Azov (Russian: Азов), formerly known as Azoff, is a town in
Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just 16 kilometers
(9.9 mi) from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the
town. Population: 82,937 (2010 Census); 82,090 (2002
Census); 80,297 (1989 Census).
1.1 Early settlements in the vicinity
1.2 Archaeological digs
3 Administrative and municipal status
7 Twin towns—sister cities
8 See also
10 External links
Early settlements in the vicinity
The mouth of the Don River has always been an important commercial
center. At the start of the 3rd century BCE, the Greeks from the
Bosporan Kingdom founded a colony here, which they called Tanais
(after the Greek name of the river). Several centuries later, in the
last third of 1st century BCE, the settlement was burned down by
king Polemon I of Pontus. The introduction of Greek colonists restored
its prosperity, but the
Goths practically annihilated it in the 3rd
century. The site of ancient Tanais, now occupied by the khutor of
Nedvigovka, has been excavated since the mid-19th century.
In the 5th century, the area was populated by Karadach's
Akatziroi who came under the rule of
Dengizich the Hun before
Byzantium gave the land to the Hunugurs in the 460s to become known as
Patria Onoguria under his brother
Ernakh the Hun. The Kutrigur Hun
inhabitants of Patria Onoguria became known as the Utigur Bulgars when
it became part of the
Western Turkic Kaghanate
Western Turkic Kaghanate under Sandilch. Then in
the 7th century Khan
Kubrat ruler of the Unogundurs established Old
Great Bolgary there before his heir
Batbayan surrendered it to the
In the 10th century, as the Khazar state disintegrated, the area
passed under control of the Slavic princedom of Tmutarakan. The
Kipchaks, seizing the area in 1067, renamed it Azaq (i.e., lowlands),
from which appellation the modern name is derived. The Golden Horde
claimed most of the coast in the 13th and 14th centuries, but the
Venetian and Genoese merchants were granted permission to settle on
the site of modern-day
Azov and founded there a colony which they
called Tana (or La Tana).
In autumn 2000,
Thor Heyerdahl wanted to further investigate his idea
that Scandinavians may have migrated from the south via waterways. He
was on the trail of Odin (Wotan), the Germanic and Nordic god of the
mythologies of the early Norse
Eddas and Sagas. According to Snorri
Sturluson, the Icelandic author of an Edda and as least one Saga., who
wrote in the 13th century, Odin was supposed to have migrated from the
region of the Caucasus or the area just east of the
Black Sea near the
turn of the 1st century CE. Heyerdahl was particularly interested in
Snorri's reference to the land of origin of the
Heyerdahl wanted to test the veracity of Snorri's claims and as a
result organized the Joint Archaeological Excavation in
Azov in 2001.
He had wanted to undertake a second excavation the following year, but
it never happened due to his death in April 2002.
A 17th-century Dutch engraving representing the Battle of
In 1471, the
Ottoman Empire gained control of the area and built the
strong fortress of Azak (Azov). The fort blocked the
Don Cossacks from
raiding and trading into the Black Sea. The Cossacks had attacked Azov
in 1574, 1593, 1620, and 1626. In April 1637, three thousand Don
Cossacks and four thousand
Zaporozhian Cossacks besieged
Turks had four thousand soldiers and two hundred cannons). The fort
fell on June 21 and the Cossacks sent a request to the
re-enforcements and support. A commission recommended against this
because of the danger of war with Turkey and poor state of the
fortifications. In June 1641, Hussein Deli, Pasha of Silistria
invested the fort with 70,000–80,000 men. In September, they had to
withdraw because of disease and provisioning shortfalls. A second
Russian commission reported that the siege had left very little of the
walls. In March 1642, Sultan Ibrahim issued an ultimatum and Tsar
Mikhail ordered the Cossacks to evacuate. The Turks reoccupied
In 1693, the garrison of the fortress was 3,656 of whom 2,272 were
The fortress, however, had yet to pass through many vicissitudes.
Azov campaigns of 1696, Peter the Great, who desired naval
access to the Black Sea, managed to recover the fortress.
granted town status in 1708, but the disastrous Pruth
River Campaign constrained him to hand it back to the Turks in
1711. A humorous description of the events is featured in
Voltaire's Candide. During the Great Russo-Turkish War, it was taken
by the army under Count
Rumyantsev and finally ceded to
the terms of
Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji
Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji (1774). For seven years Azov
was a seat of its own governorate, but with the growth of neighboring
Rostov-on-the-Don it gradually declined in importance. It was occupied
by the Germans between July 1942 and February 1943 during World War
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions,
Azov serves as the
administrative center of Azovsky District, even though it is not a
part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated
Azov Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the
status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division,
this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.
Sergey Bezdolny of the United
Russia party was elected Mayor of Azov
on April 3, 2005 and re-elected on October 11, 2009 by 72.9%
of the voters.
Azov's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification
Dfa), featuring hot summers, cold winters (though quite mild for
Russia), and fairly low precipitation.
Climate data for Azov
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation (UN)
There are many monuments and museums In Azov.
Azov. Monument to Peter I. 1996
Monument to Aleksei Shein. 2009
Powder cellar in the town of
Azov was built in 1799, is the only
example of the construction of the fortress of Catherine's time for
all of southern
Russia (built fortresses Rostov,
Taganrog and others
completely destroyed), so it is deserved is considered an
architectural monument of military engineering art of the XVIII
century. Wooden cellar served a quarter century, in 1797 he was a
dilapidated state was dismantled, and in its place they built a cellar
made of stone. In 1799, in the bastion of St. Anne was built a new
powder cellar. In the XIX-beg. XX century the cellar was used for
storage of ice. From 1961 to 1965 the cellar was renovated and handed
over to historic museum.
In 1967, to celebrate the 900 year old
Azov soviet officials opened
the exposition diorama "The Taking of
Azov by the troops of Peter the
Great in 1696. The Author of the Diorama - Russian artist Arseny
Azov Fortress is a fortified complex of
Azov overlooking the Don
River and the Port of
Azov to the north. It includes a rampart,
watchtowers and gates.
Azov. Monument to the sailors of the
Azov Flotilla. 1975.
Monument to Peter I is a bronze monument of
Peter the Great
Peter the Great in the
center of Azov. It was designed by sculptors Oleg Komov and Andrey
Kovalchuk. The opening ceremony took place on 19 July 1996 and was
held in conjunction by the 300-year anniversary of the Russian Navy.
Monument to Aleksei Shein is a sculpture of Russian statesman,
general, Boyar (from 1695), and the first Russian Generalissimo (1696)
Aleksei Semenovich Shein. The monument was opened on June 12, 2009.
The authors of the project were M. Lushnikov and V.P. Mokrousov.
Monument to the sailors of the
Azov Flotilla is dedicated to the
Flotilla, which heroically fought in
Taganrog Bay and the Don Delta
during the Great Patriotic war. The monument is considered to be an
object of local cultural heritage.
Azov History, Archaeology and Paleontology Museum-Reserve
Azov History, Archaeology and Paleontology Museum-Reserve is one of
the biggest southern museums of
Russia hosting the richest
paleontological collection in the South of Russia. The museum was
established on 17 May 1917 by Michail Aronovich Makarovskiy.
Twin towns—sister cities
Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia
Chillicothe, Ohio, United States
Azov campaigns (1695–96)
^ a b c d e f g Law #340-ZS
^ a b c Law #234-ZS
^ Law #239-ZS
^ a b
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011).
"Всероссийская перепись населения 2010
года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census,
vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись
населения 2010 года (2010 All-
Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June
^ Правительство Российской
закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об
исчислении времени», в ред.
Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03
июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в
Федеральный закон "Об исчислении
времени"». Вступил в силу по
истечении шестидесяти дней после дня
официального опубликования (6 августа
2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская
газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian
Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31,
2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ
of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating
Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the
^ Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow:
Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003.
p. 14. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
^ (in Russian) Russian postal objects – find by name
^ Baynes, T.S., ed. (1878). "Azoff". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3
(9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 169.
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004).
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субъектов Российской Федерации в
составе федеральных округов, районов,
городских поселений, сельских
населённых пунктов – районных
центров и сельских населённых пунктов
с населением 3 тысячи и более
человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal
Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural
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Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская
перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia
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^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись
населения 1989 г. Численность
наличного населения союзных и
автономных республик, автономных
областей и округов, краёв, областей,
районов, городских поселений и
сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989:
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Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and
Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers].
Всесоюзная перепись населения
1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian).
Институт демографии Национального
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the National Research University: Higher School of Economics].
Retrieved August 9, 2014.
^ J. Bjornar Storfjell, "Thor Heyerdahl's Final Projects," in
Azerbaijan International, Vol. 10:2 (Summer 2002)
^ Brian L. Davies, 'Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea
Steppe, 2007, page 88-90
^ Ottoman Warfare 1500-1700, Rhoads Murphey, 1999, p. 55
^ Lord Kinross, The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the
Turkish Empire, Perennial, 1979, p. 353. ISBN 0-688-03093-9.
^ Boeck, Brian J. (2008), "When Peter I Was Forced to Settle for Less:
Coerced Labor and Resistance in a Failed Russian Colony
(1695–1711)", The Journal of Modern History, 80 (3): 485–514,
^ "World Weather Information Service – Azov". United Nations.
Retrieved December 31, 2010.
^ "Крепостные валы с Алексеевскими
воротами" (in Russian). Ассоциация малых
туристских городов. Retrieved 2017-10-01.
^ "Памятники города Азова". www.azovlib.ru (in
Russian). Retrieved 2017-02-02.
Законодательное Собрание Ростовской
области. Закон №340-ЗС от 25
июля 2005 г. «Об
устройстве Ростовской области», в ред.
Закона №270-ЗС от 27 ноября 2014 г. «О
внесении изменений в областной Закон
устройстве Ростовской области"».
Вступил в силу со дня официального
опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше
время", №187–190, 28 июля 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly
of Rostov Oblast. Law #340-ZS of July 28,
2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast, as
amended by the Law #270-ZS of November 27, 2014 On
Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure
of Rostov Oblast". Effective as of the official publication
Законодательное Собрание Ростовской
области. Закон №234-ЗС от 27
декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границы
и наделении статусом городского
округа муниципального образования
"Город Азов"». Вступил в силу со дня
Опубликован: "Наше время", №339, 29
декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov
Oblast. Law #234-ZS of December 27, 2004 On
Establishing the Border and Granting Urban Okrug Status to the
Municipal Formation of the "Town of Azov". Effective as of the
official publication date.).
Законодательное Собрание Ростовской
области. Закон №239-ЗС от 27
декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ
и наделении соответствующим статусом
муниципального образования "Азовский
район" и муниципальных образований в
его составе». Вступил в силу с
1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Наше
время", №339, 29 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly
of Rostov Oblast. Law #239-ZS of December 27,
2004 On Establishing the Borders and Granting an Appropriate Status to
the Municipal Formation of "Azovsky District" and to the Municipal
Formations It Comprises. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
Wikisource has the text of the 1911
Encyclopædia Britannica article
Unofficial website of
Azov (in Russian)
Soviet topographic map 1:100,000
Pictures of Azov
Administrative divisions of Rostov Oblast
Administrative center: Rostov-on-Don
Cities and towns