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The Info List - Ayman Al-Zawahiri


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Ayman Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri[3] (Arabic: أيمن محمد ربيع الظواهري‎  ʾ Ayman Muḥammad Rabīʿ aẓ-Ẓawāhirī, born June 19, 1951)[4] is the current leader of al-Qaeda and a current[5] or former member and senior official of Islamist
Islamist
organizations which have orchestrated and carried out attacks in North America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. In 2012, he called on Muslims
Muslims
to kidnap Western tourists in Muslim
Muslim
countries.[6] Since the September 11 attacks, the U.S. State Department
U.S. State Department
has offered a US$25 million reward for information or intelligence leading to al-Zawahiri's capture.[7] He is under worldwide sanctions by the Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee as a member of al-Qaeda.[8]

Contents

1 Alternate names and sobriquets 2 Personal life

2.1 Early life

2.1.1 Close family 2.1.2 Youth 2.1.3 Joins the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood

2.2 Marriage and children

3 Career 4 Militant activity

4.1 Assassination
Assassination
plots

4.1.1 Egypt 4.1.2 Pakistan 4.1.3 Sudan 4.1.4 United States

4.2 Organizations

4.2.1 Egyptian Islamic Jihad 4.2.2 Maktab al-Khadamat 4.2.3 al-Qaeda

4.2.3.1 Emergence as al-Qaeda's chief commander 4.2.3.2 Formal appointment

4.2.4 Imprisonment

4.2.4.1 Egypt 4.2.4.2 Russia

4.3 Leaving Egypt 4.4 Activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran 4.5 Alleged activities in Russia 4.6 Activities in Egypt 4.7 Activities and whereabouts after the September 11 attacks

5 Affiliations 6 Views

6.1 Loyalty and enmity 6.2 Female combatants

7 Promotional activities

7.1 Video and audio messages

7.1.1 2000's 7.1.2 2010's

7.2 Online Q&A 7.3 Publications

8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Alternate names and sobriquets Ayman Mohammed Rabie al- Zawahiri is pronounced [ˈʔæjmæn mʊˈħæmːæd rɑˈbiːʕ azˤːɑˈwæːhɪriː] or [aðˤːɑˈwæːhɪriː] in Arabic. Zawahiri is usually spelled Zawahri (from the pronunciation in his native Egyptian Arabic), but is sometimes spelled "Dhawahri" if transliterated directly from Modern Standard Arabic, also called Literary Arabic, in certain academic circles. Using the Intelligence Community Standard for the Transliteration of Arabic Names, it is spelled Zawahri. Al- Zawahiri has also gone under following names:[9] Abu Muhammad / Abu Mohammed (أبو محمّد), Abu Fatima (أبو فاطمة), Muhammad Ibrahim (محمّد إبراهيم), Abu Abdallah (أبو عبدالله), Abu al-Mu'iz (أبو المعز), The Doctor, The Teacher, Nur (نور), Ustaz (أستاذ), Abu Mohammed Nur al-Deen (أبو محمّد نورالدين), Abdel Muaz / Abdel Moez / Abdel Muez (عبدالمعز). Personal life Early life

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Ayman al- Zawahiri was born in 1951 in the neighborhood of Maadi, Cairo, the Kingdom of Egypt, to Mohammed Rabie al- Zawahiri and Umayma Azzam. Close family The al- Zawahiri family was considered "distinguished" [10] while they lived in Maadi. Al-Zawahiri's parents both came from prosperous families. Al-Zawahiri's father, Mohammed Rabie al-Zawahiri, came from a large family of doctors and scholars. Mohammed Rabie became a surgeon and a professor (of pharmacy [10]) at Cairo
Cairo
University. Ayman's mother, Umayma Azzam, came from a wealthy, politically active clan. Ayman has said that he has a deep affection for his mother. Her brother, Mahfouz Azzam, became a role model for Ayman as a teenager.[11] Ayman has a younger brother, Muhammad al-Zawahiri, and a twin sister, Heba Mohamed al-Zawahiri.[citation needed] Al-Zawahiri's sister, Heba Mohamed al-Zawahiri, became a professor of medical oncology at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo
Cairo
University. She described her brother as "silent and shy".[12] Al-Zawahiri's brother, Muhammad al-Zawahiri, was sent to the Balkans
Balkans
by his older brother in 1993. Ayman al- Zawahiri sent Muhammad to meet with Alija Izetbegović, commander of the 3rd Corps of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina, along with senior staff officers attached and religious leaders, to check the Islamisation
Islamisation
of the Bosnian Army and the funds received for the mujahedeen fighters in Bosnia.[13][unreliable source?] Muhammad was known as a logistics expert and is said to be the military commander of Islamic Jihad. Muhammad worked in Bosnia, Croatia, and Albania
Albania
under the cover of being an International Islamic Relief Organization (IIRO) official.[citation needed] While hiding in the United Arab Emirates, he was arrested in 2000, then extradited to Egypt, where he was sentenced to death.[citation needed] He was held in Tora Prison in Cairo
Cairo
as a political detainee. Security officials said he was the head of the Special
Special
Action Committee of Islamic Jihad, which organized terrorist operations. However, after the Egyptian popular uprising in the spring of 2011, on 17 March 2011 he was released from prison by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, the interim government of Egypt. His lawyer said he had been held to extract information about his brother Ayman.[14] However, on 20 March 2011, he was re-arrested.[15] On 17 August 2013, Egyptian authorities arrested Muhammad al- Zawahiri at his home in Giza.[16] Youth Ayman al- Zawahiri was reportedly a studious youth. Ayman excelled in school, loved poetry, and "hated violent sports" —which he thought were "inhumane." Al- Zawahiri studied medicine at Cairo
Cairo
University and graduated in 1974 with gayyid giddan. Following that he served three years as a surgeon in the Egyptian Army
Egyptian Army
after which he established a clinic near his parents in Maadi.[17] In 1978, he also earned a master's degree in surgery.[18] Ayman al- Zawahiri has also shown a radical understanding of Islamic theology
Islamic theology
and Islamic history.[citation needed] He speaks Arabic, English,[19][20] and French. Al- Zawahiri participated in Youth activism
Youth activism
as a student. He became both quite pious and political, under the influence of his uncle Mahfouz Azzam, and lecturer Mostafa Kamel Wasfi.[21] Sayyid Qutb preached that to restore Islam and free Muslims, a vanguard of true Muslims
Muslims
modeling itself after the original Companions of the Prophet had to be developed.[22] Joins the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood See also: Sayyid Qutb By the age of 14, al- Zawahiri had joined the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood. The following year the Egyptian government
Egyptian government
executed Qutb for conspiracy, and al-Zawahiri, along with four other secondary school students, helped form an "underground cell devoted to overthrowing the government and establishing an Islamist
Islamist
state." It was at this early age that al- Zawahiri developed a mission in life, "to put Qutb's vision into action."[23] His cell eventually merged with others to form al- Jihad
Jihad
or Egyptian Islamic Jihad.[17] Marriage and children Ayman al- Zawahiri has been married at least four times. His wives include Azza Ahmed Nowari and Umaima Hassan.[citation needed] In 1978, al- Zawahiri married his first wife, Azza Ahmed Nowari, a student at Cairo
Cairo
University who was studying philosophy.[21] Their wedding, which was held at the Continental Hotel in Opera Square,[21] was very conservative, with separate areas for both men and women, and no music, photographs, or light-hearted humour.[24] Many years later, when the United States
United States
attacked Afghanistan
Afghanistan
following the September 11 attacks in October 2001, Azza apparently had no idea that al-Zawahiri had supposedly been a jihadi emir (commander) for the last decade.[25] In June 2012, one of Zawahiri's four wives, Umaima Hassan, released a statement on the internet congratulating the role played by Muslim women in the Arab Spring.[26] Al- Zawahiri and his wife Azza had four daughters, Fatima (born 1981), Umayma (born 1983), Nabila (born 1986), and Khadiga (born 1987), and a son, Mohammed (also born in 1987; the twin brother of Khadiga), who was a "delicate, well-mannered boy" and "the pet of his older sisters," subject to teasing and bullying in a traditional all-male environment, who preferred to "stay at home and help his mother."[27] In 1997, ten years after the birth of Mohammed, Azza gave birth to their fifth daughter, Aisha, who had Down syndrome. In February 2004, Abu Zubaydah
Abu Zubaydah
was waterboarded and subsequently stated that Abu Turab Al-Urduni had married one of al-Zawahiri's daughters.[28] In the first half of 2005, one of Al-Zawahiri's three surviving wives gave birth to a daughter, named Nawwar.[29] Ayman al-Zawahiri's first wife Azza and two of their six children, Mohammad and Aisha, were killed in an air strike on Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by US forces in late December 2001, following the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
on the U.S.[30][31] After an American aerial bombardment of a Taliban-controlled building at Gardez, Azza was pinned under debris of a guesthouse roof. Concerned for her modesty, she "refused to be excavated" because "men would see her face" and she died from her injuries the following day. Her son, Mohammad, was also killed outright in the same house. Her four-year-old daughter with Down syndrome, Aisha, had not been hurt by the bombing, but died from exposure in the cold night while Afghan rescuers tried to save Azza.[32] Career Ayman al- Zawahiri worked in the medical field as a surgeon. In 1985, al- Zawahiri went to Saudi Arabia on Hajj
Hajj
and stayed to practice medicine in Jeddah
Jeddah
for a year.[33] As a reportedly qualified surgeon, when his organization merged with bin Laden's al-Qaeda, he became bin Laden's personal advisor and physician. He had first met bin Laden in Jeddah
Jeddah
in 1986.[34] In 1981, Ayman al- Zawahiri also traveled to Peshawar, Pakistan, where he worked in a Red Crescent
Red Crescent
hospital treating wounded refugees. There he became friends with Ahmed Khadr, and the two shared a number of conversations about the need for Islamic government and the needs of the Afghan people.[35][36] In 1993, al- Zawahiri traveled to the United States, where he addressed several California
California
mosques under his Abdul Mu'iz pseudonym, relying on his credentials from the Kuwaiti Red Crescent
Red Crescent
to raise money for Afghan children who had been injured by Soviet land mines—he only raised $2000.[37] Militant activity Assassination
Assassination
plots Main article: Assassination Egypt In 1981, Al- Zawahiri was one of hundreds arrested following the assassination of President Anwar Sadat.[38] Initially, the plan was derailed when authorities were alerted to Al-Jihad's plan by the arrest of an operative carrying crucial information, in February 1981. President Sadat ordered the roundup of more than 1500 people, including many Al- Jihad
Jihad
members, but missed a cell in the military led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli, who succeeded in assassinating Sadat during a military parade that October.[39] His lawyer, Montasser el-Zayat, said that Zawahiri was tortured in prison.[40] In his book, Al- Zawahiri as I Knew Him, Al-Zayat maintains that under torture by the Egyptian police, following his arrest in connection with the murder of Sadat in 1981, Al- Zawahiri revealed the hiding place of Essam al-Qamari, a key member of the Maadi
Maadi
cell of al-Jihad, which led to Al-Qamari's "arrest and eventual execution."[41] In 1993, al-Zawahiri's and Egyptian Islamic Jihad's (EIJ) connection with Iran
Iran
may have led to a suicide bombing in an attempt on the life of Egyptian Interior Minister Hasan al-Alfi, the man heading the effort to quash the campaign of Islamist
Islamist
killings in Egypt. It failed, as did an attempt to assassinate Egyptian prime minister Atef Sidqi three months later. The bombing of Sidqi's car injured 21 Egyptians and killed a schoolgirl, Shayma Abdel-Halim. It followed two years of killings by another Islamist
Islamist
group, al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, that had killed over 200 people. Her funeral became a public spectacle, with her coffin carried through the streets of Cairo
Cairo
and crowds shouting, "Terrorism is the enemy of God!"[42] The police arrested 280 more of al-Jihad's members and executed six. For their leading role in anti-Egyptian Government attacks in the 1990s, al- Zawahiri and his brother Muhammad al- Zawahiri were sentenced to death in the 1999 Egyptian case of the Returnees from Albania. Pakistan The 1995 attack on the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, was the Egyptian Islamic Jihad's first success under Zawahiri's leadership, but Bin Laden had disapproved of the operation. The bombing alienated Pakistan, which was "the best route into Afghanistan".[43][clarification needed] In July 2007, Al- Zawahiri supplied direction for the Lal Masjid siege, codename Operation Silence. This was the first confirmed time that Al- Zawahiri was taking militant steps against the Pakistan
Pakistan
Government and guiding Islamic militants
Islamic militants
against the State of Pakistan. The Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
troops and Special
Special
Service Group taking control of the Red Mosque
Mosque
in Islamabad
Islamabad
found letters from al- Zawahiri directing Islamic militants
Islamic militants
Abdul Rashid Ghazi and Abdul Aziz Ghazi, who ran the mosque and adjacent madrasah. This conflict resulted in 100 deaths.[44] On December 27, 2007, al- Zawahiri was also implicated in the assassination of former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto.[45] Sudan In 1994, the sons of Ahmad Salama Mabruk
Ahmad Salama Mabruk
and Mohammed Sharaf were executed under al-Zawahiri's leadership for betraying Egyptian Islamic Jihad; the militants were ordered to leave the Sudan.[46][47] United States In 1998, Ayman al- Zawahiri was listed as under indictment[48] in the United States
United States
for his role in the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings, a series of attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which hundreds of people were killed in simultaneous truck bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the major East African cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya.[4] The attacks brought Osama bin Laden and Ayman al- Zawahiri to international attention. In 2000, the USS Cole bombing
USS Cole bombing
encouraged several members to depart. Mohammed Atef
Mohammed Atef
went to escape Kandahar, Zawahiri to Kabul, and Bin Laden fled to Kabul, later joining Atef when he realised no American reprisal attacks were forthcoming.[49] On October 10, 2001, al- Zawahiri appeared on the initial list of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation's top 22 Most Wanted Terrorists, which was released to the public by U.S. President George W. Bush. In early November 2001, the Taliban
Taliban
government announced they were bestowing official Afghan citizenship on him, as well as Bin Laden, Mohammed Atef, Saif al-Adl, and Shaykh Asim Abdulrahman.[50] Organizations Egyptian Islamic Jihad Ayman al- Zawahiri was previously the second and last "emir" of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, having succeeded Abbud al-Zumar in the latter role when Egyptian authorities sentenced al-Zumar to life imprisonment. Ayman al- Zawahiri eventually became one of Egyptian Islamic Jihad's leading organizers and recruiters. Zawahiri's hope was to recruit military officers and accumulate weapons, waiting for the right moment to launch "a complete overthrow of the existing order."[51] Chief strategist of Al- Jihad
Jihad
was Aboud al-Zumar, a colonel in the military intelligence whose plan was to kill the main leaders of the country, capture the headquarters of the army and State Security, the telephone exchange building, and of course the radio and television building, where news of the Islamic revolution would then be broadcast, unleashing – he expected – "a popular uprising against secular authority all over the country."[51] Maktab al-Khadamat See also: Black Standard In Peshawar, he met up with Osama bin Laden, who was running a base for mujahideen called Maktab al-Khadamat (MAK); founded by the Palestinian Sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. The radical position of al- Zawahiri and the other militants of Al- Jihad
Jihad
put them at odds with Sheikh Azzam, with whom they competed for bin Laden's financial resources.[52] Zawahiri carried two false passports, a Swiss one in the name of Amin Uthman and a Dutch one in the name of Mohmud Hifnawi.[53] Former FBI
FBI
agent Ali Soufan
Ali Soufan
mentioned in his book The Black Banners that Ayman al- Zawahiri is suspected of being behind Azzam's assassination in 1989.[54][55] al-Qaeda

This image used by the FBI
FBI
shows Ayman al- Zawahiri in Khost, Afghanistan.[56]

In 1998, al- Zawahiri formally merged the Egyptian Islamic Jihad into al-Qaeda. According to reports by a former al-Qaeda member, he has worked in the al-Qaeda organization since its inception and was a senior member of the group's shura council. He was often described as a "lieutenant" to Osama bin Laden, though bin Laden's chosen biographer has referred to him as the "real brains" of al-Qaeda.[57] On February 23, 1998, al- Zawahiri issued a joint fatwa with Osama bin Laden under the title " World Islamic Front
World Islamic Front
Against Jews and Crusaders". Zawahiri, not bin Laden, is thought to have been the actual author of the fatwa.[58] Bin Laden and Al- Zawahiri organized an al-Qaeda congress on June 24, 1998. A week prior to the beginning of the conference, a group of well-armed assistants to al- Zawahiri had left by jeeps in the direction of Herat. Following the instructions of their patron, in the town of Koh-i-Doshakh they met three unknown Slavic-looking men who had arrived from Russia via Iran. After their arrival in Kandahar, they split up. One of the Russians was directly escorted to al- Zawahiri and he did not participate in the conference. Western military intelligence succeeded in acquiring photographs of him, but he disappeared for six years. According to Axis Globe, in 2004, when Qatar and U.S. investigated Russian embassy officials whom the United Arab Emirates had arrested in connection to the murder of Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev in Qatar, computer software precisely established that a man who had walked to the Russian embassy in Doha was the same one who visited al- Zawahiri prior to the Al-Qaida conference.[59] Emergence as al-Qaeda's chief commander On April 30, 2009, the U.S. State Department
U.S. State Department
reported that al-Zawahiri had emerged as al-Qaeda's operational and strategic commander[60] and that Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
was now only the ideological figurehead of the organization.[60] However, after the 2011 death of Osama, a senior U.S. intelligence official was quoted as saying intelligence gathered in the raid showed that bin Laden remained deeply involved in planning: “This compound (where bin Laden was killed) in Abbottabad was an active command-and-control center for al-Qaeda’s leader. He was active in operational planning and in driving tactical decisions within al-Qaeda.”[61] Following the death of bin Laden, former U.S. Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism Juan Zarate said that al-Zawahiri would "clearly assume the mantle of leadership" of al-Qaeda.[62] But a senior U.S. administration official said that although al- Zawahiri was likely to be al-Qaeda's next leader, his authority was not "universally accepted" among al-Qaeda's followers, particularly in the Gulf region. Zarate said that al- Zawahiri was more controversial and less charismatic than bin Laden.[63] Rashad Mohammad Ismail (AKA "Abu Al-Fida"), a leading member of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, stated that al- Zawahiri was the best candidate.[64] Hamid Mir
Hamid Mir
is reported to have said that he believed that Ayman al- Zawahiri was the operational head of al-Qaeda, and that "[h]e is the person who can do the things that happened on Sept. 11."[57] Within days of the attacks, Zawahiri's name was put forward as Bin Laden's second-in-command, with reports suggesting he represented "a more formidable US foe than bin Laden."[65] Formal appointment As of May 2, 2011, he became the leader of al-Qaeda following the death of Osama bin Laden.[62] This was confirmed by a press release from al-Qaeda's general command on June 16.[5] al-Zawahiri's succession to command of al-Qaeda was announced on several of their websites on June 16, 2011.[31] On the same day, al-Qaeda renewed its position that Israel
Israel
was an illegitimate state and that it wouldn't accept any compromise on Palestine.[66] The delayed announcement led some analysts to speculate that there was quarreling within al-Qaeda: "It doesn't suggest a vast reservoir of accumulated goodwill for him," said one celebrity journalist on CNN.[67] Both U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
Robert Gates
and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Mike Mullen
Mike Mullen
maintain that the delay didn't signal any kind of dispute within al-Qaeda,[68] and Mullen reiterated U.S. death threats toward al-Zawahiri.[69] According to U.S. officials within the Obama administration and Robert Gates, al- Zawahiri would find the leadership difficult as, while intelligent, he lacks combat experience and the charisma of Osama bin Laden.[68][70][71] Imprisonment Egypt Al- Zawahiri was convicted of dealing in weapons and received a three-year sentence, which he completed in 1984, shortly after his conviction.[72] Russia At some point in 1994, al- Zawahiri was said to have "become a phantom"[73] but is thought to have traveled widely to "Switzerland and Sarajevo". A fake passport he was using shows that he traveled to Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong.[74] On December 1, 1996, Ahmad Salama Mabruk
Ahmad Salama Mabruk
and Mahmud Hisham al-Hennawi – both carrying false passports – accompanied al- Zawahiri on a trip to Chechnya, where they hoped to re-establish the faltering Jihad. Their leader was traveling under the pseudonym Abdullah Imam Mohammed Amin, and trading on his medical credentials for legitimacy. The group switched vehicles three times, but were arrested within hours of entering Russian territory and spent five months in a Makhachkala
Makhachkala
prison awaiting trial. The trio pleaded innocence, maintaining their disguise and having other al- Jihad
Jihad
members from Bavari-C send the Russian authorities pleas for leniency for their "merchant" colleagues who had been wrongly arrested; and Russian Member of Parliament Nadyr Khachiliev echoed the pleas for their speedy release as al- Jihad
Jihad
members Ibrahim Eidarous and Tharwat Salah Shehata traveled to Dagestan
Dagestan
to plead for their release. Shehata received permission to visit the prisoners, and is believed to have smuggled them $3000 which was later confiscated from their cell, and to have given them a letter which the Russians didn't bother to translate.[75] In April 1997, the trio were sentenced to six months, and were subsequently released a month later and ran off without paying their court-appointed attorney Abulkhalik Abdusalamov his $1,800 legal fee citing their "poverty".[75] Shehata was sent on to Chechnya, where he met with Ibn Khattab.[73][75][76][77] Leaving Egypt During this time, al- Zawahiri also began reconstituting the Egyptian Islamic Jihad
Jihad
(EIJ) along with other exiled militants.[78] The group had "very loose ties to their nominal imprisoned leader, Abud al-Zumur."[citation needed] In Peshwar, al- Zawahiri is thought to have become radicalized by other Al- Jihad
Jihad
members, abandoning his old strategy of a swift coup d'état to change society from above, and embracing the idea of takfir.[79] In 1991, EIJ broke with al-Zumur, and al- Zawahiri grabbed "the reins of power" to become EIJ leader.[80] Activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran Zawahiri has allegedly worked with the Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
on behalf of al-Qaeda. Lawrence Wright
Lawrence Wright
reports that EIJ operative Ali Mohammed "told the FBI
FBI
that al- Jihad
Jihad
had planned a coup in Egypt
Egypt
in 1990." Zawahiri had studied the 1979 Islamist
Islamist
Islamic Revolution
Islamic Revolution
and "sought training from the Iranians" as to how to duplicate their feat against the Egyptian government.

He offered Iran
Iran
information about an Egyptian government
Egyptian government
plan to storm several islands in the Persian Gulf that both Iran
Iran
and the United Arab Emirates lay claim to. According to Mohammed, in return for this information, the Iranian government paid Zawahiri $2 million and helped train members of al- Jihad
Jihad
in a coup attempt that never actually took place.[81]

However, in public Zawahiri has harshly denounced the Iranian government. In December 2007 he said, "We discovered Iran collaborating with America in its invasions of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iraq."[82] In the same video messages, he moreover chides Iran
Iran
for "repeating the ridiculous joke that says that al-Qaida and the Taliban are agents of America," before playing a video clip in which Ayatollah Rafsanjani says, "In Afghanistan, they were present in Afghanistan, because of Al-Qa'ida; and the Taliban, who created the Taliban? America is the one who created the Taliban, and America's friends in the region are the ones who financed and armed the Taliban."[82] Zawahiri's criticism of Iran's government continues when he states,

Despite Iran's repetition of the slogan 'Death to America, death to Israel,' we haven't heard even one Fatwa from one Shiite authority, whether in Iran
Iran
or elsewhere, calling for Jihad
Jihad
against the Americans in Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan.[82]

Zawahiri has dismissed that there is any cooperation between Iran
Iran
and Al Qaeda against their common enemy, viz, the United States.[83] He also said that " Iran
Iran
Stabbed a Knife into the Back of the Islamic Nation."[84] In April 2008, Zawahiri blamed Iranian state media and Al-Manar
Al-Manar
for perpetuating the "lie" that "there are no heroes among the Sunnis who can hurt America as no-one else did in history" in order to discredit the Al Qaeda network.[85] Zawahiri was referring to some 9/11 conspiracy theories according to which Al Qaeda was not responsible for the 9/11 attacks. On the seventh anniversary of the attacks of September 11, 2001, Zawahiri released a 90-minute tape[86] in which he blasted "the guardian of Muslims
Muslims
in Tehran" for recognizing "the two hireling governments"[87] in Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan. Alleged activities in Russia There have been doubts as to the true nature of al-Zawahiri's encounter with the Russians in 1996. Washington, D.C.-based Jamestown Foundation scholar Evgenii Novikov has argued that it seems unlikely that the Russians would not have been able to determine who he was, given their well-trained Arabists and the obviously suspicious act of Muslims
Muslims
crossing illegally a border with multiple false identities and encrypted documents in Arabic.[88][89] Assassinated former FSB secret service officer Alexander Litvinenko
Alexander Litvinenko
alleged, among other things, that during this time, al- Zawahiri was indeed being trained by the FSB,[90] and that he was not the only link between al-Qaeda and the FSB.[91] Former KGB
KGB
officer, speaker on the Voice of America
Voice of America
and writer Konstantin Preobrazhenskiy supported Litvinenko's claim and said that Litvinenko "was responsible for securing the secrecy of Al-Zawahiri's arrival in Russia, who was trained by FSB instructors in Dagestan, Northern Caucasus, during 1996–1997."[92] Activities in Egypt Main article: November 1997 Luxor massacre While there Zawahiri learned of a "Nonviolence Initiative" being organized in Egypt
Egypt
to end the terror campaign that had killed hundreds and resulting government crackdown that had imprisoned thousands. Zawahiri angrily opposed this "surrender" in letters to the London newspaper Al-Sharq al-Awsat.[93] Together with members of al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, he helped organize a massive attack on tourists at the Temple of Hatshepsut to sabotage the initiative by provoking the government into repression.[94] The attack by six men dressed in police uniforms succeeded in machine-gunning and hacking to death 58 foreign tourists and four Egyptians, including "a five-year-old British child and four Japanese couples on their honeymoons," and devastated the Egyptian tourist industry for a number of years. Nonetheless the Egyptian reaction was not what Zawahiri had hoped for. The attack so stunned and angered Egyptian society that Islamists denied responsibility. Zawahiri blamed the police for the killing, but also held the tourists responsible for their own deaths for coming to Egypt,

The people of Egypt
Egypt
consider the presence of these foreign tourists to be aggression against Muslims
Muslims
and Egypt... The young men are saying that this is our country and not a place for frolicking and enjoyment, especially for you.[95]

The massacre was so unpopular that no terror attacks occurred in Egypt for several years thereafter.[clarification needed] Zawahiri was sentenced to death in absentia in 1999 by an Egyptian military tribunal.[96] Activities and whereabouts after the September 11 attacks Further information: September 11 attacks In December 2001, al- Zawahiri published a book entitled Fursan That Rayal al Nabi[97] (Knights Under the Prophet's Banner) which outlined ideologies of al-Qaeda.[98] English translations of this book were published; excerpts are available online.[99]

...The second power depends on God alone, then on its wide popularity and alliance with other jihad movements throughout the Islamic nation, from Chechnya
Chechnya
in the north to Somalia
Somalia
in the south and from "Eastern Turkestan in the east to Morocco in the west.[100][101][102]

...It seeks revenge against the gang-leaders of global unbelief, the United States, Russia, and Israel. It demands the blood price for the martyrs, the mothers' grief, the deprived orphans, the suffering prisoners, and the torments of those who are tortured everywhere in the Islamic lands―from Turkistan in the east to Andalusia.[103]

...It also gave young Muslim
Muslim
mujahidin―Arabs, Pakistanis, Turks, and Muslims
Muslims
from Central and East Asia―a great opportunity to get acquainted with each other on the land of Afghan jihad through their comradeship-at-arms against the enemies of Islam.[104][105][106]

Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
leader Ayman al- Zawahiri (2001) in Knights Under the Prophet's Banner which was released by Al-Sharq Al-Awsat.

Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
sits with his adviser al- Zawahiri during an interview with Pakistani journalist Hamid Mir, in November 2001.

Following the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, al-Zawahiri's whereabouts are unknown, but he is generally thought to be in tribal Pakistan. Although he releases videos of himself frequently (see Messages of Ayman al-Zawahiri), al- Zawahiri did not appear alongside bin Laden in any of them after 2003. In 2003, it was rumored that he was under arrest in Iran, although this was later discovered to be false.[107] In 2004, the Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
launched an aggressive operation in Wana, Pakistan. Reports began to surface that he was trapped in the center of the conflict by the army. But when, after weeks of fighting, the army captured the area, it was later revealed that he either escaped or was never among the fighters. As the conflict spread into the tribal areas of western Pakistan, Ayman al- Zawahiri became a prime target of the ISI's Directorate for Joint Counterintelligence Bureau (J-COIN Bureau). However, despite a series of operations they were unable to capture him.

U.S. propaganda leaflet used in Afghanistan, with bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri

On January 13, 2006, the Central Intelligence Agency, aided by Pakistan's ISI, launched an airstrike on Damadola, a Pakistani village near the Afghan border where they believed al- Zawahiri was located. The airstrike was supposed to kill al- Zawahiri and this was reported in international news over the following days. Many victims of the airstrike were buried without being identified. Anonymous U.S. government officials claimed that some terrorists were killed and the Bajaur tribal area government confirmed that at least four terrorists were among the dead.[108] Anti-American protests broke out around the country and the Pakistani government
Pakistani government
condemned the U.S. attack and the loss of innocent life.[109] On January 30, a new video was released showing al- Zawahiri unhurt. The video discussed the airstrike, but did not reveal if al- Zawahiri was present in the village at that time. On August 1, 2008, CBS News
CBS News
reported that it had obtained a copy of an intercepted letter dated July 29, 2008, from unnamed sources in Pakistan, which urgently requested a doctor to treat al-Zawahiri. The letter indicated that al- Zawahiri was critically injured in a US missile strike at Azam Warsak village in South Waziristan on July 28 that also reportedly killed al Qaeda explosives expert Abu Khabab al-Masri. Taliban
Taliban
Mehsud spokesman Maulvi Umar told the Associated Press on August 2, 2008, that the report of al-Zawahiri's injury was false.[110] In early September 2008, Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army
claimed that they "almost" captured al- Zawahiri after getting information that he and his wife were in the Mohmand Agency, in northwest Pakistan. After raiding the area, officials didn't find him.[111] In June 2013, al- Zawahiri arbitrated against the merger of the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
with the Syrian-based Jabhat al-Nusra
Jabhat al-Nusra
into Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant as was declared in April by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.[112] Abu Mohammad al-Julani, leader of al-Nusra Front, affirmed the group's allegiance to al-Qaeda and al-Zawahiri.[113][114] In September 2015, Zawahiri urged Islamic State (ISIL) to stop fighting al-Nusra Front, the official al-Qaeda affiliate in Syria,[115] and to unite with all other jihadists against the supposed alliance between America, Russia, Europe, Shiites and Iran, and Bashar al-Assad’s Alawite regime.[116][117] Ayman al- Zawahiri released a statement supporting jihad in Xinjiang against Chinese, jihad in the Caucasus
Caucasus
against the Russians and naming Somalia, Yemen, Syria, Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as battlegrounds.[118] Zawahiri endorsed "jihad to liberate every span of land of the Muslims that has been usurped and violated, from Kashgar
Kashgar
to Andalusia, and from the Caucasus
Caucasus
to Somalia
Somalia
and Central Africa".[119] Uyghurs
Uyghurs
inhabit Kashgar, the city which was mentioned by Zawahiri.[120] In another statement he said, "My mujahideen brothers in all places and of all groups ... we face aggression from America, Europe, and Russia ... so it's up to us to stand together as one from East Turkestan to Morocco".[121][122][123][124] In 2015 the Turkistan Islamic Party (East Turkistan Islamic Movement) released an image showing Al Qaeda leaders Ayman al Zawahiri and Osama Bin Laden meeting with Hasan Mahsum.[125] The Uyghurs
Uyghurs
East Turkestan independence movement
East Turkestan independence movement
was endorsed in the serial "Islamic Spring”'s 9th release by Al-Zawahiri. Zawahiri confirmed that the Afghanistan
Afghanistan
war after 9/11 included the participation of Uighurs and that the jihadists like Zarwaqi, Bin Ladin and the Uyghur Hasan Mahsum were provided with refuge together in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
under Taliban
Taliban
rule.[126][127] Uyghur fighters were praised by Zawahiri, before a Turkistan Islamic Party
Turkistan Islamic Party
performed a Bishkek
Bishkek
bombing on 30 August.[128] Uighur jihadists were hailed by Ayman al-Zawahiri.[129] Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı reported that the Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party
Turkistan Islamic Party
was praised by Abu Qatada
Abu Qatada
along with Abdul Razzaq al Mahdi, Maqdisi, Muhaysini and Zawahiri.[130] Abu Muhammad al- Maqdisi
Maqdisi
and Abu Qatada
Abu Qatada
were referenced by Muhaysini. Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
leaders Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and Ayman al Zawahiri were lauded by Muhaysini.[131] Presently, the Rewards for Justice Program
Rewards for Justice Program
of the U.S. Department of State is offering a reward of up to US$25 million for information about his location.[9][132] Affiliations

Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
at age 14 Last Emir
Emir
of Egyptian Islamic Jihad Cairo
Cairo
University Alumni Taliban Red Crescent
Red Crescent
Movement

Views Loyalty and enmity In a lengthy treatise titled "Loyalty and Enmity", Zawahiri argues that Muslims
Muslims
must at all times be loyal to Islam and to one another, while hating or at least being clean from everything and everyone outside of Islam.[133] Female combatants See also: Gender segregation and Islam Zawahiri has said in an interview that the group does not have women combatants and that a woman's role is limited to caring for the homes and children of al-Qaeda fighters. This resulted in a debate regarding the role of mujahid women like Sajida Mubarak Atrous al-Rishawi.[134] Promotional activities Zawahiri places supreme importance on winning public support, and castigated Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
in this regard: "In the absence of this popular support the Islamic mujahid movement would be crushed in the shadows."[135] Video and audio messages

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Aiman Laden Moumouh

Main article: Videos of Ayman al-Zawahiri 2000's

May 2003: Tape was broadcast by al-Jazeera and included the directives (interpreted) "Raze/Singe the floor out from under their feet ... the political and corporate interests of the United States ... and Norway", which caused a global lockdown and extensive confusion for Norway. Early September 2003: A video showing al- Zawahiri and bin Laden walking together, as well as an audiotape, is released to the al-Jazeera network. September 9, 2004: Another video is released announcing more assaults. August 4, 2005: al- Zawahiri issues a televised statement blaming Tony Blair and his government's foreign policy for the July 2005 London bombings.[136] September 1, 2005: al-Jazeera broadcasts a video message from Mohammed Sidique Khan, one of bombers of the London Underground. His message is followed by another message from al-Zawahiri, blaming again Tony Blair for the 7/7 bombings.[137] September 19, 2005: al- Zawahiri claims responsibility for the London bombings and dismisses U.S. efforts in Afghanistan.[138][139] December 7, 2005: The full 40-minute interview from September is posted on the Internet with previously unseen video footage. See below for links. April 3, 2008: al- Zawahiri said that al-Qaeda doesn't kill innocents and that its [former] leader Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
is healthy. The questions asked his views about Egypt
Egypt
and Iraq, as well as Hamas.[140] April 22, 2008: An audio interview in which, among other subjects, al- Zawahiri attacks the Shiite Iran
Iran
and Hezbollah for blaming the 9/11 attacks on Israel, and thus discrediting al-Qaeda.[141] On the 7th anniversary of the attacks of September 11, 2001, al- Zawahiri released a 90-minute tape,[86] in which he blasted "the guardian of Muslims
Muslims
in Tehran" for "the two hireling governments"[87] in Iraq
Iraq
and Afghanistan. January 7, 2009: An audio message released, where al- Zawahiri vows revenge for Israel's air and ground assault on Gaza and calls the Jewish
Jewish
state's actions against Hamas
Hamas
militants "a gift" from U.S. President-elect Barack Obama
Barack Obama
for the recent uprising conflict in Gaza.[142] June 2, 2009: Audio messages claiming that Barack Obama
Barack Obama
is not welcome in Egypt. July 15, 2009: al- Zawahiri urges Pakistanis to support the Taliban. October 4, 2009: The New York Times
The New York Times
reported that al- Zawahiri had asserted that Libya
Libya
had tortured Ibn Al Sheikh Al Libi to death.[143] Al Libi was a key source the George W. Bush
George W. Bush
Presidency had claimed established that Iraq
Iraq
had provided training to al-Qaeda in Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. December 14, 2009: In an audio recording released on December 14, 2009, al- Zawahiri renewed calls to establish an Islamic state in Israel
Israel
and urged his followers to “seek jihad against Jews” and their supporters. He also called for jihad against America and the West, and labeled Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak, King Abdullah II of Jordan, and King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia as the “brothers of Satan”.[144]

2010's

June 8, 2011: al- Zawahiri released his first video since the death of Osama bin Laden, praising bin Laden and warning the U.S. of reprisal attacks, but without staking a claim on the leadership of al-Qaeda.[145] September 3, 2014: In a 55-minute-long video, al- Zawahiri announced the formation of a new wing called al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS), which would wage jihad "to liberate its land, to restore its sovereignty, and to revive its Caliphate."[146] Reaction amongst Muslims
Muslims
in India to the formation of the new wing was one of fury.[147] In late August, 2016: A Jihadi website released series of sermons by al- Zawahiri regarding Jihad. March 2018: al- Zawahiri posts a video entitled “America is the First Enemy of the Muslims", where he defends the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and claims that the US is “working with Saudi Arabia to train imams and rewrite religious textbooks”. This is his sixth video of 2018, and he calls refers to Rex Tillerson's firing. [148]

Online Q&A In mid-December 2007, al-Zawahiri's spokespeople announced plans for an "open interview" on a handful of Islamic Web sites. The administrators of 4 known jihadist web sites have been authorized to collect and forward questions, "unedited", they pledge, and "regardless of whether they are in support of or are against" al-Qaeda, which would be forwarded to al- Zawahiri on January 16.[149] al- Zawahiri responded to the questions later in 2008; among the things he said were that al-Qaeda didn't kill innocents, and that al-Qaeda would move to target Israel
Israel
"after expelling the occupier from Iraq".[150][151] Publications

Fursan That Rayal al Nabi [97] (Knights Under the Prophet's Banner)[152] Co-Author of Fatawā of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
(1998) World Islamic Front
World Islamic Front
Statement (1998)[153]

See also

Egypt
Egypt
portal Islam portal Terrorism portal

Egyptian Islamic Jihad FBI
FBI
Most Wanted Terrorists Sayyed Imam
Imam
Al-Sharif Messages of Ayman al-Zawahiri Messages of Osama bin Laden Operation Gladio B Cartoon Wars Part II
Cartoon Wars Part II
(South Park)

References

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Egypt
for Gaza violence". CNN. January 6, 2009. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010. Retrieved April 26, 2010.  ^ "Zawahri Says Libya
Libya
Killed Man Who Linked Iraq, Qaeda". New York Times. October 4, 2009. [dead link] ^ Anti-Defamation League: "Al Qaeda Second-in-Command Calls for ‘ Jihad
Jihad
against Jews’” December 17, 2009 ^ Al-Qaeda’s Zawahiri appears on video but doesn’t assert leadership – Washington Post, June 9, 2011 ^ "India security alert after Al Qaeda calls for jihad in subcontinent". India Gazette. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.  ^ "Indian Muslims
Muslims
Reject al-Qaida call for Jihad". India Gazette. 6 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014.  ^ https://www.thenational.ae/world/mena/al-qaeda-chief-al-zawahiri-defends-muslim-brotherhood-in-new-video-1.715209 ^ Musharbash, Yassin (January 16, 2007). "Ask al-Qaida: A jihadi advice column? Osama bin Laden's second-in-command answers questions from fans of the terror group worldwide". Salon/Der Spiegel.  ^ Zawahiri answers back IHS, May 2, 2008 ^ The Open Meeting with Shaykh Ayman al- Zawahiri archived on March 26, 2009, from the original Archived January 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Christopher Henzel. "The U.S. Army Professional Writing Collection". Army. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved 2012-12-13.  ^ " World Islamic Front
World Islamic Front
Statement Urging Jihad
Jihad
Against Jews and Crusaders". Fas.org. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 

Bibliography

Kepel, Gilles; & Jean-Pierre Milelli (2010), Al Qaeda in its own words, Harvard University Press, Cambridge & London, ISBN 978-0-674-02804-3. Mansfield, Laura (2006), His Own Words: A Translation of the Writings of Dr. Ayman Al Zawahiri, Lulu Pub. al-Zawahiri, Ayman, L'absolution, Milelli, Villepreux, ISBN 978-2-916590-05-9 (French translation of Al-Zawahiri's latest book). Ibrahim, Raymond (2007), The Al Qaeda Reader, Broadway Books, ISBN 978-0-7679-2262-3.

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ayman al-Zawahiri

Works by or about Ayman al- Zawahiri in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Ayman al- Zawahiri at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Counter Extremism Project profile http://www.longwarjournal.org/tags/ayman-al-zawahiri http://www.longwarjournal.org/tags/ayman-al-zawahiri/page/2 http://www.longwarjournal.org/tags/ayman-al-zawahiri/page/3

Statements and interviews

Excerpts and video footage released 1 December 2005 from the September 2005 interview, MEMRI Al- Zawahiri Calls on Muslims
Muslims
to Give Aid to Earthquake Victims in Pakistan Letter from al- Zawahiri to al-Zarqawi, copy at GlobalSecurity.org

Articles

The Man Behind Bin Laden, Lawrence Wright, The New Yorker, 16 September 2002 report on the al-Zarqawi video tape, CNN, January 2006

v t e

al-Qaeda

Leadership

Ayman al-Zawahiri Saif al-Adel Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah Hamza bin Laden Abdelmalek Droukdel Mokhtar Belmokhtar Qasim al-Raymi Abu Mohammad al-Julani Ahmad Umar Asim Umar Ezedin Abdel Aziz Khalil

Former leadership

Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
(killed) Abu Yahya al-Libi (killed) Khalid Sheikh Mohammed
Khalid Sheikh Mohammed
(captured) Mamdouh Mahmud Salim
Mamdouh Mahmud Salim
(captured) Anwar al-Awlaki
Anwar al-Awlaki
(killed) Samir Khan (killed) Younis al-Mauritani (captured) Mohammed Atef
Mohammed Atef
(killed) Fazul Abdullah Mohammed (killed) Abu Faraj al-Libbi (captured) Atiyah Abd al-Rahman (killed) Abu Laith al-Libi
Abu Laith al-Libi
(killed) Fahd al-Quso (killed) Ilyas Kashmiri
Ilyas Kashmiri
(killed) Abu Hamza Rabia (killed) Haitham al-Yemeni (killed) Abdullah Said al Libi (killed) Abu Sulayman Al-Jazairi (killed) Saleh al-Somali (killed) Abu Ubaidah al-Masri (died) Saad bin Laden (killed) Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam (killed) Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan (killed) Ahmed Mohammed Hamed Ali (killed) Mohammad Hasan Khalil al-Hakim (killed) Mushin Musa Matwalli Atwah (killed) Midhat Mursi (killed) Saeed al-Masri (killed) Hassan Ghul (killed) Abu Ubaidah al-Banshiri (died) Walid bin Attash
Walid bin Attash
(captured) Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri
Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri
(captured) Mustafa Setmariam Nasar (captured) Qaed Salim Sinan al-Harethi (killed) Khalid Habib (killed) Abdul Hadi al Iraqi (captured) Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil
Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil
(killed) Mohamed Abul-Khair (killed) Mahfouz Ould al-Walid (left) Sulaiman Abu Ghaith (captured) Abu Anas al-Libi (captured and died) Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
(killed) Abu Ayyub al-Masri (killed) Abu Omar al-Baghdadi (killed) Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
(expelled) Abu-Zaid al Kuwaiti
Abu-Zaid al Kuwaiti
(killed) Omar al-Faruq (killed) Said Ali al-Shihri
Said Ali al-Shihri
(killed) Ahmed Abdi Godane (killed) Adnan Gulshair el Shukrijumah (killed) Adam Yahiye Gadahn (killed) Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari
Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari
(killed) Ibrahim Sulayman Muhammad Arbaysh
Ibrahim Sulayman Muhammad Arbaysh
(killed) Nasser bin Ali al-Ansi
Nasser bin Ali al-Ansi
(killed) Nasir al-Wuhayshi
Nasir al-Wuhayshi
(killed) Muhsin al-Fadhli
Muhsin al-Fadhli
(killed) Abu Khalil al-Madani (killed) Abu Khayr al-Masri (killed)

Timeline of attacks

1998 United States
United States
embassy bombings 2000 USS Cole bombing 2001 September 11 attacks 2002 Bali bombings 2007 Algiers bombings 2008 Islamabad
Islamabad
Danish embassy bombing 2008 Islamabad
Islamabad
Marriott Hotel bombing 2012 Benghazi attack 2013 In Amenas hostage crisis 2013 Westgate shopping mall attack 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting 2015 Garissa University College attack 2015 Bamako hotel attack 2016 Ouagadougou attacks 2016 Grand-Bassam shootings 2016 Bamako attack

Wars

Soviet–Afghan War Afghan Civil War (1989–92) Afghan Civil War (1992–96) Bosnian War

Bosnian Al-Qaeda

First Chechen War Afghan Civil War (1996–2001) Second Chechen War War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) Iraq
Iraq
War Somali Civil War War in North-West Pakistan
War in North-West Pakistan
(Drone strikes) Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2015–present) Syrian Civil War Yemeni Civil War

al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Houthi insurgency in Yemen

Affiliates

al-Shabaab (Somalia) al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (Yemen) al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (North Africa) Egyptian Islamic Jihad (Egypt) al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (Indian Subcontinent) Tahrir al-Sham
Tahrir al-Sham
(Syria)

Charity organizations

Benevolence International Foundation al-Haramain Foundation

Media

Al Qaeda Handbook Al Neda As-Sahab Fatawā of Osama bin Laden Inspire Al-Khansaa Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit Management of Savagery Voice of Jihad Qaedat al-Jihad Global Islamic Media Front

Video and audio

Videos and audio recordings of Osama bin Laden Videos and audio recordings of Ayman al-Zawahiri USS Cole bombing

v t e

Alleged chiefs of al-Qaeda

Head of al-Qaeda

Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
(1988–2011) Saif al-Adel
Saif al-Adel
(2011, interim) Ayman al- Zawahiri (2011–present)

Military chiefs

Abu Ayub al-Iraqi (1989, alleged) Abu Ubaidah al-Banshiri (1991–1996) Mohammed Atef
Mohammed Atef
(1996–2001) Saif al-Adel
Saif al-Adel
(2001–present)

Financial chiefs

Saeed al-Masri (1995–2010)

v t e

War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul- Jihad
Jihad
al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Islamic State of Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia
Somalia
(2006–09) 2007 Lebanon conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism portal War portal

v t e

al- Jihad
Jihad
under the leadership of Ayman al-Zawahiri

al- Zawahiri ran AJ from 1991 until 2001, when it merged with al-Qaeda

Vanguards of Conquest

Kamel Agiza Mohammad Zeki Mahjoub Essam Marzouk Ihab Saqr Yassir al-Sirri

The Core of al-Jihad

Ayman al-Zawahiri Attack on the Egyptian Embassy
Embassy
in Pakistan Returnees from Albania Mohammed Atef Mohammed Mutaleb Sayyed Imam
Imam
Al-Sharif Thirwat Shehata Adil Awad Siyam

Killed in operations

Nazih Nushi Rashed Tarek Abdel-Nabi

Alleged members of al-Jihad

Hani al-Sibai Ali Mohamed Ahmad Salamah Mabruk Essam al-Qamari Mahmoud Jaballah Ibrahim Ismail Allam Ibrahim Eidarous Adel Abdel Bari Abu Ayyub al-Masri Barakat Fahim Ali Mohamed Muhammad al-Zery Salem el-Masri Sayyed Ahmed Abdel-Maqssuod Sayyed Ajami Osama Hassan Ahmed Saeed Salama Abdel Fahmi Issam Alim Ahmad Isma'il 'Uthman Mahmud Hisham al-Hennawi Ali Sayyid Muhamed Mustafa al-Bakri Abu Muaz al-Masry Ahmad Ibrahim al-Naggar Tareq Ali Mursi Magid Mostafa Mohammad Hassan Mahmoud Shawqi Salama Mustafa Atiya Abu Talal al-Qasimi Mohamed Hassan Tita Ameen Yusef al-Domeiry Khaled Medhet al-Fiqi Muhammad Abdelrahim al-Sharqawi Muhammad al-Zawahiri Yusef Abdel Majeed Essam Hendawi Abdel Hadi al-Tunsi Nabeel al-Bora'i Essam Hasheesh Waheed Gamal al-Deen Hassan Ali Ismaeel Tantawi Osman Rabei

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 120100272 LCCN: n2001050632 ISNI: 0000 0000 7872 4683 GND: 129326518 SUDOC: 087977117 BNF: cb15977142r (dat

.