The AZUCHI–MOMOYAMA PERIOD (安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama
jidai) is the final phase of the
Sengoku period (戦国時代, Sengoku
Although a start date of 1573 is often given, this period in broader
terms begins with Nobunaga's entry into
During this period, a short but spectacular epoch, Japanese society and culture underwent the transition from the medieval era to the early modern era.
The name of this period is taken from two castles: Nobunaga's Azuchi
* 1 Oda Nobunaga * 2 Hideyoshi completes the unification
* 3.1 Land survey * 3.2 Control measures * 3.3 Unification * 3.4 Korean campaigns
* 4 Sekigahara and the end of the Toyotomi rule * 5 Social and cultural developments during the Momoyama period * 6 Famous senryū * 7 Chronology * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading
During the last half of the 16th century, a number of daimyōs became
strong enough either to manipulate the
Nobunaga, who had prepared over a period of years for just such an opportunity by establishing an alliance with the Azai clan in northern Ōmi Province and then conquering the neighboring Mino Province , now marched toward Kyoto. After routing the Rokkaku clan in southern Omi, Nobunaga forced the Matsunaga to capitulate and the Miyoshi to withdraw to Settsu. He then entered the capital, where he successfully gained recognition from the emperor for Yoshiaki, who became the 15th and last Ashikaga shogun.
Nobunaga had no intention, however, of serving the Muromachi bakufu,
and instead now turned his attention to tightening his grip on the
Kinai region. Resistance in the form of rival daimyōs, intransigent
The newly installed shogun
As the Oda army was bogged down by fighting on every corner, Takeda
Shingen lead what was by then widely considered the most powerful army
However, just as the Takeda army was about to deliver a knock out
blow against the Oda–Tokugawa alliance,
With the death of
Even after Shingen's death, there remained several daimyōs powerful
enough to resist Nobunaga, but none were situated close enough to
Nobunaga's enemies were not only other daimyōs but also adherents of a Jōdo Shinshu sect of Buddhism who attended Ikkō-ikki , led by Kennyo . He endured though Nobunaga kept attacking his fortress for ten years. Nobunaga expelled Kennyo in the eleventh year, but, through a riot caused by Kennyo, Nobunaga's territory took the bulk of the damage. This long war was called Ishiyama Hongan-ji War .
To suppress Buddhism, Nobunaga lent support to Christianity. A
significant amount of Western Christian culture was introduced to
The activities of European traders and Catholic
During the period from 1576 to 1579, Nobunaga constructed, on the
Having secured his grip on the Kinai region, Nobunaga was now powerful enough to assign his generals the task of subjugating the outlying provinces. Shibata Katsuie was given the task of conquering the Uesugi clan in Etchū , Takigawa Kazumasu confronted the Shinano Province that a son of Shingen Takeda Katsuyori governs, and Hashiba Hideyoshi was given the formidable task of facing the Mōri clan in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū.
In 1575, Nobunaga won a significant victory over the Takeda clan in the Battle of Nagashino . Despite the strong reputation of Takeda's samurai cavalry, Oda Nobunaga embraced the relatively new technology of the arquebus , and inflicted a crushing defeat. The legacy of this battle forced a complete overhaul of traditional Japanese warfare.
In 1582, after a protracted campaign, Hideyoshi requested Nobunaga's
help in overcoming tenacious resistance. Nobunaga, making a stop-over
HIDEYOSHI COMPLETES THE UNIFICATION
Toyotomi Hideyoshi's battlefield vest
What followed was a scramble by the most powerful of Nobunaga's
retainers to avenge their lord's death and thereby establish a
dominant position in negotiations over the forthcoming realignment of
the Oda clan. The situation became even more urgent when it was
learned that Nobunaga's oldest son and heir, Nobutada , had also been
killed, leaving the
Quickly negotiating a truce with the Mōri clan before they could learn of Nobunaga's death, Hideyoshi now took his troops on a forced march toward his adversary, whom he defeated at the Battle of Yamazaki less than two weeks later.
Although a commoner who had risen through the ranks from foot
soldier, Hideyoshi was now in position to challenge even the most
senior of the Oda clan's hereditary retainers, and proposed that
Nobutada's infant son, Sanpōshi (who became
Continued political intrigue, however, eventually led to open
confrontation. After defeating Shibata at the
Battle of Shizugatake
JAPAN UNDER HIDEYOSHI
With all of
The surveys, carried out by Hideyoshi both before and after he took the title of taikō , have come to be known as the "Taikō surveys" (Taikō kenchi).
A number of other administrative innovations were instituted to encourage commerce and stabilize society. In order to facilitate transportation, toll booths and other checkpoints along roads were largely eliminated, as were unnecessary military strongholds. Measures that effectively froze class distinctions were instituted, including the requirement that different classes live separately in different areas of a town and a prohibition on the carrying or ownership of weapons by farmers. Hideyoshi ordered the collection of weapons in a great "sword hunt " (katanagari).
Hideyoshi sought to secure his position by rearranging the holdings
of the daimyōs to his advantage. In particular, he reassigned the
Tokugawa family to the Kanto region, far from the capital, and
surrounded their new territory with more trusted vassals. He also
adopted a hostage system, in which the wives and heirs of daimyōs
resided at his castle town in
Hideyoshi attempted to provide for an orderly succession by taking the title taikō, or "retired Kanpaku (Imperial regent)", in 1591, and turned the regency over to his nephew and adopted son Toyotomi Hidetsugu . Only later did he attempt to formalize the balance of power by establishing administrative bodies. These included the Council of Five Elders , who were sworn to keep peace and support the Toyotomi , the five-member Board of House Administrators, who handled routine policy and administrative matters, and the three-member Board of Mediators, who were charged with keeping peace between the first two boards.
Main article: Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)
Hideyoshi's last major ambition was to conquer the
Ming dynasty of
During the peace talks that ensued between 1593 and 1597, Hideyoshi,
A second invasion of
SEKIGAHARA AND THE END OF THE TOYOTOMI RULE
Hideyoshi had on his deathbed appointed a group of the most powerful
lords in Japan—Tokugawa, Maeda , Ukita , Uesugi, Mōri—to govern
Council of Five Elders until his infant son, Hideyori, came of
age. An uneasy peace lasted until the death of
Maeda Toshiie in 1599.
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS DURING THE MOMOYAMA PERIOD
The Momoyama period was a period of interest in the outside world, which also saw the development of large urban centers and the rise of the merchant class. The ornate castle architecture and interiors adorned with painted screens embellished with gold leaf were a reflection of a daimyō's power but also exhibited a new aesthetic sense that marked a clear departure from the somber monotones favored during the Muromachi period. A genre that emerged at this time was called the Nanban style—exotic depictions of European priests, traders, and other "southern barbarians" .
The art of the tea ceremony also flourished at this time, and both Nobunaga and Hideyoshi lavished time and money on this pastime, collecting tea bowls, caddies, and other implements, sponsoring lavish social events, and patronizing acclaimed masters such as Sen no Rikyū .
Hideyoshi had occupied Nagasaki in 1587, and thereafter sought to
take control of international trade and to regulate the trade
associations that had contact with the outside world through this
The contrasting personalities of the three leaders who contributed the most to Japan's final unification—Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and Ieyasu—are encapsulated in a series of three well-known senryū that are still taught to Japanese schoolchildren:
* Nakanunara, koroshiteshimae, hototogisu. (If the cuckoo does not sing, kill it.) 「鳴かぬなら殺してしまえホトトギス」 * Nakanunara, nakasetemiyou, hototogisu. (If the cuckoo does not sing, coax it.) 「鳴かぬなら鳴かせてみようホトトギス」 * Nakanunara, nakumadematou, hototogisu. (If the cuckoo does not sing, wait for it.) 「鳴かぬなら鳴くまでまとうホトトギス」
Nobunaga, known for his ruthlessness, is the subject of the first; Hideyoshi, known for his resourcefulness, is the subject of the second; and Ieyasu, known for his perseverance, is the subject of the third verse.
* 1568: Nobunaga enters Kyoto, marking the beginning of the Azuchi–Momoyama period * 1573: Nobunaga overthrows the Muromachi bakufu and exerts control over central Japan * 1575: Nobunaga defeats the Takeda clan the Battle of Nagashino * 1580: The Ikkō-ikki finally surrender their fortress of Ishiyama Hongan-ji to Nobunaga, after enduring an 11-year siege.
* Incident at Honnō-ji , Nobunaga is assassinated by Akechi Mitsuhide , who is then defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the Battle of Yamazaki . * Hideyoshi initiated the Taikō kenchi surveys. * Tenshō embassy is sent by the Japanese Christian lord Ōtomo Sōrin .
* 1584: Hideyoshi fights
* ^ The surveys are called Taikō kenchi despite Hideyoshi was not yet officially taikō at the beginning of the surveys, although he referred to himself as such. Hideyoshi officially became taikō in 1591 after he relinquished the title of kanpaku to his nephew, Hidetsugu .)
* ^ History of Ming : 昖棄王城，令次子琿攝國事，奔平壤。已，複走義州，願內屬。七月，兵部議令駐劄險要，以待天兵；號召通國勤王，以圖恢復。而是時倭已入王京，毀墳墓，劫王子、陪臣，剽府庫，八道幾盡沒，旦暮且渡鴨綠江，請援之使絡繹於道。 * ^ 北関大捷碑 "其秋清正 入北道、兵鋭甚、鐡嶺以北無城守焉、於是鞠敬仁等叛、應賊、敬仁者會寧府吏也、素志不卒、及賊到富寧、隙危扇亂、執兩王子及宰臣、□播者、並傳諸長吏、與賊效欸" * ^ History of Ming : 明年，如松 (Li Rusong) 師大捷於平壤，朝鮮所失四道並複。如松乘勝趨碧蹄館，敗而退師。
* ^ A B Kodansha Encyclopedia of
* Momoyama, Japanese art in the age of grandeur. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1975. ISBN 9780870991257 .
Preceded by Muromachi period 1336–1573
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