The Info List - B. R. Ambedkar

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Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Babasaheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit
Buddhist Movement and campaigned against social discrimination against Untouchables (Dalits), while also supporting the rights of women and labour.[3][4] He was Independent India's first law minister, the principal architect of the Constitution of India
and a founding father of the Republic of India.[5][6][7][8][9] Ambedkar was a prolific student, earning doctorates in economics from both Columbia University
Columbia University
and the London School of Economics, and gained a reputation as a scholar for his research in law, economics and political science.[10] In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer. His later life was marked by his political activities; he became involved in campaigning and negotiations for India's independence, publishing journals, advocating political rights and social freedom for Dalits, and contributing significantly to the establishment of the state of India. In 1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of Dalits.[11] Popularly, Ambedkar came to be known as Babasaheb as he was a great liberator. “Babasaheb” is a Marathi phrase which roughly translates as “Father-Lord”[12] as Baba means Father and Saheb is called for Lords and it is a name that is used for ambedkar who is a part of Indian history by his people around the country.[12]  In 1990, the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred upon Ambedkar. Ambedkar's legacy includes numerous memorials and depictions in popular culture.


1 Early life 2 Education

2.1 Post-secondary education 2.2 Undergraduate studies at the University of Bombay 2.3 Postgraduate studies at Columbia University 2.4 Postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics

3 Opposition to Aryan invasion theory 4 Opposition to untouchability 5 Poona
Pact 6 Political career 7 Drafting India's Constitution

7.1 Opposition to Article 370 7.2 Support to Uniform Civil Code

8 Economic planning

8.1 Reserve Bank of India

9 Second marriage 10 Conversion to Buddhism 11 Death 12 Legacy 13 Films 14 In popular culture 15 Works 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading

Early life Ambedkar was born on 14 April 1891 in the town and military cantonment of Mhow
in the Central Provinces
Central Provinces
(now in Madhya Pradesh).[13] He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal, an army officer who held the rank of Subedar, and Bhimabai Sakpal, daughter of Laxman Murbadkar.[14] His family was of Marathi background from the town of Ambadawe
( Mandangad
taluka) in Ratnagiri district of modern-day Maharashtra. Ambedkar was born into a poor low Mahar
(dalit) caste, who were treated as untouchables and subjected to socio-economic discrimination.[15] Ambedkar's ancestors had long worked for the army of the British East India
Company, and his father served in the British Indian Army
British Indian Army
at the Mhow
cantonment.[16] Although they attended school, Ambedkar and other untouchable children were segregated and given little attention or help by teachers. They were not allowed to sit inside the class. When they needed to drink water, someone from a higher caste had to pour that water from a height as they were not allowed to touch either the water or the vessel that contained it. This task was usually performed for the young Ambedkar by the school peon, and if the peon was not available then he had to go without water; he described the situation later in his writings as "No peon, No Water".[17] He was required to sit on a gunny sack which he had to take home with him.[18] Ramji Sakpal retired in 1894 and the family moved to Satara two years later. Shortly after their move, Ambedkar's mother died. The children were cared for by their paternal aunt and lived in difficult circumstances. Three sons – Balaram, Anandrao and Bhimrao – and two daughters – Manjula and Tulasa – of the Ambedkars survived them. Of his brothers and sisters, only Ambedkar passed his examinations and went to high school. His original surname was Sakpal but his father registered his name as Ambadawekar in school, meaning he comes from his native village 'Ambadawe' in Ratnagiri district.[19][20][21][22][23] His Devrukhe Brahmin
teacher, Krishna Keshav Ambedkar, changed his surname from 'Ambadawekar' to his own surname 'Ambedkar' in school records.[24] Education Post-secondary education In 1897, Ambedkar's family moved to Mumbai where Ambedkar became the only untouchable enrolled at Elphinstone High School. In 1906, when he was about 15 years old, his marriage to a nine-year-old girl, Ramabai, was arranged.[1] Undergraduate studies at the University of Bombay

Ambedkar as a student

In 1907, he passed his matriculation examination and in the following year he entered Elphinstone College, which was affiliated to the University of Bombay, becoming the first untouchable to do so. This success evoked much celebration among untouchables and after a public ceremony, he was presented with a biography of the Buddha by Dada Keluskar, the author and a family friend.[1] By 1912, he obtained his degree in economics and political science from Bombay
University, and prepared to take up employment with the Baroda state government. His wife had just moved his young family and started work when he had to quickly return to Mumbai to see his ailing father, who died on 2 February 1913.[25] Postgraduate studies at Columbia University In 1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States at the age of 22. He had been awarded a Baroda State Scholarship of £11.50 (Sterling) per month for three years under a scheme established by Sayajirao Gaekwad III ( Gaekwad
of Baroda) that was designed to provide opportunities for postgraduate education at Columbia University
Columbia University
in New York City. Soon after arriving there he settled in rooms at Livingston Hall with Naval Bhathena, a Parsi
who was to be a lifelong friend. He passed his M.A. exam in June 1915, majoring in Economics, and other subjects of Sociology, History, Philosophy and Anthropology. He presented a thesis, Ancient Indian Commerce. Ambedkar was influenced by John Dewey and his work on democracy.[26] In 1916 he completed his second thesis, National Dividend of India — A Historic and Analytical Study, for another M.A., and finally he received his PhD in Economics in 1927[27] for his third thesis, after he left for London. On 9 May, he presented the paper Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development before a seminar conducted by the anthropologist Alexander Goldenweiser. Postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics

Ambedkar (In center line, first from right) with his professors and friends from the London School of Economics
London School of Economics

In October 1916, he enrolled for the Bar course at Gray's Inn, and at the same time enrolled at the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
where he started working on a doctoral thesis. In June 1917, he returned to India
because his scholarship from Baroda ended. His book collection was dispatched on different ship from the one he was on, and that ship was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine.[25] He got permission to return to London to submit his thesis within four years. He returned at the first opportunity, and completed a master's degree in 1921. His thesis was on "The problem of the rupee: Its origin and its solution".[3] In 1923, he completed a D.Sc. in Economics, and the same year he was called to the Bar by Gray's Inn. His third and fourth Doctorates (LL.D, Columbia, 1952 and D.Litt., Osmania, 1953) were conferred honoris causa.[28] Opposition to Aryan invasion theory Ambedkar viewed the Shudras
as Aryan and adamantly rejected the Aryan invasion theory, describing it as "so absurd that it ought to have been dead long ago" in his 1946 book Who Were the Shudras?.[4] Ambedkar viewed Shudras
as originally being "part of the Kshatriya Varna in the Indo-Aryan society", but became socially degraded after they inflicted many tyrannies on Brahmins.[29] According to Arvind Sharma, Ambedkar noticed certain flaws in the Aryan invasion theory that were later acknowledged by western scholarship. For example, scholars now acknowledge anās in Rig Veda 5.29.10 refers to speech rather than the shape of the nose.[30] Ambedkar anticipated this modern view by stating:

The term Anasa occurs in Rig Veda
Rig Veda
V.29.10. What does the word mean? There are two interpretations. One is by Prof. Max Muller. The other is by Sayanacharya. According to Prof. Max Muller, it means 'one without nose' or 'one with a flat nose' and has as such been relied upon as a piece of evidence in support of the view that the Aryans were a separate race from the Dasyus. Sayanacharya says that it means 'mouthless,' i.e., devoid of good speech. This difference of meaning is due to difference in the correct reading of the word Anasa. Sayanacharya reads it as an-asa while Prof. Max Muller reads it as a-nasa. As read by Prof. Max Muller, it means 'without nose.' Question is : which of the two readings is the correct one? There is no reason to hold that Sayana's reading is wrong. On the other hand there is everything to suggest that it is right. In the first place, it does not make non-sense of the word. Secondly, as there is no other place where the Dasyus are described as noseless, there is no reason why the word should be read in such a manner as to give it an altogether new sense. It is only fair to read it as a synonym of Mridhravak. There is therefore no evidence in support of the conclusion that the Dasyus belonged to a different race.[30]

Ambedkar disputed various hypotheses of the Aryan homeland being outside India, and concluded the Aryan homeland was India
itself.[31] According to Ambedkar, the Rig Veda
Rig Veda
says Aryans, Dāsa and Dasyus were competing religious groups, not different peoples.[32] Opposition to untouchability

Ambedkar as a barrister in 1922

As Ambedkar was educated by the Princely State of Baroda, he was bound to serve it. He was appointed Military Secretary to the Gaikwad but had to quit in a short time. He described the incident in his autobiography, Waiting for a Visa.[33] Thereafter, he tried to find ways to make a living for his growing family. He worked as a private tutor, as an accountant, and established an investment consulting business, but it failed when his clients learned that he was an untouchable.[34] In 1918, he became Professor of Political Economy in the Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. Although he was successful with the students, other professors objected to his sharing a drinking-water jug with them.[35] Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India
Act 1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates and reservations for untouchables and other religious communities.[36] In 1920, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak (Leader of the Silent) in Mumbai with the help of Shahu of Kolhapur
Shahu of Kolhapur
i.e. Shahu IV (1874–1922).[37] Ambedkar went on to work as a legal professional. In 1926, he successfully defended three non- Brahmin
leaders who had accused the Brahmin
community of ruining India
and were then subsequently sued for libel. Dhananjay Keer notes that "The victory was resounding, both socially and individually, for the clients and the Doctor. Samarth While practising law in the Bombay
High Court, he tried to promote education to untouchables and uplift them. His first organised attempt was his establishment of the central institution Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha, intended to promote education and socio-economic improvement, as well as the welfare of "outcastes", at the time referred to as depressed classes.[38] For the defence of Dalit
rights, he started many periodicals like Mook Nayak, Bahishkrit Bharat, and Equality Janta.[39] He was appointed to the Bombay
Presidency Committee to work with the all-European Simon Commission in 1925.[40] This commission had sparked great protests across India, and while its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar himself wrote a separate set of recommendations for the future Constitution of India.[41] By 1927, Ambedkar had decided to launch active movements against untouchability. He began with public movements and marches to open up public drinking water resources. He also began a struggle for the right to enter Hindu temples. He led a satyagraha in Mahad
to fight for the right of the untouchable community to draw water from the main water tank of the town.[42] In a conference in late 1927, Ambedkar publicly condemned the classic Hindu text, the Manusmriti
(Laws of Manu), for ideologically justifying caste discrimination and "untouchability", and he ceremonially burned copies of the ancient text. On 25 December 1927, he led thousands of followers to burn copies of Manusmrti.[43][44] Thus annually 25 December is celebrated as Manusmriti
Dahan Din ( Manusmriti
Burning Day) by Ambedkarites and Dalits.[45][46] In 1930, Ambedkar launched Kalaram Temple
Kalaram Temple
movement after three months of preparation. About 15,000 volunteers assembled at Kalaram Temple satygraha making one of the greatest processions of Nashik. The procession was headed by a military band, a batch of scouts, women and men walked in discipline, order and determination to see the god for the first time. When they reached to gate, the gates were closed by Brahmin
authorities.[47] Poona

M.R. Jayakar, Tej Bahadur Sapru and Ambedkar at Yerwada jail, in Poona, on 24 September 1932, the day the Poona
Pact was signed

In 1932, British announced the formation of a separate electorate for "Depressed Classes" in the Communal Award. Gandhi
fiercely opposed a separate electorate for untouchables, saying he feared that such an arrangement would divide the Hindu community.[48][49][50] Gandhi protested by fasting while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail
Yerwada Central Jail
of Poona. Following the fast, Congress politicians and activists such as Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
and Palwankar Baloo
Palwankar Baloo
organised joint meetings with Ambedkar and his supporters at Yerwada.[51] On 25 September 1932, the agreement known as Poona
Pact was signed between Ambedkar (on behalf of the depressed classes among Hindus) and Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
(on behalf of the other Hindus). The agreement gave reserved seats for the depressed classes in the Provisional legislatures, within the general electorate. Due to the pact, the depressed class received 148 seats in the legislature, instead of the 71 as allocated in the Communal Award earlier proposed by British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. The text uses the term "Depressed Classes" to denote Untouchables among Hindus who were later called Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under India
Act 1935, and the later Indian Constitution
Indian Constitution
of 1950.[52][53] In the Poona
Pact, a unified electorate was in principle formed, but primary and secondary elections allowed Untouchables in practice to choose their own candidates.[54] Political career

Ambedkar with his family members at Rajgraha in February 1934. From left – Yashwant (son), Ambedkar, Ramabai (wife), Laxmibai (wife of his elder brother, Balaram), Mukund (nephew) and Ambedkar’s favourite dog, Tobby

In 1935, Ambedkar was appointed principal of the Government Law College, Bombay, a position he held for two years. He also served as the chairman of Governing body of Ramjas College, University of Delhi, after the death of its Founder Shri Rai Kedarnath.[55] Settling in Bombay
(today called Mumbai), Ambedkar oversaw the construction of a house, and stocked his personal library with more than 50,000 books.[56] His wife Ramabai died after a long illness the same year. It had been her long-standing wish to go on a pilgrimage to Pandharpur, but Ambedkar had refused to let her go, telling her that he would create a new Pandharpur
for her instead of Hinduism's Pandharpur
which treated them as untouchables. At the Yeola Conversion Conference on 13 October in Nasik, Ambedkar announced his intention to convert to a different religion and exhorted his followers to leave Hinduism.[56] He would repeat his message at many public meetings across India. In 1936, Ambedkar founded the Independent Labour Party, which contested the 1937 Bombay
election to the Central Legislative Assembly for the 13 reserved and 4 general seats, and secured 11 and 3 seats respectively.[57] Ambedkar published his book Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste
on 15 May 1936.[58] It strongly criticised Hindu orthodox religious leaders and the caste system in general,[59] and included "a rebuke of Gandhi" on the subject.[60] Later, in a 1955 BBC interview, he accused Gandhi
of writing in opposition of the caste system in English language papers while writing in support of it in Gujarati language papers.[61] Ambedkar served on the Defence Advisory Committee[62] and the Viceroy's Executive Council as minister for labour.[62] After the Lahore resolution
Lahore resolution
(1940) of the Muslim League demanding Pakistan, Ambedkar wrote a 400 page tract titled Thoughts on Pakistan, which analysed the concept of "Pakistan" in all its aspects. Ambedkar argued that the Hindus should concede Pakistan to the Muslims. He proposed that the provincial boundaries of Punjab and Bengal
should be redrawn to separate the Muslim and non-Muslim majority parts. He thought the Muslims could have no objection to redrawing provincial boundaries. If they did, they did not quite "understand the nature of their own demand". Scholar Venkat Dhulipala states that Thoughts on Pakistan "rocked Indian politics for a decade". It determined the course of dialogue between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, paving the way for the Partition of India.[63][64] In his work Who Were the Shudras?, Ambedkar tried to explain the formation of untouchables. He saw Shudras
and Ati Shudras
who form the lowest caste in the ritual hierarchy of the caste system, as separate from Untouchables. Ambedkar oversaw the transformation of his political party into the Scheduled Castes Federation, although it performed poorly in the 1946 elections for Constituent Assembly of India. Later he was elected into the constituent assembly of Bengal where Muslim League was in power.[65] Ambedkar contested in the Bombay
North first Indian General Election of 1952, but lost to his former assistant and Congress Party candidate Narayan Kajrolkar. Ambedkar became a member of Rajya Sabha, probably an appointed member. He tried to enter Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
again in the by-election of 1954 from Bhandara, but he placed third (the Congress Party won). By the time of the second general election in 1957, Ambedkar had died. Ambedkar also criticised Islamic practice in South Asia. While justifying the Partition of India, he condemned child marriage and the mistreatment of women in Muslim society.

No words can adequately express the great and many evils of polygamy and concubinage, and especially as a source of misery to a Muslim woman. Take the caste system. Everybody infers that Islam must be free from slavery and caste. [...] [While slavery existed], much of its support was derived from Islam and Islamic countries. While the prescriptions by the Prophet regarding the just and humane treatment of slaves contained in the Koran are praiseworthy, there is nothing whatever in Islam that lends support to the abolition of this curse. But if slavery has gone, caste among Musalmans [Muslims] has remained.[66]

Drafting India's Constitution

Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the Indian Constitution
Indian Constitution
to Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
on 25 November 1949.

Upon India's independence on 15 August 1947, the new Congress-led government invited Ambedkar to serve as the nation's first Law Minister, which he accepted. On 29 August, he was appointed Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, and was appointed by the Assembly to write India's new Constitution.[67] Granville Austin described the Indian Constitution
Indian Constitution
drafted by Ambedkar as 'first and foremost a social document'. 'The majority of India's constitutional provisions are either directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its achievement.'[68] The text prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability, and the outlawing of all forms of discrimination. Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights for women, and won the Assembly's support for introducing a system of reservations of jobs in the civil services, schools and colleges for members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and Other Backward Class, a system akin to affirmative action.[69] India's lawmakers hoped to eradicate the socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities for India's depressed classes through these measures.[70] The Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.[71] Opposition to Article 370 Ambedkar opposed Article 370 of the Constitution of India, which granted a special status to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and which was included against his wishes. Balraj Madhok
Balraj Madhok
reportedly said, Ambedkar had clearly told the Kashmiri leader, Sheikh Abdullah: "You wish India
should protect your borders, she should build roads in your area, she should supply you food grains, and Kashmir should get equal status as India. But Government of India
should have only limited powers and Indian people should have no rights in Kashmir. To give consent to this proposal, would be a treacherous thing against the interests of India
and I, as the Law
Minister of India, will never do it." Then Sk. Abdullah approached Nehru, who directed him to Gopal Swami Ayyangar, who in turn approached Sardar Patel, saying Nehru had promised Sk. Abdullah the special status. Patel got the Article passed while Nehru was on a foreign tour. On the day the article came up for discussion, Ambedkar did not reply to questions on it but did participate on other articles. All arguments were done by Krishna Swami Ayyangar.[72][73][74] Support to Uniform Civil Code

I personally do not understand why religion should be given this vast, expansive jurisdiction, so as to cover the whole of life and to prevent the legislature from encroaching upon that field. After all, what are we having this liberty for? We are having this liberty in order to reform our social system, which is so full of inequities, discriminations and other things, which conflict with our fundamental rights.[75] “ ”

During the debates in the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar demonstrated his will to reform Indian society by recommending the adoption of a Uniform Civil Code.[76][77] Ambedkar resigned from the cabinet in 1951, when parliament stalled his draft of the Hindu Code Bill, which sought to enshrine gender equality in the laws of inheritance and marriage.[78] Ambedkar independently contested an election in 1952 to the lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, but was defeated in the Bombay
(North Central) constituency by a little-known Narayan Sadoba Kajrolkar, who polled 138,137 votes compared to Ambedkar's 123,576.[79][80][81] He was appointed to the upper house, of parliament, the Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
in March 1952 and would remain as member till death.[82] Economic planning

B.R. Ambedkar in 1950

Ambedkar was the first Indian to pursue a doctorate in economics abroad.[83] He argued that industrialisation and agricultural growth could enhance the Indian economy.[84] He stressed investment in agriculture as the primary industry of India. According to Sharad Pawar, Ambedkar’s vision helped the government to achieve its food security goal.[85] Ambedkar advocated national economic and social development, stressing education, public hygiene, community health, residential facilities as the basic amenities.[84] He calculated the loss of development caused by British rule.[86] Reserve Bank of India Ambedkar was trained as an economist, and was a professional economist until 1921, when he became a political leader. He wrote three scholarly books on economics:

Administration and Finance of the East India
Company The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin and Its Solution[87][88][89]

The Reserve Bank of India
(RBI), was based on the ideas that Ambedkar presented to the Hilton Young Commission.[87][89][90][91] Second marriage

Ambedkar with wife Savita in 1948

Ambedkar's first wife Ramabai died in 1935 after a long illness. After completing the draft of India's constitution in the late 1940s, he suffered from lack of sleep, had neuropathic pain in his legs, and was taking insulin and homoeopathic medicines. He went to Bombay
for treatment, and there met Dr. Sharada Kabir, whom he married on 15 April 1948, at his home in New Delhi. Doctors recommended a companion who was a good cook and had medical knowledge to care for him.[92] She adopted the name Savita Ambedkar and cared for him the rest of his life.[2] Savita Ambedkar, who was called 'Mai' or 'Maisaheb', died on May 29, 2003, aged 93 at Mehrauli, New Delhi.[93] Conversion to Buddhism

Ambedkar delivering speech during mass conversion

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Ambedkar considered converting to Sikhism, which encouraged opposition to oppression and so appealed to leaders of scheduled castes. But after meeting with Sikh leaders, he concluded that he might get "second-rate" Sikh status, as described by scholar Stephen P. Cohen.[94] Instead, he studied Buddhism
all his life. Around 1950, he devoted his attention to Buddhism
and travelled to Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka) to attend a meeting of the World Fellowship of Buddhists.[95] While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near Pune, Ambedkar announced he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that when it was finished, he would formally convert to Buddhism.[96] He twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time to attend the third conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Rangoon.[97] In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha, or the Buddhist Society
of India.[98] He completed his final work, The Buddha and His Dhamma, in 1956 which was published posthumously.[98] After meetings with the Sri Lankan Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa,[99] Ambedkar organised a formal public ceremony for himself and his supporters in Nagpur
on 14 October 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts from a Buddhist monk in the traditional manner, Ambedkar completed his own conversion, along with his wife. He then proceeded to convert some 500,000 of his supporters who were gathered around him.[96][100] He prescribed the 22 Vows
22 Vows
for these converts, after the Three Jewels
Three Jewels
and Five Precepts. He then travelled to Kathmandu, Nepal to attend the Fourth World Buddhist Conference.[97] His work on The Buddha or Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and "Revolution and counter-revolution in ancient India" remained incomplete.[101] Death

Mahaparinirvana of B. R. Ambedkar

Since 1948, Ambedkar suffered from diabetes. He was bed-ridden from June to October in 1954 due to medication side-effects and poor eyesight.[96] He had been increasingly embittered by political issues, which took a toll on his health. His health worsened during 1955. Three days after completing his final manuscript The Buddha and His Dhamma, Ambedkar died in his sleep on 6 December 1956 at his home in Delhi. A Buddhist cremation[102] was organised at Dadar Chowpatty
beach on 7 December,[103] attended by half a million grieving people.[104] A conversion program was organised on 16 December 1956,[105] so that cremation attendees were also converted to Buddhism
at the same place.[105] Ambedkar was survived by his second wife, who died in 2003,[106] and his son Yashwant Ambedkar (known as Bhaiyasaheb).[107] Ambedkar's grandson, Prakash Ambedkar, is the chief-adviser of the Buddhist Society
of India,[108] leads the Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh[109] and has served in both houses of the Indian Parliament.[109] A number of unfinished typescripts and handwritten drafts were found among Ambedkar's notes and papers and gradually made available. Among these were Waiting for a Visa, which probably dates from 1935–36 and is an autobiographical work, and the Untouchables, or the Children of India's Ghetto, which refers to the census of 1951.[96] A memorial for Ambedkar was established in his Delhi
house at 26 Alipur Road. His birthdate is celebrated as a public holiday known as Ambedkar Jayanti
Ambedkar Jayanti
or Bhim Jayanti. He was posthumously awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1990.[110] On the anniversary of his birth and death, and on Dhamma Chakra Pravartan Din (14 October) at Nagpur, at least half a million people gather to pay homage to him at his memorial in Mumbai.[111] Thousands of bookshops are set up, and books are sold. His message to his followers was "educate, organise, agitate".[112] Legacy

People paying tribute at the central statue of Ambedkar in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University in Aurangabad.

Ambedkar's legacy as a socio-political reformer, had a deep effect on modern India.[113][114] In post-Independence India, his socio-political thought is respected across the political spectrum. His initiatives have influenced various spheres of life and transformed the way India
today looks at socio-economic policies, education and affirmative action through socio-economic and legal incentives. His reputation as a scholar led to his appointment as free India's first law minister, and chairman of the committee for drafting the constitution. He passionately believed in individual freedom and criticised caste society. His accusations of Hinduism
as being the foundation of the caste system made him controversial and unpopular among Hindus.[115] His conversion to Buddhism
sparked a revival in interest in Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
in India
and abroad.[116] Many public institutions are named in his honour, and the Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar International Airport in Nagpur, otherwise known as Sonegaon Airport. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Ambedkar University Delhi
is also named in his honour. A large official portrait of Ambedkar is on display in the Indian Parliament building. The Maharashtra
government has acquired a house in London where Ambedkar lived during his days as a student in the 1920s. The house is expected to be converted into a museum-cum-memorial to Ambedkar.[117] Ambedkar was voted "the Greatest Indian" in 2012 by a poll organised by History TV18
History TV18
and CNN IBN. Nearly 20 million votes were cast, making him the most popular Indian figure since the launch of the initiative.[118][119] Due to his role in economics, Narendra Jadhav, a notable Indian economist,[120] has said that Ambedkar was "the highest educated Indian economist of all times."[121] Amartya Sen, said that Ambedkar is "father of my economics", and "he was highly controversial figure in his home country, though it was not the reality. His contribution in the field of economics is marvelous and will be remembered forever."[122][123] Osho, a spiritual teacher, remarked "I have seen people who are born in the lowest category of Hindu law, the sudras, the untouchables, so intelligent: when India
became independent, the man who made the constitution of India, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, was a sudra. There was no equal to his intelligence as far as law is concerned – he was a world-famous authority."[124] President Obama
President Obama
addressed the Indian parliament
Indian parliament
in 2010, and referred to Dalit
leader Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
as the great and revered Human Rights
champion and main author of India’s constitution.[125] Ambedkar's political philosophy has given rise to a large number of political parties, publications and workers' unions that remain active across India, especially in Maharashtra. His promotion of Buddhism
has rejuvenated interest in Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
among sections of population in India. Mass conversion ceremonies have been organised by human rights activists in modern times, emulating Ambedkar's Nagpur ceremony of 1956.[126] Most Indian Buddhists specially Navayana followers regard him as a Bodhisattva, the Maitreya, although he never claimed it himself.[127][128][129] Outside India, during the late 1990s, some Hungarian Romani people
Romani people
drew parallels between their own situation and that of the downtrodden people in India. Inspired by Ambedkar, they started to convert to Buddhism.[130] Films

Balak Ambedkar, a 1991 Kannada film directed by Basavaraj Kesthur. Bole India
Jai Bhim, 2016 Marathi film directed by Subodh Nagdeve. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar (film), 2000 English film directed by Jabbar Patel. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (film), a 2005 Kannada film directed by Sharan Kumar Kabbur. Yugpurush Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, 1993 Marathi film directed by Shashikant Nalavade. Bhim Garjana, a 1990 Marathi film directed by Vijay Pawar. Ramabai (film), a 2016 Kannada film directed by M. Ranganath. Ramabai Bhimrao Ambedkar
Ramabai Bhimrao Ambedkar
(film), a 2011 Marathi film directed by Prakash Jadhav. A Journey of Samyak Buddha, a 2013 Hindi film based on Dr. Ambedkar’s book,  The Buddha and His Dhamma and Navayana Buddhism.

In popular culture Several movies, plays, and other works have been based on the life and thoughts of Ambedkar. Jabbar Patel
Jabbar Patel
directed the English-language film Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar in 2000 with Mammootty
in the lead role.[131] This biopic was sponsored by the National Film Development Corporation of India
and the government's Ministry of Social Justice
and Empowerment. The film was released after a long and controversial gestation.[132] David Blundell, professor of anthropology at UCLA
and historical ethnographer, has established Arising Light – a series of films and events that are intended to stimulate interest and knowledge about the social conditions in India
and the life of Ambedkar.[133] In Samvidhaan,[134] a TV mini-series on the making of the Constitution of India
directed by Shyam Benegal, the pivotal role of B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
was played by Sachin Khedekar. The play Ambedkar Aur Gandhi, directed by Arvind Gaur
Arvind Gaur
and written by Rajesh Kumar, tracks the two prominent personalities of its title.[135] Bhimayana: Experiences of Untouchability
is a graphic biography of Ambedkar created by Pardhan-Gond artists Durgabai Vyam and Subhash Vyam, and writers Srividya Natarajan and S. Anand. The book depicts the experiences of untouchability faced by Ambedkar from childhood to adulthood. CNN named it one of the top 5 political comic books.[136] The Ambedkar Memorial
Ambedkar Memorial
at Lucknow
is dedicated in his memory. The chaitya consists of monuments showing his biography.[137][138]

Ambedkar Memorial
Ambedkar Memorial
at Lucknow

commemorated Ambedkar's 124th birthday through a homepage doodle[139] on 14 April 2015.[140] The doodle was featured in India, Argentina, Chile, Ireland, Peru, Poland, Sweden and the United Kingdom.[141][142][143] Works The Education Department, Government of Maharashtra
(Mumbai) published the collection of Ambedkar's writings and speeches in different volumes.[144]

Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development and 11 Other Essays Ambedkar in the Bombay
Legislature, with the Simon Commission and at the Round Table Conferences, 1927–1939 Philosophy of Hinduism; India
and the Pre-requisites of Communism; Revolution
and Counter-revolution; Buddha or Karl Marx Riddles in Hinduism[145] Essays on Untouchables and Untouchability The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India The Untouchables: Who Were They? And Why They Became Untouchables (New Delhi: Amrit Book Co, [1948]) The Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste
(1936) Pakistan or the Partition of India What Congress and Gandhi
have done to the Untouchables; Mr. Gandhi
and the Emancipation of the Untouchables Ambedkar as member of the Governor General's Executive Council, 1942–46 The Buddha and his Dhamma Unpublished Writings; Ancient Indian Commerce; Notes on laws; Waiting for a Visa ; Miscellaneous notes, etc. Ambedkar as the principal architect of the Constitution of India (2 parts) Dr. Ambedkar and The Hindu Code Bill Ambedkar as Free India's First Law
Minister and Member of Opposition in Indian Parliament
Indian Parliament
(1947–1956) The Pali
Grammar Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Struggle for Human Rights. Events starting from March 1927 to 17 November 1956 in the chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Socio-political and religious activities. Events starting from November 1929 to 8 May 1956 in the chronological order; Ambedkar and his Egalitarian Revolution – Speeches. (Events starting from 1 January to 20 November 1956 in the chronological order.) Ambedkar’s Speeches and writing in Marathi Ambedkar’s Photo Album and Correspondence

See also

Biography portal India
portal Indian religions portal

Bhoomi Dalit
Buddhist movement Deekshabhoomi The Greatest Indian List of civil rights leaders Social reformers of India Statue of Equality


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Further reading

Ahir, D. C. The Legacy of Dr. Ambedkar. Delhi: B. R. Publishing. ISBN 81-7018-603-X.  Ajnat, Surendra (1986). Ambedkar on Islam. Jalandhar: Buddhist Publ.  Beltz, Johannes; Jondhale, S. (eds.). Reconstructing the World: B.R. Ambedkar and Buddhism
in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.  Bholay, Bhaskar Laxman (2001). Dr Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar: Anubhav Ani Athavani. Nagpur: Sahitya Akademi.  Fernando, W. J. Basil (2000). Demoralisation and Hope: Creating the Social Foundation for Sustaining Democracy—A comparative study of N. F. S. Grundtvig (1783–1872) Denmark and B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
(1881–1956) India. Hong Kong: AHRC Publication. ISBN 962-8314-08-4.  Chakrabarty, Bidyut. "B.R. Ambedkar" Indian Historical Review (Dec 2016) 43#2 pp 289–315. doi:10.1177/0376983616663417. Gautam, C. (2000). Life of Babasaheb Ambedkar (Second ed.). London: Ambedkar Memorial
Ambedkar Memorial
Trust.  Jaffrelot, Christophe (2004). Ambedkar and Untouchability. Analysing and Fighting Caste. New York: Columbia University
Columbia University
Press.  Kasare, M. L. Economic Philosophy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. New Delhi: B. I. Publications.  Kuber, W. N. Dr. Ambedkar: A Critical Study. New Delhi: People's Publishing House.  Kumar, Aishwary. Radical Equality: Ambedkar, Gandhi, and the Risk of Democracy
(2015). Kumar, Ravinder. "Gandhi, Ambedkar and the Poona
pact, 1932." South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 8.1-2 (1985): 87-101. Michael, S.M. (1999). Untouchable, Dalits in Modern India. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55587-697-5.  Nugent, Helen M. (1979) "The communal award: The process of decision-making." South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 2#1-2 (1979): 112-129. Omvedt, Gail. Ambedkar: Towards an Enlightened India. ISBN 0-670-04991-3.  Sangharakshita, Urgyen. Ambedkar and Buddhism. ISBN 0-904766-28-4.  PDF

Primary sources

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji. Annihilation of caste: The annotated critical edition (Verso Books, 2014).

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Indian Independence Movement


Colonisation Porto Grande de Bengala Dutch Bengal East India
Company British Raj French India Portuguese India Battle of Plassey Battle of Buxar Anglo-Mysore Wars

First Second Third Fourth

Anglo-Maratha Wars

First Second Third

Polygar Wars Vellore Mutiny First Anglo-Sikh War Second Anglo-Sikh War Sannyasi Rebellion Rebellion of 1857 Radcliffe Line more

Philosophies and ideologies

Ambedkarism Gandhism Hindu nationalism Indian nationalism Khilafat Movement Muslim nationalism in South Asia Satyagraha Socialism Swadeshi movement Swaraj

Events and movements

Partition of Bengal
(1905) Partition of Bengal
(1947) Revolutionaries Direct Action Day Delhi-Lahore Conspiracy The Indian Sociologist Singapore Mutiny Hindu–German Conspiracy Champaran Satyagraha Kheda Satyagraha Rowlatt Committee Rowlatt Bills Jallianwala Bagh massacre Noakhali riots Non-Cooperation Movement Christmas Day Plot Coolie-Begar Movement Chauri Chaura incident, 1922 Kakori conspiracy Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre Flag Satyagraha Bardoli 1928 Protests Nehru Report Fourteen Points of Jinnah Purna Swaraj Salt March Dharasana Satyagraha Vedaranyam March Chittagong armoury raid Gandhi–Irwin Pact Round table conferences Act of 1935 Aundh Experiment Indische Legion Cripps' mission Quit India Bombay
Mutiny Coup d'état of Yanaon Provisional Government of India Independence Day


All India
Kisan Sabha All- India
Muslim League Anushilan Samiti Arya Samaj Azad Hind Berlin Committee Ghadar Party Hindustan Socialist Republican Association Indian National Congress India
House Indian Home Rule movement Indian Independence League Indian National Army Jugantar Khaksar Tehrik Khudai Khidmatgar Swaraj
Party more

Social reformers

A. Vaidyanatha Iyer Ayya Vaikundar Ayyankali B. R. Ambedkar Baba Amte Bal Gangadhar Tilak Dayananda Saraswati Dhondo Keshav Karve G. Subramania Iyer Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Gopal Hari Deshmukh Gopaldas Ambaidas Desai Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar J. B. Kripalani Jyotirao Phule Kandukuri Veeresalingam Mahadev Govind Ranade Mahatma Gandhi Muthulakshmi Reddi Narayana Guru Niralamba Swami Pandita Ramabai Periyar E. V. Ramasamy Ram Mohan Roy Rettamalai Srinivasan Sahajanand Saraswati Savitribai Phule Shahu Sister Nivedita Sri Aurobindo Syed Ahmad Khan Vakkom Moulavi Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Vinoba Bhave Vitthal Ramji Shinde Vivekananda

Independence activists

Abul Kalam Azad Accamma Cherian Achyut Patwardhan A. K. Fazlul Huq Alluri Sitarama Raju Annapurna Maharana Annie Besant Ashfaqulla Khan Babu Kunwar Singh Bagha Jatin Bahadur Shah II Bakht Khan Bal Gangadhar Tilak Basawon Singh Begum Hazrat Mahal Bhagat Singh Bharathidasan Bhavabhushan Mitra Bhikaiji Cama Bhupendra Kumar Datta Bidhan Chandra Roy Bipin Chandra Pal C. Rajagopalachari Chandra Shekhar Azad Chetram Jatav Chittaranjan Das Dadabhai Naoroji Dayananda Saraswati Dhan Singh Dukkipati Nageswara Rao Gopal Krishna Gokhale Govind Ballabh Pant Har Dayal Hemu Kalani Inayatullah Khan Mashriqi Jatindra Mohan Sengupta Jatindra Nath Das Jawaharlal Nehru K. Kamaraj Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan Khudiram Bose Shri Krishna Singh Lala Lajpat Rai M. Bhaktavatsalam M. N. Roy Mahadaji Shinde Mahatma Gandhi Mangal Pandey Mir Qasim Mithuben Petit‎ Muhammad
Ali Jauhar Muhammad
Ali Jinnah Muhammad
Mian Mansoor Ansari Nagnath Naikwadi Nana Fadnavis Nana Sahib P. Kakkan Prafulla Chaki Pritilata Waddedar Pritilata Waddedar Purushottam Das Tandon R. Venkataraman Rahul Sankrityayan Rajendra Prasad Ram Prasad Bismil Rani Lakshmibai Rash Behari Bose Sahajanand Saraswati Sangolli Rayanna Sarojini Naidu Satyapal Dang Shuja-ud-Daula Shyamji Krishna Varma Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi Siraj ud-Daulah Subhas Chandra Bose Subramania Bharati Subramaniya Siva Surya Sen Syama Prasad Mukherjee Tara Rani Srivastava Tarak Nath Das Tatya Tope Tiruppur Kumaran Ubaidullah Sindhi V O Chidamabaram V. K. Krishna Menon Vallabhbhai Patel Vanchinathan Veeran Sundaralingam Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Virendranath Chattopadhyaya Yashwantrao Holkar Yogendra Shukla more

British leaders

Wavell Canning Cornwallis Irwin Chelmsford Curzon Ripon Minto Dalhousie Bentinck Mountbatten Wellesley Lytton Clive Outram Cripps Linlithgow Hastings


Cabinet Mission Annexation of French colonies in India Constitution Republic of India Indian annexation of Goa Indian Independence Act Partition of India Political integration Simla Conference

v t e

First Cabinet of Independent India

Nehru (Prime Minister, External Affairs) Patel (Deputy Prime Minister, Home Affairs) Baldev Singh (Defence) Chetty (Finance) Maulana Azad (Education) Jagjivan Ram
Jagjivan Ram
(Labour) Ambedkar (Law) Gadgil (Public Works, Power) R. A. Kidwai (Communications) S. P. Mookerjee (Industry) Amrit Kaur
Amrit Kaur
(Health) Mathai (Railways)

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Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna


C. Rajagopalachari, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, and C. V. Raman
C. V. Raman
(1954) Bhagwan Das, Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, and Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(1955) Govind Ballabh Pant
Govind Ballabh Pant
(1957) Dhondo Keshav Karve
Dhondo Keshav Karve


Bidhan Chandra Roy
Bidhan Chandra Roy
and Purushottam Das Tandon
Purushottam Das Tandon
(1961) Rajendra Prasad
Rajendra Prasad
(1962) Zakir Husain and Pandurang Vaman Kane
Pandurang Vaman Kane
(1963) Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
(1966) Indira Gandhi
(1971) V. V. Giri
V. V. Giri
(1975) K. Kamaraj
K. Kamaraj
(1976) Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa


Vinoba Bhave
Vinoba Bhave
(1983) Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
(1987) M. G. Ramachandran
M. G. Ramachandran
(1988) B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar
and Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
(1990) Rajiv Gandhi, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
(1991) Abul Kalam Azad, J. R. D. Tata, and Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1992) Gulzarilal Nanda, Aruna Asaf Ali, and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
(1997) M. S. Subbulakshmi
M. S. Subbulakshmi
and Chidambaram Subramaniam
Chidambaram Subramaniam
(1998) Jayaprakash Narayan, Amartya Sen, Gopinath Bordoloi, and Ravi Shankar (1999)


Lata Mangeshkar
Lata Mangeshkar
and Bismillah Khan
Bismillah Khan
(2001) Bhimsen Joshi
Bhimsen Joshi
(2008) C. N. R. Rao
C. N. R. Rao
and Sachin Tendulkar
Sachin Tendulkar
(2014) Madan Mohan Malaviya
Madan Mohan Malaviya
and Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee

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General list

Avalokitesvara (Guanyin) Manjushri Samantabhadra Kshitigarbha Maitreya Mahasthamaprapta Ākāśagarbha


Skanda Sangharama (Guan Yu)


Padmasambhava Mandarava Tara Vajrapani Vajrasattva Sitatapatra Cundi


B. R. Ambedkar Bhaishajyaraja Candraprabha Nagarjuna Niō Shantideva Supratisthitacaritra Supushpachandra Suryaprabha Vasudhara Visistacaritra Visuddhacaritra

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Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika


Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

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Modern Buddhist writers (19th century to date)

Buddhism Buddhism
in the West Buddhist modernism

/ Vipassana movement

Acharya Buddharakkhita Analayo Balangoda Ananda
Thero B. R. Ambedkar Allan Bennett Thanissaro Bhikkhu Bhikkhu
Bodhi P.D. Premasiri Ajahn Chah Anagarika Dharmapala S. N. Goenka Joseph Goldstein Henepola Gunaratana Jack Kornfield Noah Levine Nyanatiloka Walpola Rahula Sharon Salzberg Sangharakshita Rahul Sankrityayan Ajahn Sumedho Ajahn Sucitto Nanavira Thera Ñāṇananda Thera Nyanaponika Thera


Stephen Batchelor David Brazier Tanaka Chigaku Daisaku Ikeda Nikkyō Niwano Yin Shun


Pema Chödrön Surya Das Anagarika Govinda Kelsang Gyatso Dalai Lama Namkhai Norbu Thinley Norbu Ole Nydahl Matthieu Ricard Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche Sogyal Rinpoche Thrangu Rinpoche Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche Robert Thurman Chögyam Trungpa


Reb Anderson Taisen Deshimaru Gil Fronsdal Steve Hagen Thích Nhất Hạnh Hsuan Hua Nan Huai-Chin Philip Kapleau Dainin Katagiri David Loy Taizan Maezumi Kitaro Nishida Shohaku Okumura Paul Reps Seung Sahn Daewon Seongcheol Sheng-yen D. T. Suzuki Shunryu Suzuki Brad Warner Hakuun Yasutani Han Yong-un Hsing Yun


Alexander Berzin Lokesh Chandra Edward Conze Heinrich Dumoulin Walter Evans-Wentz Richard Gombrich Herbert V. Guenther Red Pine George de Roerich C. A. F. Rhys Davids T. W. Rhys Davids Theodore Stcherbatsky Lucien Stryk B. Alan Wallace David Kalupahana KN Jayatilleke

Westerners influenced by Buddhism

Edwin Arnold Helena Blavatsky Fritjof Capra Leonard Cohen Alexandra David-Néel Sam Harris Heinrich Harrer Hermann Hesse Carl Jung Jon Kabat-Zinn Nietzsche H.S. Olcott Helena Roerich J.D. Salinger Gary Snyder Alan Watts A.N. Whitehead Western philosophy and Buddhism Buddhism
and psychology


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Three Jewels

Buddha Dharma Sangha

Four Noble Truths Noble Eightfold Path Nirvana Middle Way

The Buddha

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Suddhodāna (father) Māyā (mother) Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) Yasodhara (wife) Rāhula
(son) Ānanda (cousin) Devadatta

Places where the Buddha stayed Buddha in world religions

Key concepts

Avidyā (Ignorance) Bardo Bodhicitta Bodhisattva Buddha-nature Dhamma theory Dharma Enlightenment Five hindrances Indriya Karma Kleshas Mind Stream Parinirvana Pratītyasamutpāda Rebirth Saṃsāra Saṅkhāra Skandha Śūnyatā Taṇhā
(Craving) Tathātā Ten Fetters Three marks of existence

Impermanence Dukkha Anatta

Two truths doctrine


Ten spiritual realms Six realms

Deva (Buddhism) Human realm Asura realm Hungry Ghost realm Animal realm Hell

Three planes of existence


Bhavana Bodhipakkhiyādhammā Brahmavihara

Mettā Karuṇā Mudita Upekkha

Buddhābhiseka Dāna Devotion Dhyāna Faith Five Strengths Iddhipada Meditation

Mantras Kammaṭṭhāna Recollection Smarana Anapanasati Samatha Vipassanā
(Vipassana movement) Shikantaza Zazen Kōan Mandala Tonglen Tantra Tertön Terma

Merit Mindfulness


Nekkhamma Pāramitā Paritta Puja

Offerings Prostration Chanting

Refuge Satya


Seven Factors of Enlightenment

Sati Dhamma vicaya Pīti Passaddhi


Five Precepts Bodhisattva
vow Prātimokṣa

Threefold Training

Śīla Samadhi Prajñā


Four Right Exertions


Bodhi Bodhisattva Buddhahood Pratyekabuddha Four stages of enlightenment

Sotāpanna Sakadagami Anāgāmi Arhat


Bhikkhu Bhikkhuni Śrāmaṇera Śrāmaṇerī Anagarika Ajahn Sayadaw Zen
master Rōshi Lama Rinpoche Geshe Tulku Householder Upāsaka and Upāsikā Śrāvaka

The ten principal disciples

Shaolin Monastery

Major figures

Gautama Buddha Kaundinya Assaji Sāriputta Mahamoggallāna Mulian Ānanda Mahākassapa Anuruddha Mahākaccana Nanda Subhuti Punna Upali Mahapajapati Gotamī Khema Uppalavanna Asita Channa Yasa Buddhaghoṣa Nagasena Angulimala Bodhidharma Nagarjuna Asanga Vasubandhu Atiśa Padmasambhava Nichiren Songtsen Gampo Emperor Wen of Sui Dalai Lama Panchen Lama Karmapa Shamarpa Naropa Xuanzang Zhiyi


Tripiṭaka Madhyamakālaṃkāra Mahayana
sutras Pāli Canon Chinese Buddhist canon Tibetan Buddhist canon


Theravada Mahayana

Chan Buddhism

Zen Seon Thiền

Pure Land Tiantai Nichiren Madhyamaka Yogachara

Navayana Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Dzogchen

Early Buddhist schools Pre-sectarian Buddhism Basic points unifying Theravāda
and Mahāyāna


Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Korea Laos Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Russia

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Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Tibet Vietnam Middle East


Western countries

Argentina Australia Brazil France United Kingdom United States Venezuela


Timeline Ashoka Buddhist councils History of Buddhism
in India

Decline of Buddhism
in India

Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution Greco-Buddhism Buddhism
and the Roman world Buddhism
in the West Silk Road transmission of Buddhism Persecution of Buddhists Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal Buddhist crisis Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism Buddhist modernism Vipassana movement 969 Movement Women in Buddhism


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