules can vary greatly from that of the network. BBC Two
BBC Two
variations exist in the Nations; however, English regions today rarely have the option to opt out as regional programming now only exists on BBC
BBC
One. BBC Two
BBC Two
was also the first channel to be transmitted on 625 lines in 1964, then carry a small-scale regular colour service from 1967. BBC One
BBC One
would follow in November 1969. A new Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
television channel, BBC
BBC
Alba, was launched in September 2008. It is also the first multi-genre channel to come entirely from Scotland
Scotland
with almost all of its programmes made in Scotland. The service was initially only available via satellite but since June 2011 has been available to viewers in Scotland
Scotland
on Freeview and cable television.[108] The BBC
BBC
currently operates HD simulcasts of all its nationwide channels with the exception of BBC
BBC
Parliament. Until 26 March 2013, a separate channel called BBC HD
BBC HD
was available, in place of BBC Two
BBC Two
HD. It launched on 9 June 2006, following a 12-month trial of the broadcasts. It became a proper channel in 2007, and screened HD programmes as simulcasts of the main network, or as repeats. The corporation has been producing programmes in the format for many years, and stated that it hoped to produce 100% of new programmes in HDTV by 2010.[109] On 3 November 2010, a high-definition simulcast of BBC One
BBC One
was launched, entitled BBC One
BBC One
HD, and BBC Two
BBC Two
HD launched on 26 March 2013, replacing BBC
BBC
HD. In the Republic of Ireland, Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland, the BBC
BBC
channels are available in a number of ways. In these countries digital and cable operators carry a range of BBC
BBC
channels. These include BBC
BBC
One, BBC Two
BBC Two
and BBC
BBC
World News, although viewers in the Republic of Ireland may receive BBC
BBC
services via overspill from transmitters in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
or Wales, or via "deflectors" – transmitters in the Republic which rebroadcast broadcasts from the UK,[110] received off-air, or from digital satellite. Since 1975, the BBC
BBC
has also provided its TV programmes to the British Forces Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Service (BFBS), allowing members of UK military serving abroad to watch them on four dedicated TV channels. From 27 March 2013, BFBS will carry versions of BBC One
BBC One
and BBC
BBC
Two, which will include children's programming from CBBC, as well as carrying programming from BBC Three
BBC Three
on a new channel called BFBS Extra. Since 2008, all the BBC
BBC
channels are available to watch online through the BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
service. This online streaming ability came about following experiments with live streaming, involving streaming certain channels in the UK.[111] In February 2014, Director-General Tony Hall announced that the corporation needed to save £100 million. In March 2014, the BBC confirmed plans for BBC Three
BBC Three
to become an internet-only channel.[112] Genome Project Main article: BBC
BBC
Genome Project In December 2012, the BBC
BBC
completed a digitisation exercise, scanning the listings of all BBC
BBC
programmes from an entire run of about 4,500 copies of the Radio
Radio
Times magazine from the first, 1923, issue to 2009 (later listings already being held electronically), the " BBC
BBC
Genome project", with a view to creating an online database of its programme output.[113] An earlier ten months of listings are to be obtained from other sources.[113] They identified around five million programmes, involving 8.5 million actors, presenters, writers and technical staff.[113] The Genome project was opened to public access on 15 October 2014, with corrections to OCR errors and changes to advertised schedules being crowdsourced.[114] Radio

Weekly reach of the BBC's national radio stations, both on analogue and digital.[106]

Main articles: BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
and BBC
BBC
Local Radio The BBC
BBC
has ten radio stations serving the whole of the UK, a further six stations in the "national regions" (Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland), and 40 other local stations serving defined areas of England. Of the ten national stations, five are major stations and are available on FM and/or AM as well as on DAB and online. These are BBC Radio
Radio
1, offering new music and popular styles and being notable for its chart show; BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
2, playing Adult contemporary, country and soul music amongst many other genres; BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
3, presenting classical and jazz music together with some spoken-word programming of a cultural nature in the evenings; BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
4, focusing on current affairs, factual and other speech-based programming, including drama and comedy; and BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
5 Live, broadcasting 24-hour news, sport and talk programmes. In addition to these five stations, the BBC
BBC
also runs a further five stations that broadcast on DAB and online only. These stations supplement and expand on the big five stations, and were launched in 2002. BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
1Xtra sisters Radio
Radio
1, and broadcasts new black music and urban tracks. BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
5 Live Sports Extra sisters 5 Live and offers extra sport analysis, including broadcasting sports that previously were not covered. BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
6 Music offers alternative music genres and is notable as a platform for new artists. BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
7, later renamed BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
4 Extra, provided archive drama, comedy and children's programming. Following the change to Radio
Radio
4 Extra, the service has dropped a defined children's strand in favour of family-friendly drama and comedy. In addition, new programmes to complement Radio
Radio
4 programmes were introduced such as Ambridge Extra, and Desert Island Discs revisited. The final station is the BBC
BBC
Asian Network, providing music, talk and news to this section of the community. This station evolved out of Local radio stations serving certain areas, and as such this station is available on Medium Wave frequency in some areas of the Midlands. As well as the national stations, the BBC
BBC
also provides 40 BBC
BBC
Local Radio
Radio
stations in England and the Channel Islands, each named for and covering a particular city and its surrounding area (e.g. BBC
BBC
Radio Bristol), county or region (e.g. BBC Three
BBC Three
Counties Radio), or geographical area (e.g. BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Solent covering the central south coast). A further six stations broadcast in what the BBC
BBC
terms "the national regions": Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. These are BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Wales
Wales
(in English), BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Cymru (in Welsh), BBC
BBC
Radio Scotland
Scotland
(in English), BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
nan Gaidheal (in Scottish Gaelic), BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Ulster, and BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Foyle, the latter being an opt-out station from Radio
Radio
Ulster for the north-west of Northern Ireland. The BBC's UK national channels are also broadcast in the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man (although these Crown dependencies
Crown dependencies
are outside the UK), and in the former there are two local stations – BBC Guernsey
BBC Guernsey
and BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
Jersey. There is no BBC
BBC
local radio station, however, in the Isle of Man, partly because the island has long been served by the popular independent commercial station, Manx Radio, which predates the existence of BBC
BBC
Local Radio. BBC
BBC
services in the dependencies are financed from television licence fees which are set at the same level as those payable in the UK, although collected locally. This is the subject of some controversy in the Isle of Man since, as well as having no BBC
BBC
Local Radio
Radio
service, the island also lacks a local television news service analogous to that provided by BBC
BBC
Channel Islands.[115]

BBC World Service
BBC World Service
– Jonathan Dimbleby broadcasting from Budapest

For a worldwide audience, the BBC World Service
BBC World Service
provides news, current affairs and information in 28 languages, including English, around the world and is available in over 150 capital cities. It is broadcast worldwide on shortwave radio, DAB and online and has an estimated weekly audience of 192 million, and its websites have an audience of 38 million people per week.[116] Since 2005, it is also available on DAB in the UK, a step not taken before, due to the way it is funded. The service is funded by a Parliamentary Grant-in-Aid, administered by the Foreign Office; however, following the Government's spending review in 2011, this funding will cease, and it will be funded for the first time through the Licence fee.[117][118] In recent years, some services of the World Service have been reduced; the Thai service ended in 2006,[119] as did the Eastern European languages, with resources diverted instead into the new BBC
BBC
Arabic
Arabic
Television.[120] Historically, the BBC
BBC
was the only legal radio broadcaster based in the UK mainland until 1967, when University Radio
Radio
York (URY), then under the name Radio
Radio
York, was launched as the first, and now oldest, legal independent radio station in the country. However, the BBC
BBC
did not enjoy a complete monopoly before this as several Continental stations, such as Radio
Radio
Luxembourg, had broadcast programmes in English to Britain since the 1930s and the Isle of Man-based Manx Radio
Radio
began in 1964. Today, despite the advent of commercial radio, BBC
BBC
radio stations remain among the most listened to in the country, with Radio
Radio
2 having the largest audience share (up to 16.8% in 2011–12) and Radios 1 and 4 ranked second and third in terms of weekly reach.[121] BBC
BBC
programming is also available to other services and in other countries. Since 1943, the BBC
BBC
has provided radio programming to the British Forces Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Service, which broadcasts in countries where British troops are stationed. BBC
BBC
Radio
Radio
1 is also carried in the United States and Canada
Canada
on Sirius XM Radio
Radio
(online streaming only). The BBC
BBC
is a patron of The Radio
Radio
Academy.[122] News

The former BBC
BBC
Newsroom in London

Main article: BBC
BBC
News BBC News
BBC News
is the largest broadcast news gathering operation in the world,[123] providing services to BBC
BBC
domestic radio as well as television networks such as the BBC
BBC
News, BBC Parliament
BBC Parliament
and BBC
BBC
World News. In addition to this, news stories are available on the BBC
BBC
Red Button service and BBC News
BBC News
Online. In addition to this, the BBC
BBC
has been developing new ways to access BBC
BBC
News, as a result has launched the service on BBC
BBC
Mobile, making it accessible to mobile phones and PDAs, as well as developing alerts by e-mail, digital television, and on computers through a desktop alert. Ratings figures suggest that during major incidents such as the 7 July 2005 London
London
bombings or royal events, the UK audience overwhelmingly turns to the BBC's coverage as opposed to its commercial rivals.[124] On 7 July 2005, the day that there were a series of coordinated bomb blasts on London's public transport system, the BBC Online
BBC Online
website recorded an all time bandwidth peak of 11 Gb/s at 12.00 on 7 July. BBC News
BBC News
received some 1 billion total hits on the day of the event (including all images, text and HTML), serving some 5.5 terabytes of data. At peak times during the day there were 40,000 page requests per second for the BBC News
BBC News
website. The previous day's announcement of the 2012 Olympics
2012 Olympics
being awarded to London
London
caused a peak of around 5 Gbit/s. The previous all-time high at BBC
BBC
Online was caused by the announcement of the Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
verdict, which used 7.2 Gbit/s.[125] Internet Main article: BBC
BBC
Online The BBC's online presence includes a comprehensive news website and archive. It was launched as BBC
BBC
Online, before being renamed BBCi, then bbc.co.uk, before it was rebranded back as BBC
BBC
Online. The website is funded by the Licence fee, but uses GeoIP technology, allowing advertisements to be carried on the site when viewed outside of the UK.[126] The BBC
BBC
claims the site to be "Europe's most popular content-based site"[127] and states that 13.2 million people in the UK visit the site's more than two million pages each day.[128] According to Alexa's TrafficRank system, in July 2008 BBC Online
BBC Online
was the 27th most popular English Language website in the world,[129] and the 46th most popular overall.[130] The centre of the website is the Homepage, which features a modular layout. Users can choose which modules, and which information, is displayed on their homepage, allowing the user to customise it. This system was first launched in December 2007, becoming permanent in February 2008, and has undergone a few aesthetical changes since then.[131] The Homepage then has links to other micro-sites, such as BBC News
BBC News
Online, Sport, Weather, TV and Radio. As part of the site, every programme on BBC Television
BBC Television
or Radio
Radio
is given its own page, with bigger programmes getting their own micro-site, and as a result it is often common for viewers and listeners to be told website addresses (URLs) for the programme website. Another large part of the site also allows users to watch and listen to most Television
Television
and Radio
Radio
output live and for seven days after broadcast using the BBC iPlayer
BBC iPlayer
platform, which launched on 27 July 2007, and initially used peer-to-peer and DRM technology to deliver both radio and TV content of the last seven days for offline use for up to 30 days, since then video is now streamed directly. Also, through participation in the Creative Archive Licence
Creative Archive Licence
group, bbc.co.uk allowed legal downloads of selected archive material via the internet.[132] The BBC
BBC
has often included learning as part of its online service, running services such as BBC
BBC
Jam, Learning Zone Class Clips and also runs services such as BBC WebWise and First Click which are designed to teach people how to use the internet. BBC Jam
BBC Jam
was a free online service, delivered through broadband and narrowband connections, providing high-quality interactive resources designed to stimulate learning at home and at school. Initial content was made available in January 2006; however, BBC Jam
BBC Jam
was suspended on 20 March 2007 due to allegations made to the European Commission
European Commission
that it was damaging the interests of the commercial sector of the industry.[133] In recent years, some major on-line companies and politicians have complained that BBC Online
BBC Online
receives too much funding from the television licence, meaning that other websites are unable to compete with the vast amount of advertising-free on-line content available on BBC
BBC
Online.[134] Some have proposed that the amount of licence fee money spent on BBC Online
BBC Online
should be reduced—either being replaced with funding from advertisements or subscriptions, or a reduction in the amount of content available on the site.[135] In response to this the BBC
BBC
carried out an investigation, and has now set in motion a plan to change the way it provides its online services. BBC Online
BBC Online
will now attempt to fill in gaps in the market, and will guide users to other websites for currently existing market provision. (For example, instead of providing local events information and timetables, users will be guided to outside websites already providing that information.) Part of this plan included the BBC
BBC
closing some of its websites, and rediverting money to redevelop other parts.[136][137] On 26 February 2010, The Times
The Times
claimed that Mark Thompson, Director General of the BBC, proposed that the BBC's web output should be cut by 50%, with online staff numbers and budgets reduced by 25% in a bid to scale back BBC
BBC
operations and allow commercial rivals more room.[138] On 2 March 2010, the BBC
BBC
reported that it will cut its website spending by 25% and close BBC
BBC
6 Music and Asian Network, as part of Mark Thompson's plans to make "a smaller, fitter BBC
BBC
for the digital age".[139][140] Interactive television Main article: BBC
BBC
Red Button BBC Red Button
BBC Red Button
is the brand name for the BBC's interactive digital television services, which are available through Freeview (digital terrestrial), as well as Freesat, Sky (satellite), and Virgin Media (cable). Unlike Ceefax, the service's analogue counterpart, BBC
BBC
Red Button is able to display full-colour graphics, photographs, and video, as well as programmes and can be accessed from any BBC
BBC
channel. The service carries News, Weather and Sport 24 hours a day, but also provides extra features related to programmes specific at that time. Examples include viewers to play along at home to gameshows, to give, voice and vote on opinions to issues, as used alongside programmes such as Question Time. At some points in the year, when multiple sporting events occur, some coverage of less mainstream sports or games are frequently placed on the Red Button for viewers to watch. Frequently, other features are added unrelated to programmes being broadcast at that time, such as the broadcast of the Doctor Who animated episode Dreamland in November 2009. Music

The BBC
BBC
Big Band

The BBC
BBC
employs staff orchestras, a choir, and supports two amateur choruses, based in BBC
BBC
venues across the UK; the BBC
BBC
Symphony Orchestra, the BBC
BBC
Singers, BBC Symphony Chorus
BBC Symphony Chorus
and BBC Big Band
BBC Big Band
based in London, the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra
BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra
in Glasgow, the BBC Philharmonic in Manchester, the BBC Concert Orchestra based in Watford and the BBC
BBC
National Orchestra of Wales
Wales
in Cardiff. It also buys a selected number of broadcasts from the Ulster Orchestra
Ulster Orchestra
in Belfast. Many famous musicians of every genre have played at the BBC, such as The Beatles
The Beatles
( The Beatles
The Beatles
Live at the BBC
BBC
is one of their many albums). The BBC
BBC
is also responsible for the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
coverage of the Eurovision Song Contest, a show with which the broadcaster has been associated for over 60 years. The BBC
BBC
also operates the division of BBC
BBC
Audiobooks sometimes found in association with Chivers Audiobooks. Other The BBC
BBC
operates other ventures in addition to their broadcasting arm. In addition to broadcasting output on television and radio, some programmes are also displayed on the BBC
BBC
Big Screens located in several central-city locations. The BBC
BBC
and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office also jointly run BBC
BBC
Monitoring, which monitors radio, television, the press and the internet worldwide. The BBC
BBC
also developed several computers throughout the 1980s, most notably the BBC Micro, which ran alongside the corporation's educational aims and programming. In 1951, in conjunction with Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
the BBC
BBC
published The BBC
BBC
Hymn Book which was intended to be used by radio listeners to follow hymns being broadcast. The book was published both with and without music, the music edition being entitled The BBC
BBC
Hymn Book with Music.[141] The book contained 542 popular hymns. Ceefax Main article: Ceefax The BBC
BBC
provided the world's first teletext service called Ceefax (near-homonymous with "See Facts") on 23 September 1974 until 23 October 2012 on the BBC 1
BBC 1
analogue channel then later on BBC
BBC
2. It showed informational pages such as News, Sport and the Weather. on New Year's Eve in 1974, competition from ITV's Oracle tried to compete with Ceefax. Oracle closed on New Year's Eve, 1992. During its lifetime it attracted millions of viewers, right up to 2012, prior to the digital switchover in the United Kingdom. It ceased transmission at 23:32:19 BST on 23 October 2012 after 38 years. Since then, the BBC's Red Button Service has provided a digital-like information system that replaced Ceefax. BritBox In 2016 the BBC, in partnership with fellow UK Broadcasters ITV and Channel 4
Channel 4
(who later withdrew from the project), set up 'project kangaroo' to develop an international online streaming service to rival services such as Netflix
Netflix
and Hulu.[142][143] During the development stages 'Britflix' was touted as a potential name. However, the service eventually launched as BritBox in March 2017. The online platform shows a catalogue of classic BBC
BBC
and ITV shows, as well as making a number of programmes available shortly after their UK broadcast. As of 2017, BritBox is available in the United States with the potential availability for new markets in the future.[142][144] Commercial activities Main article: BBC
BBC
Worldwide BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
Limited is the wholly owned commercial subsidiary of the BBC, responsible for the commercial exploitation of BBC
BBC
programmes and other properties, including a number of television stations throughout the world. It was formed following the restructuring of its predecessor, BBC
BBC
Enterprises, in 1995. The company owns and administers a number of commercial stations around the world operating in a number of territories and on a number of different platforms. The channel BBC Entertainment
BBC Entertainment
shows current and archive entertainment programming to viewers in Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with the BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
channels BBC
BBC
America and BBC
BBC
Canada
Canada
(Joint venture with Corus Entertainment) showing similar programming in the North America region and BBC UKTV
BBC UKTV
in the Australasia region. The company also airs two channels aimed at children, an international CBeebies
CBeebies
channel and BBC
BBC
Kids, a joint venture with Knowledge Network
Knowledge Network
Corporation, which airs programmes under the CBeebies
CBeebies
and BBC
BBC
K brands. The company also runs the channels BBC
BBC
Knowledge, broadcasting factual and learning programmes, and BBC
BBC
Lifestyle, broadcasting programmes based on themes of Food, Style and Wellbeing. In addition to this, BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
runs an international version of the channel BBC
BBC
HD, and provides HD simulcasts of the channels BBC Knowledge
BBC Knowledge
and BBC
BBC
America. BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
also distributes the 24-hour international news channel BBC
BBC
World News. The station is separate from BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
to maintain the station's neutral point of view, but is distributed by BBC Worldwide. The channel itself is the oldest surviving entity of its kind, and has 50 foreign news bureaus and correspondents in nearly all countries in the world.[145] As officially surveyed it is available to more than 294 million households, significantly more than CNN's estimated 200 million. [145] In addition to these international channels, BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
also owns, together with Scripps Networks Interactive, the UKTV
UKTV
network of ten channels. These channels contain BBC
BBC
archive programming to be rebroadcast on their respective channels: Alibi, crime dramas; Drama, drama, launched in 2013; Dave (slogan: "The Home of Witty Banter"); Eden, nature; Gold, comedy; Good Food, cookery; Home, home and garden; Really, female programming; Watch, entertainment; and Yesterday, history programming. In addition to these channels, many BBC
BBC
programmes are sold via BBC Worldwide to foreign television stations with comedy, documentaries and historical drama productions being the most popular. In addition, BBC
BBC
television news appears nightly on many Public Broadcasting Service stations in the United States, as do reruns of BBC
BBC
programmes such as EastEnders, and in New Zealand on TVNZ 1. In addition to programming, BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
produces material to accompany programmes. The company maintained the publishing arm of the BBC, BBC
BBC
Magazines, which published the Radio
Radio
Times as well as a number of magazines that support BBC
BBC
programming such as BBC
BBC
Top Gear, BBC
BBC
Good Food, BBC
BBC
Sky at Night, BBC
BBC
History, BBC Wildlife
BBC Wildlife
and BBC Music. BBC Magazines was sold to Exponent Private Equity in 2011, which merged it with Origin Publishing (previously owned by BBC Worldwide between 2004 and 2006) to form Immediate Media Company. BBC Worldwide
BBC Worldwide
also publishes books, to accompany programmes such as Doctor Who
Doctor Who
under the BBC Books
BBC Books
brand, a publishing imprint majority owned by Random House. Soundtrack albums, talking books and sections of radio broadcasts are also sold under the brand BBC
BBC
Records, with DVDs also being sold and licensed in large quantities to consumers both in the UK and abroad under the 2 Entertain
2 Entertain
brand. Archive programming and classical music recordings are sold under the brand BBC
BBC
Legends. Cultural significance

Blue plaque
Blue plaque
at Alexandra Palace, commemorating the launch of the world’s first high-definition television service, BBC
BBC
Television, in 1936

Until the development, popularisation, and domination of television, radio was the broadcast medium upon which people in the United Kingdom relied. It "reached into every home in the land, and simultaneously united the nation, an important factor during the Second World War".[146] The BBC
BBC
introduced the world's first "high-definition" 405-line television service in 1936. It suspended its television service during the Second World War and until 1946, but remained the only television broadcaster in the UK until 1955, when Independent Television
Television
(ITV) began operating.[147] This heralded the transformation of television into a popular and dominant medium. Nevertheless, "throughout the 1950s radio still remained the dominant source of broadcast comedy".[147] Further, the BBC
BBC
was the only legal radio broadcaster until 1968 (when URY
URY
obtained their first licence).[148] Despite the advent of commercial television and radio, the BBC
BBC
has remained one of the main elements in British popular culture through its obligation to produce TV and radio programmes for mass audiences.[149][150] However, the arrival of BBC2 allowed the BBC
BBC
also to make programmes for minority interests in drama, documentaries, current affairs, entertainment, and sport. Examples cited include the television series Civilisation, Doctor Who, I, Claudius, Monty Python's Flying Circus, Pot Black, and Tonight, but other examples can be given in each of these fields as shown by the BBC's entries in the British Film Institute's 2000 list of the 100 Greatest British Television
Television
Programmes.[151] The export of BBC
BBC
programmes both through services like the BBC World Service
BBC World Service
and BBC
BBC
World News, as well as through the channels operated by BBC
BBC
Worldwide, means that audiences can consume BBC
BBC
productions worldwide. The term " BBC
BBC
English" was used as an alternative name for Received Pronunciation, and the English Pronouncing Dictionary uses the term " BBC
BBC
Pronunciation" to label its recommendations.[152] However, the BBC
BBC
itself now makes more use of regional accents in order to reflect the diversity of the UK, while continuing to expect clarity and fluency of its presenters.[153] From its "starchy" beginnings, the BBC has also become more inclusive, and now attempts to accommodate the interests of all strata of society and all minorities, because they all pay the licence fee.[154] Competition from Independent Television, Channel 4, Sky, and other broadcast-television stations has lessened the BBC's influence, but its public broadcasting remains a major influence on British popular culture.[149] Attitudes toward the BBC
BBC
in popular culture Older domestic UK audiences often refer to the BBC
BBC
as "the Beeb", a nickname originally coined by Peter Sellers
Peter Sellers
on The Goon Show
The Goon Show
in the 1950s, when he referred to the "Beeb Beeb Ceeb". It was then borrowed, shortened and popularised by radio DJ Kenny Everett.[155] David Bowie’s recording sessions at the BBC
BBC
was released as Bowie at the Beeb, while Queen’s recording sessions with the BBC
BBC
was released as At the Beeb.[156] Another nickname, now less commonly used, is "Auntie", said to originate from the old-fashioned "Auntie knows best" attitude, or the idea of aunties and uncles who are present in the background of one's life (but possibly a reference to the "aunties" and "uncles" who presented children's programmes in the early days)[157] in the days when John Reith, the BBC's first director general, was in charge. To celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the BBC
BBC
the song “Auntie” was released in 1972.[158] The two nicknames have also been used together as "Auntie Beeb".[159] Controversy and criticism Main articles: Criticism of the BBC and BBC
BBC
controversies The BBC
BBC
has faced various accusations regarding many topics: the Iraq war, politics, ethics and religion, as well as funding and staffing. It also has been involved in numerous controversies because of its coverage of specific news stories and programming. In October 2014, the BBC Trust
BBC Trust
issued the " BBC
BBC
complaints framework",[160] outlining complaints and appeals procedures. However, the regulatory oversight of the BBC
BBC
may be transferred to OFCOM. The British "House of Commons Select Committee on Culture Media and Sport" recommended in its report "The Future of the BBC",[161] that OFCOM
OFCOM
should become the final arbiter of complaints made about the BBC.[162] BBC
BBC
has long faced accusations of liberal and left-wing bias.[163] Accusations of a bias against the government and the Conservative Party were often made against the Corporation by members of Margaret Thatcher's 1980s Conservative government. Presenter Andrew Marr
Andrew Marr
has said that "The BBC
BBC
is not impartial or neutral. It has a liberal bias, not so much a party-political bias. It is better expressed as a cultural liberal bias." Former BBC
BBC
director Roger Mosey classified it as "liberal defensive."[164][165][166] Conversely, the BBC
BBC
has been criticised by The Guardian
The Guardian
columnist, Owen Jones, who has said that "the truth is the BBC
BBC
is stacked full of rightwingers."[167] Paul Mason, the former Economics Editor of the BBC's Newsnight
Newsnight
programme, has also criticised the BBC
BBC
as "unionist" in relation to the BBC's coverage of the 2014 Scottish referendum campaign and "neo-liberal".[168] In 2011 Peter Sissons, a main news presenter at the BBC
BBC
from 1989—2009 said that "At the core of the BBC, in its very DNA, is a way of thinking that is firmly of the Left".[169] The BBC
BBC
has also been characterised as a pro-monarchist institution.[170] The BBC
BBC
was also accused of propaganda by journalist and author Toby Young, due to what he believed to be an anti-Brexit approach including a whole day of live programming on migration.[171] A BBC World Service
BBC World Service
newsreader who presented a daily show produced for Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
was claimed to have participated in an opposition movement with the goal overthrowing the government led by president Kurmanbek Bakiyev.[172] The BBC
BBC
presenter resigned from his post in 2010 once the allegations of his participation in the revolution became public.[173] Logos and symbols of the BBC Main article: Logo of the BBC

BBC's first three-box logo used from 1958 until 1963[citation needed]

BBC's second three-box logo used from 1963 until 1971[citation needed]

BBC's third three-box logo used from 1971 until 1991[citation needed]

BBC's fourth three-box logo used from 1988 until 1997[174]

BBC's fifth and current three-box logo used since 1997.[174]

See also

List of companies based in London List of television programmes broadcast by the BBC Stations of the BBC The Green Book British television Early television stations Gaelic broadcasting in Scotland Public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom Quango, an abbreviation for quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisation

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signals an end to era of expansion" 26 February 2010. Retrieved 26 February 2010 ^ " BBC
BBC
Proposes Deep Cuts in Web Site" 2 March 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010 ^ " BBC
BBC
6 Music and Asian Network face axe in shake-up" 2 March 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010 ^ British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (1969) The BBC
BBC
Hymn Book with Music London: Oxford University Press ^ a b "Britbox, a streaming service for British TV from BBC
BBC
and ITV, launches in the US". The Verge. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ " BBC
BBC
set to launch Britflix rival to Netflix
Netflix
after John Whittingdale approves subscription streaming". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on 9 June 2016. Retrieved 17 May 2016.  ^ "'Britflix' and chill – doesn't have the quite same ring to it". the Guardian. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 7 June 2016.  ^ a b Henery, Michelle. "Why Do We See What We See: A comparison of CNN
CNN
International, BBC World News
BBC World News
and Al Jazeera English, analysing the respective drivers influencing editorial content" (PDF). reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk. Reuters
Reuters
Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford, 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2016.  ^ Perry, George (1999). The Life of Python. London: Pavilion Books. p. 14. ISBN 1-85793-441-5.  ^ a b Perry (1999) p16 ^ " URY
URY
History". Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008.  ^ a b Muir, Hugh (8 October 2009). "Public service broadcasting is 'lynchpin' of British culture, says Joan Bakewell". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ "James Corden: BBC
BBC
is a cornerstone of everything Britain stands for". The Guardian. 31 October 2016.  ^ "The BFI TV 100: 1–100". British Film Institute. 2000. Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2007.  ^ Roach, Peter (2011). English Pronouncing Dictionary, 18th edition. Cambridge University Press. p. vi. Retrieved 6 January 2013.  ^ "Speaking out for regional accents". BBC
BBC
News. 3 March 1999. Retrieved 26 January 2009.  ^ "Diversity Policy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.  ^ Davies, Alan. " Radio
Radio
Rewind: Kenny Everett". Archived from the original on 1 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.  ^ "Queen: Album Guide". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Press Release: Mark Thompson celebrates the official opening of a new state-of-the art BBC
BBC
building in Hull". 21 October 2004. Archived from the original on 28 June 2006. Retrieved 6 July 2006.  ^ "Hits of the World". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 85 (26): 57. Jun 30, 1973. ISSN 0006-2510.  ^ "Times Online: Auntie Beeb suffers a relapse". The Times. London. 7 December 2004. Retrieved 12 February 2007.  ^ " BBC
BBC
complaints framework" (PDF). downloads.bbc.co.uk. BBC
BBC
Trust. Retrieved 6 July 2015.  ^ "House of Commons – Future of the BBC
BBC
– Culture, Media and Sport".  ^ Deech, Baroness. "Out of the frying pan into the fire: the BBC
BBC
to OFCOM". lordsoftheblog.net. Lords of the Blog. Retrieved 6 July 2015.  ^ Josh Halliday (10 October 2012). " BBC
BBC
reporting scrutinised after accusations of liberal bias". The Guardian. The corporation has long faced accusations of liberal and leftwing bias from politicians and other sections of the media.  ^ Leonard, Tom (27 October 2006). "The BBC's commitment to bias is no laughing matter". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ Douglas, Torin (18 June 2007). "Does the BBC
BBC
have a bias problem?". BBC
BBC
News.  ^ Victoria Ward (22 June 2015). " BBC
BBC
accused of liberal bias by former director". Telegraph.  ^ Owen Jones, "It's the BBC's rightwing bias that is the threat to democracy and journalism", The Guardian, 17 March 2014 ^ "Channel 4's Paul Mason says BBC
BBC
'sees itself as a unionist institution'". STV News. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015.  ^ Sissons, Peter (2011). When One Door Closes. Bite Back.  ^ BBC
BBC
accused of peddling "propaganda" for the monarchy The Daily Telegraph ^ The BBC's focus on immigration was a whole day of anti-Brexit propaganda. The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
(16 May 2016). Retrieved on 24 September 2017. ^ " BBC
BBC
newsreader quits 'after claims he helped foment revolution in Kyrgyzstan'". Press Gazette. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ Orange, Richard (8 April 2011). " BBC
BBC
newsreader steps down over Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
revolution claims". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 17 March 2018.  ^ a b "The BBC
BBC
logo story". BBC. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 

Sources

Baade, Christina L. Victory through Harmony: The BBC
BBC
and Popular Music in World War II
World War II
(Oxford University Press, 2012). Briggs, Asa. – The BBC
BBC
– the First Fifty Years – Condensed version of the five-volume history by the same author. – Oxford University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-19-212971-6 Coulton, Barbara. – Louis MacNeice in the BBC
BBC
– Writer and producer from 1941 to 1961 in the Features Department of BBC
BBC
radio. – Faber & Faber, 1980. ISBN 0-571-11537-3 Gilder, Eric. – Mass Media Moments in the United Kingdom, the USSR and the USA (2003). – Historical background relating to the British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Company, Ltd, its founding companies; their transatlantic connections; General Post Office
General Post Office
licensing system; commercial competitors from Europe before the Second World War and offshore during the 1960s. online Hajkowski, Thomas. The BBC
BBC
and National Identity in Britain, 1922–53 ( Manchester
Manchester
University Press, 2010), 252 pages; explores ideas of Britishness conveyed in BBC
BBC
radio programmes, including notions of the empire and monarchy as symbols of unity; also considers regional broadcasting in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Hendy, David. Life on air: a history of Radio
Radio
Four (Oxford University Press, 2007) covers 1967 to 1997. James, A. Lloyd. The Broadcast Word. (Kegan Paul, 1935), Mills, Brett. "'Shoved Online': BBC
BBC
Three, British Television
Television
and the Marginalisation of Young Adult Audiences." in Media, Margins and Popular Culture (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2015) pp. 219–231. Parker, Derek. – Radio: the Great Years – History of BBC
BBC
radio programmes from the beginning until the date of publication. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1977. ISBN 0-7153-7430-3 Potter, Simon J. Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Empire: The BBC
BBC
and the British World, 1922–1970 (2012) DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199568963.001.0001 online Smart, Billy. "The BBC Television
BBC Television
Audience Research Reports, 1957–1979: Recorded Opinions and Invisible Expectations." Historical Journal of Film, Radio
Radio
and Television
Television
34#3 (2014): 452–462. Spangenberg, Jochen. – The BBC
BBC
in Transition. Reasons, Results and Consequences – Encompassing account of the BBC
BBC
and influencing external factors until 1996. – Deutscher Universitaetsverlag. 1997. ISBN 3-8244-4227-2 West, W. J. – Truth Betrayed a critical assessment of the BBC, London, 1987, ISBN 0-7156-2182-3 Wilson, H. H. – Pressure Group – History of the political fight to introduce commercial television into the United Kingdom. – Rutgers University Press, 1961. Wyver, John. – The Moving Image: An International History of Film, Television
Television
& Radio
Radio
Basil Blackwell Ltd in Association with the British Film Institute, 1989. ISBN 0-631-15529-5

Primary sources

BBC
BBC
Annual Reports at BBC Online
BBC Online
– Copies of all of the BBC's annual reports since the millennium with additional material covering different areas and more specific areas of the BBC
BBC
service:

2000–2001 2002–2003 2003–2004 2004–2005 2005–2006 2006–2007 (Part 1) (Part 2) 2007–2008 (Part 1) (Part 2) 2008–2009 (Part 1) (Part 2) 2009–2010 (Part 1) (Part 2) 2010–2011 (Part 1) (Part 2) 2011–2012 (Part 1) (Part 2) 2012–2013 (Part 1) (Part 2) 2013–2014

Milne, Alasdair. – The Memoirs of a British Broadcaster – History of the Zircon spy satellite affair, written by a former Director-General of the BBC. A series of BBC
BBC
radio programmes called "The Secret Society" led to a raid by police in both England and Scotland
Scotland
to seize documents as part of a government censorship campaign. – Coronet, 1989. ISBN 0-340-49750-5

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Excellence in Film

Albert R. Broccoli
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Peter Weir
Peter Weir
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Martin Campbell
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Stephen Frears
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Danny Boyle
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Christopher Nolan
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David Yates
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Quentin Tarantino
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Kathryn Bigelow
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Ava DuVernay
(2017)

Worldwide Contribution to Entertainment

Howard Stringer
Howard Stringer
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Kirk Douglas
(2009) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
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Tony Scott
(2010) John Lasseter
John Lasseter
(2011) Will Wright (2012) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
(2013) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2014) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2015) Samuel L. Jackson
Samuel L. Jackson
(2016) Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
(2017)

British Artist of the Year

Rachel Weisz
Rachel Weisz
(2006) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2007) Tilda Swinton
Tilda Swinton
(2008) Emily Blunt
Emily Blunt
(2009) Michael Sheen
Michael Sheen
(2010) Helena Bonham Carter
Helena Bonham Carter
(2011) Daniel Craig
Daniel Craig
(2012) Benedict Cumberbatch
Benedict Cumberbatch
(2013) Emma Watson
Emma Watson
(2014) James Corden
James Corden
(2015) Felicity Jones
Felicity Jones
(2016) Claire Foy (2017)

Excellence in Comedy

Betty White
Betty White
(2010) Ben Stiller
Ben Stiller
(2011) Trey Parker
Trey Parker
and Matt Stone
Matt Stone
(2012) Sacha Baron Cohen
Sacha Baron Cohen
(2013) Julia Louis-Dreyfus
Julia Louis-Dreyfus
(2014) Amy Schumer
Amy Schumer
(2015) Ricky Gervais
Ricky Gervais
(2016) Aziz Ansari
Aziz Ansari
(2017)

Excellence in Television

Aaron Spelling
Aaron Spelling
(1999) HBO
HBO
Original Programming (2002) Dick Van Dyke
Dick Van Dyke
(2017)

Humanitarian Award

Richard Curtis
Richard Curtis
(2007) Don Cheadle
Don Cheadle
(2008) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2009) Idris Elba
Idris Elba
(2013) Mark Ruffalo
Mark Ruffalo
(2014) Orlando Bloom
Orlando Bloom
(2015) Ewan McGregor
Ewan McGregor
(2016)

Retired Awards

BBC
BBC
(1999) Tarsem Singh
Tarsem Singh
(1999) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
(2003) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2004) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(2005) Ronald Neame
Ronald Neame
(2005) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2006) Bob Shaye and Michael Lynne (2007)

v t e

Japan News Network

Hokkaido, Tohoku

HBC ATV IBC TBC TUY TUF

Kanto, Shin'etsu, Shizuoka

TBS UTY SBC BSN SBS

Kinki, Chukyo, Hokuriku

MBS CBC TUT MRO

Chugoku, Shikoku

BSS RSK ITV KUTV RCC tys

Kyushu, Okinawa

RKB NBC RKK OBS MRT MBC RBC

BS Digital

BS-TBS

BBC
BBC
portal Television
Television
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134199040 LCCN: n79074359 ISNI: 0000 0001 2375 150X GND: 1002250-8 NDL: 00358677 BNE: XX1231

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