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Sayyid
Sayyid
Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini
Khomeini
(Persian: سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی‎ [ruːhoɫˈɫɑːhe χomeiˈniː] ( listen); 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world
Western world
as Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini,[11] was an Iranian Shia
Shia
Muslim
Muslim
religious leader and politician. He was the founder of Iran
Iran
as an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
and the leader of its 1979 Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
that saw the overthrow of 2500 years of Persian monarchy and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah
Shah
of Iran. Following the revolution, Khomeini
Khomeini
became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei
Ali Khamenei
on 4 June 1989. Khomeini
Khomeini
was born in 1902 in Khomeyn, in what is now Iran's Markazi Province. His father was murdered in 1903 when Khomeini
Khomeini
was six months old. He began studying the Quran
Quran
and the Persian language
Persian language
from a young age and was assisted in his religious studies by his relatives, including his mother's cousin and older brother. Khomeini
Khomeini
was a marja ("source of emulation") in Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
Islam, a Mujtahid or faqih (an expert in Islamic law) and author of more than 40 books, but he is primarily known for his political activities. He spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last Shah. In his writings and preachings he expanded the theory of welayat-el faqih, the " Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist
Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist
(clerical authority)", to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists. This principle (though not known to the wider public before the revolution[12][13]), was appended to the new Iranian constitution[14] after being put to a referendum.[15] According to New York Times, Khomeini
Khomeini
called democracy the equivalent of prostitution.[16] Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
to be democratic is disputed.[17] He was named Man of the Year in 1979 by American news magazine Time for his international influence,[18] and has been described as the "virtual face of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
in Western popular culture".[19] In 1982, Khomeini
Khomeini
survived one military coup attempt.[20] Khomeini
Khomeini
was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran
Iran
hostage crisis,[21] his fatwa calling for the murder of British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie,[18][22] and for referring to the United States as the "Great Satan" and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as the "Lesser Satan."[23] Khomeini
Khomeini
has been criticized for these acts and for human rights violations of Iranians (including his ordering of execution of thousands of political prisoners, war criminals and prisoners of the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War).[24][25][26][27][28] He has also been lauded as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity",[29] a "champion of Islamic revival" by Shia
Shia
scholars,[19] who attempted to establish good relations between Sunnis and Shias,[30] and a major innovator in political theory and religious-oriented populist political strategy.[31][32] Khomeini
Khomeini
held the title of Grand Ayatollah
Grand Ayatollah
and is officially known as Imam Khomeini
Khomeini
inside Iran[33] and by his supporters internationally.[10] He is generally referred to as Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini by others.[34] In Iran, his gold-domed tomb in Tehrān's Behesht-e Zahrāʾ cemetery has become a shrine for his supporters,[35] and he is legally considered "inviolable", with Iranians regularly punished for insulting him.[36][37]

Contents

1 Early years

1.1 Background 1.2 Childhood 1.3 Education and lecturing 1.4 Political aspects

2 Early political activity

2.1 Background 2.2 Opposition to the White Revolution 2.3 Opposition to capitulation

3 Life in exile 4 Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran

4.1 Return to Iran 4.2 Islamic constitution 4.3 Hostage crisis 4.4 Relationship with Islamic and non-aligned countries 4.5 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War 4.6 Fatwa against chemical weapons 4.7 Rushdie fatwa

5 Life under Khomeini

5.1 Emigration and economy 5.2 Suppression of opposition 5.3 Minority religions 5.4 Ethnic minorities

6 Death and funeral

6.1 Succession

7 Political thought and legacy 8 Appearance and habits 9 Mystique 10 Family and descendants 11 Influence 12 Bibliography 13 Notes 14 See also 15 References 16 Sources 17 External links

Early years[edit] Background[edit]

Ruhollah Khomeini's birthplace at Khomeyn

Ruhollah Khomeini's ancestors migrated towards the end of the 18th century from their original home in Nishapur, Khorasan Province, in northeastern Iran, for a short stay, to the kingdom of Awadh
Awadh
– a region in the modern state of Uttar Pradesh, India
Uttar Pradesh, India
– whose rulers were Twelver
Twelver
Shia
Shia
Muslims of Persian origin.[38][39][40][41] During their rule they extensively invited, and received, a steady stream of Persian scholars, poets, jurists, architects, and painters.[42] The family eventually settled in the small town of Kintoor, just outside Lucknow, the capital of Awadh.[43][44][45][46] Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini's paternal grandfather, Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi, was born in Kintoor.[44][46] He left Lucknow
Lucknow
in 1830, on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Imam Ali
Imam Ali
in Najaf, Ottoman Iraq
Ottoman Iraq
(now Iraq) and never returned.[43][46] According to Moin, this migration was to escape from the spread of British power in India.[47] In 1834 Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi visited Persia, and in 1839 he settled in Khomein.[44] Although he stayed and settled in Iran, he continued to be known as Hindi, indicating his stay in India, and Ruhollah Khomeini
Khomeini
even used Hindi as a pen name in some of his ghazals.[43] There are also claims that Seyyed Ahmad Musavi Hindi departed from Kashmir, instead of Lucknow.[40] Childhood[edit] Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini, whose first name means "spirit of God", was born on 24 September 1902 in Khomeyn, Markazi Province. He was raised by his mother, Hajieh Agha Khanum, and his aunt, Sahebeth, following the murder of his father, Seyed Mostafa Hindi, five months after his birth in 1903.[48] Ruhollah began to study the Qur'an
Qur'an
and elementary Persian at the age of six.[49] The following year, he began to attend a local school, where he learned religion, noheh khani (lamentation recital), and other traditional subjects.[47] Throughout his childhood, he continued his religious education with the assistance of his relatives, including his mother's cousin, Ja'far,[47] and his elder brother, Morteza Pasandideh.[50] Education and lecturing[edit]

Khomeini
Khomeini
as a student with his friends (second from right)

After World War I
World War I
arrangements were made for him to study at the Islamic seminary in Esfahan, but he was attracted instead to the seminary in Arak. He was placed under the leadership of Ayatollah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi.[51] In 1920, Khomeini
Khomeini
moved to Arak and commenced his studies.[52] The following year, Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Haeri Yazdi transferred to the Islamic seminary in the holy city of Qom, southwest of Tehran, and invited his students to follow. Khomeini
Khomeini
accepted the invitation, moved,[50] and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom.[53] Khomeini's studies included Islamic law
Islamic law
(sharia) and jurisprudence (fiqh),[49] but by that time, Khomeini
Khomeini
had also acquired an interest in poetry and philosophy (irfan). So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini
Khomeini
sought the guidance of Mirza
Mirza
Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philosophy and mysticism. Yazdi died in 1924, but Khomeini
Khomeini
continued to pursue his interest in philosophy with two other teachers, Javad Aqa Maleki Tabrizi and Rafi'i Qazvini.[54][55] However, perhaps Khomeini's biggest influences were yet another teacher, Mirza
Mirza
Muhammad
Muhammad
'Ali Shahabadi,[56] and a variety of historic Sufi mystics, including Mulla Sadra
Mulla Sadra
and Ibn Arabi.[55] Khomeini
Khomeini
studied Greek philosophy and was influenced by both the philosophy of Aristotle, whom he regarded as the founder of logic,[57] and Plato, whose views "in the field of divinity" he regarded as "grave and solid".[58] Among Islamic philosophers, Khomeini
Khomeini
was mainly influenced by Avicenna
Avicenna
and Mulla Sadra.[57]

Khomeini
Khomeini
in 1938

Apart from philosophy, Khomeini
Khomeini
was interested in literature and poetry. His poetry collection was released after his death. Beginning in his adolescent years, Khomeini
Khomeini
composed mystic, political and social poetry. His poetry works were published in three collections: The Confidant, The Decanter of Love and Turning Point, and Divan.[59] His knowledge of poetry is further attested by the famed modern poet Nader Naderpour
Nader Naderpour
(1929–2000), who "had spent many hours exchanging poems with Khomeini
Khomeini
in the early 1960", and who says : "For four hours we recited poetry. Every single line I recited from any poet, he recited the next."[60] Ruhollah Khomeini
Khomeini
was a lecturer at Najaf
Najaf
and Qom
Qom
seminaries for decades before he was known on the political scene. He soon became a leading scholar of Shia
Shia
Islam.[61] He taught political philosophy,[62] Islamic history and ethics. Several of his students – for example, Morteza Motahhari – later became leading Islamic philosophers and also marja'. As a scholar and teacher, Khomeini
Khomeini
produced numerous writings on Islamic philosophy, law, and ethics.[63] He showed an exceptional interest in subjects like philosophy and mysticism that not only were usually absent from the curriculum of seminaries but were often an object of hostility and suspicion.[64] Inaugurating his teaching career at the age of 27 by giving private lessons on irfan and Mulla Sadra
Mulla Sadra
to a private circle, around the same time, in 1928, he also released his first publication, Sharh Du'a al-Sahar (Commentary on the Du'a al-Baha), "a detailed commentary, in Arabic, on the prayer recited before dawn during Ramadan
Ramadan
by Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq", followed, some years later, by Sirr al- Salat
Salat
(Secret of the Prayer), where "the symbolic dimensions and inner meaning of every part of the prayer, from the ablution that precedes it to the salam that concludes it, are expounded in a rich, complex, and eloquent language that owes much to the concepts and terminology of Ibn 'Arabi. As Sayyid
Sayyid
Fihri, the editor and translator of Sirr al-Salat, has remarked, the work is addressed only to the foremost among the spiritual elite (akhass-i khavass) and establishes its author as one of their number."[65] The second book has been translated by Sayyid
Sayyid
Amjad Hussain Shah
Shah
Naqavi and released by BRILL in 2015, under the title "The Mystery of Prayer: The Ascension of the Wayfarers and the Prayer
Prayer
of the Gnostics". Political aspects[edit] His seminary teaching often focused on the importance of religion to practical social and political issues of the day, and he worked against secularism in the 1940s. His first political book, Kashf al-Asrar (Uncovering of Secrets)[66][67] published in 1942, was a point-by-point refutation of Asrar-e hazar salih (Secrets of a Thousand Years), a tract written by a disciple of Iran's leading anti-clerical historian, Ahmad Kasravi,[68] as well as a condemnation of innovations such as international time zones,[69] [note 1] and the banning of hijab by Reza Shah. In addition, he went from Qom
Qom
to Tehran to listen to Ayatullah Hasan Mudarris, the leader of the opposition majority in Iran's parliament during the 1920s. Khomeini
Khomeini
became a marja' in 1963, following the death of Grand Ayatollah
Grand Ayatollah
Seyyed Husayn Borujerdi. Early political activity[edit] Background[edit]

Khomeini's speech against the Shah
Shah
in Qom, 1964

Most Iranians had a deep respect for the Shi'a clergy or Ulama,[70] and tended to be religious, traditional, and alienated from the process of Westernization
Westernization
pursued by the Shah. In the late 19th century the clergy had shown themselves to be a powerful political force in Iran
Iran
initiating the Tobacco Protest
Tobacco Protest
against a concession to a foreign (British) interest. At the age of 61, Khomeini
Khomeini
found the arena of leadership open following the deaths of Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Sayyed Husayn Borujerdi (1961), the leading, although quiescent, Shi'ah religious leader; and Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Kashani (1962), an activist cleric. The clerical class had been on the defensive ever since the 1920s when the secular, anti-clerical modernizer Reza Shah
Shah
Pahlavi rose to power. Reza's son Mohammad Reza Shah, instituted a "White Revolution", which was a further challenge to the Ulama.[71] Opposition to the White Revolution[edit] In January 1963, the Shah
Shah
announced the "White Revolution", a six-point programme of reform calling for land reform, nationalization of the forests, the sale of state-owned enterprises to private interests, electoral changes to enfranchise women and allow non-Muslims to hold office, profit-sharing in industry, and a literacy campaign in the nation's schools. Some of these initiatives were regarded as dangerous, especially by the powerful and privileged Shi'a ulama (religious scholars), and as Westernizing trends by traditionalists ( Khomeini
Khomeini
viewed them as "an attack on Islam").[72] Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Khomeini
summoned a meeting of the other senior marjas of Qom
Qom
and persuaded them to decree a boycott of the referendum on the White Revolution. On 22 January 1963 Khomeini
Khomeini
issued a strongly worded declaration denouncing the Shah
Shah
and his plans. Two days later the Shah took an armored column to Qom, and delivered a speech harshly attacking the ulama as a class. Khomeini
Khomeini
continued his denunciation of the Shah's programmes, issuing a manifesto that bore the signatures of eight other senior Iranian Shia
Shia
religious scholars. In it he listed the various ways in which the Shah
Shah
had allegedly violated the constitution, condemned the spread of moral corruption in the country, and accused the Shah
Shah
of submission to the United States
United States
and Israel. He also decreed that the Nowruz celebrations for the Iranian year 1342 (which fell on 21 March 1963) be canceled as a sign of protest against government policies.

Khomeini
Khomeini
denouncing the Shah
Shah
on 'Ashura
'Ashura
(3 June 1963)

On the afternoon of 'Ashura
'Ashura
(3 June 1963), Khomeini
Khomeini
delivered a speech at the Feyziyeh madrasah drawing parallels between the Sunni
Sunni
Muslim caliph Yazid, who is perceived as a 'tyrant' by Shias, and the Shah, denouncing the Shah
Shah
as a "wretched, miserable man," and warning him that if he did not change his ways the day would come when the people would offer up thanks for his departure from the country.[73] On 5 June 1963 (15 of Khordad) at 3:00 am, two days after this public denunciation of the Shah
Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Khomeini
Khomeini
was detained in Qom
Qom
and transferred to Tehran.[74] This sparked three days of major riots throughout Iran
Iran
and led to the deaths of some 400. That event is now referred to as the Movement of 15 Khordad.[75] Khomeini was kept under house arrest and released in August.[76][page needed] Opposition to capitulation[edit]

Khomeini
Khomeini
in prayer

On 26 October 1964, Khomeini
Khomeini
denounced both the Shah
Shah
and the United States. This time it was in response to the "capitulations" or diplomatic immunity granted by the Shah
Shah
to American military personnel in Iran.[77][78] The famous "capitulation" law (or "status-of-forces agreement") would allow members of the U.S. armed forces in Iran
Iran
to be tried in their own military courts. Khomeini
Khomeini
was arrested in November 1964 and held for half a year. Upon his release, he was brought before Prime Minister Hasan Ali Mansur, who tried to convince Khomeini
Khomeini
that he should apologize and drop his opposition to the government. When Khomeini
Khomeini
refused, Mansur slapped Khomeini's face in fit of rage.[79] Two months later, Mansur was assassinated on his way to parliament. Four members of the Fadayan-e Islam
Islam
were later executed for the murder.

Life in exile[edit] Further information: Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
§ 1970s: Pre-revolutionary conditions and events inside Iran

Khomeini
Khomeini
in exile at Bursa, Turkey without clerical dress

Khomeini
Khomeini
spent more than 14 years in exile, mostly in the holy Shia city of Najaf, Iraq. Initially, he was sent to Turkey on 4 November 1964 where he stayed in the city of Bursa
Bursa
hosted by a colonel in the Turkish Military Intelligence named Ali Cetiner in his own residence.[80] In October 1965, after less than a year, he was allowed to move to Najaf, Iraq, where he stayed until 1978, when he was expelled[81] by then-Vice President Saddam Hussein. By this time discontent with the Shah
Shah
was becoming intense and Khomeini
Khomeini
went to Neauphle-le-Château, suburb of Paris, France on a tourist visa. During the last four months of his exile, he was courted by press and politicians.[82][83]

The Entrance of Khomeini's House in Najaf, Iraq

Khomeini
Khomeini
at Najaf

By the late 1960s, Khomeini
Khomeini
was a marja-e taqlid (model for imitation) for "hundreds of thousands" of Shia, one of six or so models in the Shia
Shia
world.[84] While in the 1940s Khomeini
Khomeini
accepted the idea of a limited monarchy under the Iranian Constitution of 1906–07 – as evidenced by his book Kashf al-Asrar
Kashf al-Asrar
– by the 1970s he had rejected the idea. In early 1970, Khomeini
Khomeini
gave a series of lectures in Najaf on Islamic government, later published as a book titled variously Islamic Government or Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist (Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih). This was his most famous and influential work, and laid out his ideas on governance (at that time):

That the laws of society should be made up only of the laws of God (Sharia), which cover "all human affairs" and "provide instruction and establish norms" for every "topic" in "human life."[85] Since Shariah, or Islamic law, is the proper law, those holding government posts should have knowledge of Sharia. Since Islamic jurists or faqih have studied and are the most knowledgeable in Sharia, the country's ruler should be a faqih who "surpasses all others in knowledge" of Islamic law
Islamic law
and justice,[86] (known as a marja'), as well as having intelligence and administrative ability. Rule by monarchs and/or assemblies of "those claiming to be representatives of the majority of the people" (i.e. elected parliaments and legislatures) has been proclaimed "wrong" by Islam.[87] This system of clerical rule is necessary to prevent injustice, corruption, oppression by the powerful over the poor and weak, innovation and deviation of Islam
Islam
and Sharia
Sharia
law; and also to destroy anti-Islamic influence and conspiracies by non- Muslim
Muslim
foreign powers.[88]

A modified form of this wilayat al-faqih system was adopted after Khomeini
Khomeini
and his followers took power, and Khomeini
Khomeini
was the Islamic Republic's first "Guardian" or Supreme Leader. In the meantime, however, Khomeini
Khomeini
was careful not to publicize his ideas for clerical rule outside of his Islamic network of opposition to the Shah
Shah
which he worked to build and strengthen over the next decade. In Iran, a number of actions of the Shah
Shah
including his repression of opponents began to build opposition to his regime.

Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Khomeini
in front of his house at Neauphle-le-Chateau
Neauphle-le-Chateau
in a media conference

Cassette copies of his lectures fiercely denouncing the Shah
Shah
as (for example) "... the Jewish agent, the American serpent whose head must be smashed with a stone",[89] became common items in the markets of Iran,[90] helped to demythologize the power and dignity of the Shah and his reign. Aware of the importance of broadening his base, Khomeini
Khomeini
reached out to Islamic reformist and secular enemies of the Shah, despite his long-term ideological incompatibility with them. After the 1977 death of Ali Shariati
Ali Shariati
(an Islamic reformist and political revolutionary author/academic/philosopher who greatly popularized the Islamic revival
Islamic revival
among young educated Iranians), Khomeini
Khomeini
became the most influential leader of the opposition to the Shah. Adding to his mystique was the circulation among Iranians in the 1970s of an old Shia
Shia
saying attributed to the Imam Musa al-Kadhem. Prior to his death in 799, al-Kadhem was said to have prophesied that "A man will come out from Qom
Qom
and he will summon people to the right path".[91] In late 1978, a rumour swept the country that Khomeini's face could be seen in the full moon. Millions of people were said to have seen it and the event was celebrated in thousands of mosques.[92] He was perceived by many Iranians as the spiritual as well as political leader of the revolt. Additionally, the episode with the Khomeini's face in the moon showed that in late 1978 he was increasingly regarded as a messianic figure in Iran.[93] As protests grew, so did his profile and importance. Although thousands of kilometers away from Iran
Iran
in Paris, Khomeini
Khomeini
set the course of the revolution, urging Iranians not to compromise and ordering work stoppages against the regime.[94] During the last few months of his exile, Khomeini
Khomeini
received a constant stream of reporters, supporters, and notables, eager to hear the spiritual leader of the revolution.[95] Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran[edit] Return to Iran[edit] Main article: Ruhollah Khomeini's return
Khomeini's return
to Iran

Arrival of Khomeini
Khomeini
on 1 February 1979. When asked about his feelings of returning from exile in the plane, he replied Hichi; "Nothing"

Khomeini
Khomeini
was not allowed to return to Iran
Iran
during the Shah's reign (as he had been in exile). On 17 January 1979, the Shah
Shah
left the country (ostensibly "on vacation"), never to return. Two weeks later, on Thursday, 1 February 1979, Khomeini
Khomeini
returned in triumph to Iran, welcomed by a joyous crowd estimated (by BBC) to be of up to five million people.[96] On his chartered Air France
Air France
flight back to Tehran 120 journalists accompanied him,[97][98] including three women.[98] One of the journalists, Peter Jennings, asked: "Ayatollah, would you be so kind as to tell us how you feel about being back in Iran?"[99] Khomeini
Khomeini
answered via his aide Sadegh Ghotbzadeh: "Hichi" (Nothing).[99] This statement—much discussed at the time[100] and since[101]—was considered by some reflective of his mystical beliefs and non-attachment to ego.[102] Others considered it a warning to Iranians who hoped he would be a "mainstream nationalist leader" that they were in for disappointment.[103]

Khomeini
Khomeini
and the interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan

To others, it was a reflection of an unfeeling leader incapable or unconcerned with understanding the thoughts, beliefs, or the needs of the Iranian populace.[101] Khomeini
Khomeini
adamantly opposed the provisional government of Shapour Bakhtiar, promising "I shall kick their teeth in. I appoint the government."[104][105] On 11 February (Bahman 22), Khomeini
Khomeini
appointed his own competing interim prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan, demanding, "since I have appointed him, he must be obeyed." It was "God's government," he warned, disobedience against him or Bazargan was considered a "revolt against God."[106] As Khomeini's movement gained momentum, soldiers began to defect to his side and Khomeini
Khomeini
declared ill fortune on troops who did not surrender.[107] On 11 February, as revolt spread and armories were taken over, the military declared neutrality and the Bakhtiar regime collapsed.[108] On 30 and 31 March 1979, a referendum to replace the monarchy with an Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
passed with 98% voting in favour of the replacement,[109] with the question: "should the monarchy be abolished in favour of an Islamic Government?" Islamic constitution[edit] Although revolutionaries were now in charge and Khomeini
Khomeini
was their leader, some opposition groups claim that several secular and religious groups were unaware of Khomeini's plan for Islamic government by wilayat al-faqih, which involved rule by a marja' Islamic cleric.[110] They claim that this provisional constitution for the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
did not include the post of supreme Islamic clerical ruler.[111][112] The Islamic government was clearly defined by Khomeini
Khomeini
in his book Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih (Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist) which was published while Khomeini
Khomeini
was in exile in 1970, smuggled into Iran, and distributed to Khomeini's supporters. This book included Khomeini's notion of wilayat al-faqih (Governance of the Jurist) as well as the reasoning and in his view, the necessity of it in running an Islamic state. Khomeini
Khomeini
and his supporters worked to suppress some former allies and rewrote the proposed constitution. Some newspapers were closed, and those protesting the closings were attacked.[113] Opposition groups such as the National Democratic Front and Muslim
Muslim
People's Republican Party were attacked and finally banned.[114] Through popular support, Khomeini
Khomeini
supporters gained an overwhelming majority of the seats in the Assembly of Experts[115] which revised the proposed constitution. The newly proposed constitution included an Islamic jurist Supreme Leader of the country, and a Council of Guardians
Council of Guardians
to veto un-Islamic legislation and screen candidates for office, disqualifying those found un-Islamic. In November 1979, the new constitution of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
was adopted by national referendum.[116][117] Khomeini
Khomeini
himself became instituted as the Supreme Leader (Guardian Jurist), and officially became known as the "Leader of the Revolution." On 4 February 1980, Abolhassan Banisadr
Abolhassan Banisadr
was elected as the first president of Iran. Critics complain that Khomeini
Khomeini
had gone back on his word[118] to advise, rather than rule the country.[119] Hostage crisis[edit] Main article: Iran
Iran
hostage crisis On 22 October 1979, the United States
United States
admitted the exiled and ailing Shah
Shah
into the country for cancer treatment. In Iran, there was an immediate outcry, with both Khomeini
Khomeini
and leftist groups demanding the Shah's return to Iran
Iran
for trial and execution. Revolutionaries were reminded of Operation Ajax, 26 years earlier, when the Shah
Shah
fled abroad while American CIA
CIA
and British intelligence organized a coup d'état to overthrow his nationalist opponent Mohammad Mosaddegh. On 4 November, Iranian students calling themselves Muslim
Muslim
Student Followers of the Imam's Line, took control of the American Embassy in Tehran, holding 52 embassy staff hostage for 444 days – an event known as the Iran
Iran
hostage crisis. In the United States, the hostage-taking was seen as a flagrant violation of international law and aroused intense anger and anti-Iranian sentiments.[120][121] In Iran, the takeover was immensely popular and earned the support of Khomeini
Khomeini
under the slogan "America can't do a damn thing against us."[122] The seizure of the embassy of a country he called the "Great Satan"[123] helped to advance the cause of theocratic government and outflank politicians and groups who emphasized stability and normalized relations with other countries. Khomeini
Khomeini
is reported to have told his president: "This action has many benefits ... this has united our people. Our opponents do not dare act against us. We can put the constitution to the people's vote without difficulty, and carry out presidential and parliamentary elections."[124] The new constitution was successfully passed by referendum a month after the hostage crisis began. The crisis had the effect of splitting of the opposition into two groups – radicals supporting the hostage taking, and the moderates opposing it.[124][125] On 23 February 1980, Khomeini
Khomeini
proclaimed Iran's Majlis would decide the fate of the American embassy hostages, and demanded that the United States
United States
hand over the Shah
Shah
for trial in Iran for crimes against the nation. Although the Shah
Shah
died a few months later, during the summer, the crisis continued. In Iran, supporters of Khomeini
Khomeini
named the embassy a "Den of Espionage", publicizing details regarding armaments, espionage equipment and many volumes of official and classified documents which they found there. Relationship with Islamic and non-aligned countries[edit] Khomeini
Khomeini
believed in Muslim
Muslim
unity and solidarity and the export of his revolution throughout the world. He believed Shia
Shia
and (the significantly more numerous) Sunni
Sunni
Muslims should be "united and stand firmly against Western and arrogant powers."[126] "Establishing the Islamic state world-wide belong to the great goals of the revolution."[127] He declared the birth week of Muhammad
Muhammad
(the week between 12th to 17th of Rabi' al-awwal) as the Unity week. Then he declared the last Friday of Ramadan
Ramadan
as International Day of Quds
International Day of Quds
in 1981.[128] Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War[edit] Main article: Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War

Ruhollah Khomeini
Khomeini
with Ahmad Khomeini
Ahmad Khomeini
and Mohammad-Ali Rajai

Shortly after assuming power, Khomeini
Khomeini
began calling for Islamic revolutions across the Muslim
Muslim
world, including Iran's Arab neighbor Iraq,[129] the one large state besides Iran
Iran
with a Shia
Shia
majority population. At the same time Saddam Hussein, Iraq's secular Arab nationalist Ba'athist leader, was eager to take advantage of Iran's weakened military and (what he assumed was) revolutionary chaos, and in particular to occupy Iran's adjacent oil-rich province of Khuzestan, and to undermine Iranian Islamic revolutionary attempts to incite the Shi'a majority of his country. In September 1980, Iraq
Iraq
launched a full-scale invasion of Iran, starting what would become the eight-year-long Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War (September 1980 – August 1988). A combination of fierce resistance by Iranians and military incompetence by Iraqi forces soon stalled the Iraqi advance and, despite Saddam's internationally condemned use of poison gas, Iran
Iran
had by early 1982 regained almost all of the territory lost to the invasion. The invasion rallied Iranians behind the new regime, enhancing Khomeini's stature and allowing him to consolidate and stabilize his leadership. After this reversal, Khomeini
Khomeini
refused an Iraqi offer of a truce, instead demanding reparations and the toppling of Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
from power.[130][131][132] In 1982, there was an attempted military coup against Khomeini.[20] The Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war ended in 1988, with 320,000–720,000 Iranian soldiers and militia killed.[133] Although Iran's population and economy were three times the size of Iraq's, the latter was aided by neighboring Persian Gulf Arab states, as well as the Soviet Bloc and Western countries. The Persian Gulf Arabs and the West wanted to be sure the Islamic revolution did not spread across the Persian Gulf, while the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was concerned about the potential threat posed to its rule in central Asia to the north. However, Iran
Iran
had large amounts of ammunition provided by the United States
United States
of America during the Shah's era and the United States illegally smuggled arms to Iran
Iran
during the 1980s despite Khomeini's anti-Western policy (see Iran–Contra affair). During war Iranians used human wave attacks (people walking to certain death including child soldiers)[134][135] on Iraq, with his promise that they would automatically go to paradise—alJanna— if they died in battle,[135] and his pursuit of victory in the Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
that ultimately proved futile.[136][35] By March 1984, Iran's population had dropped by well over two million.[citation needed] This included an estimated one and a half million that had fled Iran, victims of political executions, and the hundreds of thousands of "martyrs" from Khomeini's bloody "human wave " attacks on Iraq.[citation needed] The war continued for over seven years with mounting costs. 1988 saw deadly month-long Iraqi missile attacks on Tehran, mounting economic problems, the demoralization of Iranian troops, attacks by the American Navy on Iranian ships, oil rigs, and a commercial airplane, and the recapture by Iraq
Iraq
of the Faw Peninsula.

Khomeini
Khomeini
in Jamaran, one year before his death

In July of that year, Khomeini, in his words, "drank the cup of poison" and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations. Despite the high cost of the war – 450,000 to 950,000 Iranian casualties and USD $300 billion[137] – Khomeini
Khomeini
insisted that extending the war into Iraq
Iraq
in an attempt to overthrow Saddam had not been a mistake. In a "Letter to Clergy" he wrote: "... we do not repent, nor are we sorry for even a single moment for our performance during the war. Have we forgotten that we fought to fulfill our religious duty and that the result is a marginal issue?"[138] Fatwa against chemical weapons[edit] In an interview with Gareth Porter, Mohsen Rafighdoost, the eight-year war time minister of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, disclosed how Khomeini
Khomeini
had opposed his proposal for beginning working on both nuclear and chemical weapons by a fatwa which had never been made public in details of when and how it was issued.[139] Rushdie fatwa[edit] See also: The Satanic Verses
The Satanic Verses
controversy

Persian Samizdat
Samizdat
edition of Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses c.2000

In early 1989, Khomeini
Khomeini
issued a fatwā calling for the assassination of Salman Rushdie, an India-born British author. Rushdie's book, The Satanic Verses, published in 1988, was alleged to commit blasphemy against Islam
Islam
and Khomeini's juristic ruling (fatwā) prescribed Rushdie's assassination by any Muslim. The fatwā required not only Rushdie's execution, but also the execution of "all those involved in the publication" of the book.[140] Khomeini's fatwā was condemned across the Western world
Western world
by governments on the grounds that it violated the universal human rights of free speech and freedom of religion. The fatwā has also been attacked for violating the rules of fiqh by not allowing the accused an opportunity to defend himself, and because "even the most rigorous and extreme of the classical jurist only require a Muslim
Muslim
to kill anyone who insults the Prophet in his hearing and in his presence."[141] Though Rushdie publicly regretted "the distress that publication has occasioned to sincere followers of Islam",[142] the fatwa was not revoked. Khomeini
Khomeini
explained,

Even if Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
repents and becomes the most pious man of all time, it is incumbent on every Muslim
Muslim
to employ everything he has got, his life and wealth, to send him to Hell.[143]

Rushdie himself was not killed but Hitoshi Igarashi, the Japanese translator of the book The Satanic Verses, was murdered and two other translators of the book survived murder attempts.[144] Life under Khomeini[edit] In a speech given to a huge crowd after returning to Iran
Iran
from exile 1 February 1979, Khomeini
Khomeini
made a variety of promises to Iranians for his coming Islamic regime: a popularly elected government that would represent the people of Iran
Iran
and with which the clergy would not interfere. He promised that "no one should remain homeless in this country," and that Iranians would have free telephone, heating, electricity, bus services and free oil at their doorstep.[145] Under Khomeini's rule, Sharia
Sharia
(Islamic law) was introduced, with the Islamic dress code enforced for both men and women by Islamic Revolutionary Guards and other Islamic groups[146] Women were required to cover their hair, and men were not allowed to wear shorts. Alcoholic drinks, most Western movies, and the practice of men and women swimming or sunbathing together were banned.[147] The Iranian educational curriculum was Islamized at all levels with the Islamic Cultural Revolution; the "Committee for Islamization of Universities"[148] carried this out thoroughly. The broadcasting of any music other than martial or religious on Iranian radio and television was banned by Khomeini
Khomeini
in July 1979.[147] The ban lasted 10 years (approximately the rest of his life).[149] Emigration and economy[edit] Khomeini
Khomeini
is said to have stressed "the spiritual over the material".[150][151] Six months after his first speech he expressed exasperation with complaints about the sharp drop in Iran's standard of living, saying that: "I cannot believe that the purpose of all these sacrifices was to have less expensive melons."[152] On another occasion emphasizing the importance of martyrdom over material prosperity, he said: "Could anyone wish his child to be martyred to obtain a good house? This is not the issue. The issue is another world."[153] He is also reportedly famous for answering a question about his economic policies by declaring that 'economics is for donkeys'.[154][note 2] This disinterest in economic policy is said to be "one factor explaining the inchoate performance of the Iranian economy since the revolution."[150] Other factors include the long war with Iraq, the cost of which led to government debt and inflation, eroding personal incomes, and unprecedented unemployment,[155] ideological disagreement over the economy, and "international pressure and isolation" such as US sanctions following the hostage crisis.[156] Due to the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
war, poverty is said to have risen by nearly 45% during the first 6 years of Khomeini's rule.[157] Emigration from Iran
Iran
also developed, reportedly for the first time in the country's history.[158] Since the revolution and war with Iraq, an estimated "two to four million entrepreneurs, professionals, technicians, and skilled craftspeople (and their capital)" have emigrated to other countries.[159][160] Suppression of opposition[edit] In a talk at the Fayzieah School in Qom, 30 August 1979, Khomeini warned pro-imperialist opponents: "Those who are trying to bring corruption and destruction to our country in the name of democracy will be oppressed. They are worse than Bani-Ghorizeh Jews, and they must be hanged. We will oppress them by God's order and God's call to prayer."[161] However, in 1983, the CIA
CIA
helped him by providing a list of Soviet KGB agents and collaborators operating in Iran
Iran
to Khomeini, who then executed up to 200 suspects and closed down the Communist Tudeh Party of Iran.[162][163] The Shah
Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
and his family left Iran
Iran
and escaped harm, but hundreds of former members of the overthrown monarchy and military met their end in firing squads, with exiled critics complaining of "secrecy, vagueness of the charges, the absence of defense lawyers or juries", or the opportunity of the accused "to defend themselves."[164] In later years these were followed in larger numbers by the erstwhile revolutionary allies of Khomeini's movement—Marxists and socialists, mostly university students—who opposed the theocratic regime. Following the 1981 Hafte Tir bombing, Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Khomeini
declared the Mojahedin and anyone violently opposed to the government, "enemies of God" and pursued a mass campaign against members of the Mojahedin, Fadaiyan, and Tudeh parties as well as their families, close friends, and even anyone who was accused of counterrevolutionary behavior.[165] In the 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners, following the People's Mujahedin of Iran
Iran
unsuccessful operation Forough-e Javidan against the Islamic Republic, Khomeini
Khomeini
issued an order to judicial officials to judge every Iranian political prisoner (mostly but not all Mujahedin) and kill those judged to be apostates from Islam (mortad) or "waging war on God" (moharebeh). Almost all of those interrogated were killed, estimates of their number vary from 1,400[166] to 30,000.[24][167][168] Minority religions[edit] See also: Persecution of Bahá'ís Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians are officially recognized and protected by the government. Shortly after Khomeini's return
Khomeini's return
from exile in 1979, he issued a fatwa ordering that Jews and other minorities (except Bahá'ís) be treated well.[169][170] In power, Khomeini
Khomeini
distinguished between Zionism
Zionism
as a secular political party that employs Jewish symbols and ideals and Judaism as the religion of Moses.[171] Senior government posts were reserved for Muslims. Schools set up by Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians had to be run by Muslim principals.[172] Conversion to Islam
Islam
was encouraged by entitling converts to inherit the entire share of their parents (or even uncle's) estate if their siblings (or cousins) remain non-Muslim.[173] Iran's non- Muslim
Muslim
population has decreased. For example, the Jewish population in Iran
Iran
dropped from 80,000 to 30,000.[174] Four of the 270 seats in parliament were reserved for each three non- Muslim
Muslim
minority religions, under the Islamic constitution that Khomeini
Khomeini
oversaw. Khomeini
Khomeini
also called for unity between Sunni
Sunni
and Shi'a Muslims. Sunni
Sunni
Muslims are the largest religious minority in Iran. 4% belong to the Sunni
Sunni
branch.[175] One non- Muslim
Muslim
group treated differently were the 300,000 members of the Bahá'í Faith. Starting in late 1979 the new government systematically targeted the leadership of the Bahá'í community by focusing on the Bahá'í National Spiritual Assembly (NSA) and Local Spiritual Assemblies (LSAs); prominent members of NSAs and LSAs were often detained and even executed by forces outside of Khomeini's direct control.[176] "Some 200 of whom have been executed and the rest forced to convert or subjected to the most horrendous disabilities."[177] Like most conservative Muslims, Khomeini
Khomeini
believed Bahá'í to be apostates.[178] He claimed they were a political rather than a religious movement,[179][180] declaring:

the Baha'is are not a sect but a party, which was previously supported by Britain and now the United States. The Baha'is are also spies just like the Tudeh [Communist Party].[181]

Ethnic minorities[edit] Main article: Ethnic minorities in Iran After the Shah
Shah
left Iran
Iran
in 1979, a Kurdish delegation traveled to Qom to present the Kurds' demands to Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini. Their demands included language rights and the provision for a degree of political autonomy. Khomeini
Khomeini
responded that such demands were unacceptable since it involved the division of the Iranian nation. The following months saw numerous clashes between Kurdish militia groups and the Revolutionary Guards. The referendum on the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
was massively boycotted in Kurdistan, where it was thought 85 to 90% of voters abstained. Khomeini
Khomeini
ordered additional attacks later on in the year, and by September most of Iranian Kurdistan was under direct martial law.[182] Death and funeral[edit] See also: Mausoleum of Ruhollah Khomeini

Mourning men in residence of Khomeini
Khomeini
around his seat area, Jamaran, 4 June 1989.

Khomeini's health declined several years prior to his death. After spending eleven days in Jamaran hospital, Ruhollah Khomeini
Khomeini
died on 3 June 1989 after suffering five heart attacks in just ten days,[183] at the age of 86 just before midnight. He was succeeded as Supreme Leader by Ali Khamenei. Iranians poured out into the cities and streets in enormous numbers to mourn Khomeini's death in a spontaneous outpouring of grief. In the scorching summer heat, fire trucks sprayed water on the crowds to cool them. At least 10 mourners were trampled to death, more than 400 were badly hurt and several thousand more were treated for injuries sustained in the ensuing pandemonium.[184][185] A large percentage of the population of Iran
Iran
lined the 32-kilometre (20 mi) route to Tehran's Behesht-e Zahra
Behesht-e Zahra
cemetery on 11 June 1989, for the funeral of Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini. Western agencies estimated that 2 million paid their respects as the body lay in state.[186] Figures about Khomeini's initial funeral attendance which took place on 4 June range around 2.5–3.5 million people.[187][188] Early the following day, Khomeini's corpse was flown in by helicopter for burial at the Paradise of Zahra cemetery. Iranian officials postponed Khomeini's first funeral after a huge mob stormed the funeral procession, destroying Khomeini's wooden coffin in order to get a last glimpse of his body or touch of his coffin. In some cases, armed soldiers were compelled to fire warning shots in the air to restrain the crowds. At one point, Khomeini's body fell to the ground, as the crowd ripped off pieces of the death shroud, trying to keep them as if they were holy relics. According to journalist James Buchan:

Yet even here, the crowd surged past the makeshift barriers. John Kifner wrote in the New York Times
New York Times
that the "body of the Ayatollah, wrapped in a white burial shroud, fell out of the flimsy wooden coffin, and in a mad scene people in the crowd reached to touch the shroud". A frail white leg was uncovered. The shroud was torn to pieces for relics and Khomeini’s son Ahmad was knocked from his feet. Men jumped into the grave. At one point, the guards lost hold of the body. Firing in the air, the soldiers drove the crowd back, retrieved the body and brought it to the helicopter, but mourners clung on to the landing gear before they could be shaken off. The body was taken back to North Tehran
Tehran
to go through the ritual of preparation a second time.[189]

The second funeral was held under much tighter security five hours later. This time, Khomeini's casket was made of steel, and in accordance with Islamic tradition, the casket was only to carry the body to the burial site. In 1995, his son Ahmad was buried next to him. Khomeini's grave is now housed within a larger mausoleum complex. Succession[edit] Main article: Iranian Supreme Leader election, 1989

Ali Khamenei
Ali Khamenei
and Hussein-Ali Montazeri

Grand Ayatollah
Grand Ayatollah
Hussein-Ali Montazeri, a former student of Khomeini and a major figure of the Revolution, was chosen by Khomeini
Khomeini
to be his successor as Supreme Leader and approved as such by the Assembly of Experts in November 1985.[190] The principle of velayat-e faqih and the Islamic constitution called for the Supreme Leader to be a marja (a grand ayatollah), and of the dozen or so grand ayatollahs living in 1981 only Montazeri qualified as a potential Leader (this was either because only he accepted totally Khomeini's concept of rule by Islamic jurists,[191][192][unreliable source?] or, as at least one other source stated, because only Montazeri had the "political credentials" Khomeini
Khomeini
found suitable for his successor).[193] In 1989 Montazeri began to call for liberalization, freedom for political parties. Following the execution of thousands of political prisoners by the Islamic government, Montazeri told Khomeini
Khomeini
'your prisons are far worse than those of the Shah
Shah
and his SAVAK.'[194] After a letter of his complaints was leaked to Europe and broadcast on the BBC, a furious Khomeini
Khomeini
ousted him from his position as official successor. To deal with the disqualification of the only suitable marja, Khomeini called for an 'Assembly for Revising the Constitution' to be convened. An amendment was made to Iran's constitution removing the requirement that the Supreme Leader be a Marja[191] and this allowed Ali Khamenei, the new favoured jurist who had suitable revolutionary credentials but lacked scholarly ones and who was not a Grand Ayatollah, to be designated as successor.[195][196] Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khamenei was elected Supreme Leader by the Assembly of Experts
Assembly of Experts
on 4 June 1989. Grand Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Hossein Montazeri
Hossein Montazeri
continued his criticism of the regime and in 1997 was put under house arrest for questioning what he regarded to be an unaccountable rule exercised by the supreme leader.[197][198] Political thought and legacy[edit] Main article: Political thought and legacy of Ruhollah Khomeini See also: Islamic Principlism in Iran

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Crimes of the Shah

According to at least one scholar, politics in the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran
Iran
"are largely defined by attempts to claim Khomeini's legacy" and that "staying faithful to his ideology has been the litmus test for all political activity" there.[199] Throughout his many writings and speeches, Khomeini's views on governance evolved. Originally declaring rule by monarchs or others permissible so long as sharia law was followed[200] Khomeini
Khomeini
later adamantly opposed monarchy, arguing that only rule by a leading Islamic jurist (a marja') would ensure Sharia was properly followed (wilayat al-faqih),[201] before finally insisting the ruling jurist need not be a leading one and Sharia
Sharia
rule could be overruled by that jurist if necessary to serve the interests of Islam
Islam
and the "divine government" of the Islamic state.[202] Khomeini's concept of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist
Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist
(ولایت فقیه, velayat-e faqih) as Islamic government did not win the support of the leading Iranian Shi'i clergy of the time.[203] Towards the 1979 Revolution, many clerics gradually became disillusioned with the rule of the Shah, although none came around to supporting Khomeini's vision of a theocratic Islamic Republic.[203] There is much debate to as whether Khomeini's ideas are or are not compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be a democratic republic. According to the state-run Aftab News,[204] both ultraconservative (Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi) and reformist opponents of the regime ( Akbar Ganji
Akbar Ganji
and Abdolkarim Soroush) believe he did not, while regime officials and supporters like Ali Khamenei,[205] Mohammad Khatami
Mohammad Khatami
and Mortaza Motahhari[206] believe Khomeini
Khomeini
intended the Islamic republic
Islamic republic
to be democratic and that it is so.[207] Khomeini
Khomeini
himself also made statements at different times indicating both support and opposition to democracy.[208]

Khomeini
Khomeini
greeted by the people

One scholar, Shaul Bakhash, explains this disagreement as coming from Khomeini's belief that the huge turnout of Iranians in anti-Shah demonstrations during the revolution constituted a 'referendum' in favor of an Islamic republic.[209] Khomeini
Khomeini
also wrote that since Muslims must support a government based on Islamic law, Sharia-based government will always have more popular support in Muslim
Muslim
countries than any government based on elected representatives.[210] Khomeini
Khomeini
offered himself as a "champion of Islamic revival" and unity, emphasizing issues Muslims agreed upon – the fight against Zionism and imperialism – and downplaying Shia
Shia
issues that would divide Shia from Sunni.[211] Khomeini
Khomeini
strongly opposed close relations with either Eastern or Western Bloc
Western Bloc
nations, believing the Islamic world
Islamic world
should be its own bloc, or rather converge into a single unified power.[212] He viewed Western culture as being inherently decadent and a corrupting influence upon the youth. The Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
banned or discouraged popular Western fashions, music, cinema, and literature.[213] In the Western world
Western world
it is said "his glowering visage became the virtual face of Islam
Islam
in Western popular culture" and "inculcated fear and distrust towards Islam,"[214] making the word 'Ayatollah' "a synonym for a dangerous madman ... in popular parlance."[215] This has particularly been the case in the United States
United States
where some Iranians complained that even at universities they felt the need to hide their Iranian identity for fear of physical attack.[120] There Khomeini
Khomeini
and the Islamic Republic are remembered for the American embassy hostage taking and accused of sponsoring hostage-taking and terrorist attacks,[216][217] and which continues to apply economic sanctions against Iran. Before taking power Khomeini
Khomeini
expressed support for the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. "We would like to act according to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. We would like to be free. We would like independence."[218] However once in power Khomeini
Khomeini
took a firm line against dissent, warning opponents of theocracy for example: "I repeat for the last time: abstain from holding meetings, from blathering, from publishing protests. Otherwise I will break your teeth."[219] Many of Khomeini's political and religious ideas were considered to be progressive and reformist by leftist intellectuals and activists prior to the Revolution. However, once in power his ideas often clashed with those of modernist or secular Iranian intellectuals. This conflict came to a head during the writing of the Islamic constitution when many newspapers were closed by the government. Khomeini
Khomeini
angrily told the intellectuals:

Yes, we are reactionaries, and you are enlightened intellectuals: You intellectuals do not want us to go back 1400 years. You, who want freedom, freedom for everything, the freedom of parties, you who want all the freedoms, you intellectuals: freedom that will corrupt our youth, freedom that will pave the way for the oppressor, freedom that will drag our nation to the bottom.[220]

In contrast to his alienation from Iranian intellectuals, and "in an utter departure from all other Islamist movements," Khomeini
Khomeini
embraced international revolution and Third World
Third World
solidarity, giving it "precedence over Muslim
Muslim
fraternity." From the time Khomeini's supporters gained control of the media until his death, the Iranian media "devoted extensive coverage to non- Muslim
Muslim
revolutionary movements (from the Sandinistas to the African National Congress
African National Congress
and the Irish Republican Army) and downplayed the role of the Islamic movements considered conservative, such as the Afghan mujahidin."[221] Khomeini's legacy to the economy of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
has been expressions of concern for the mustazafin (a Quranic term for the oppressed or deprived), but not always results that aided them. During the 1990s the mustazafin and disabled war veterans rioted on several occasions, protesting the demolition of their shantytowns and rising food prices, etc.[222] Khomeini's disdain for the science of economics ("economics is for donkeys"[note 2]) is said to have been "mirrored" by the populist redistribution policies of former president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who allegedly wears "his contempt for economic orthodoxy as a badge of honour", and has overseen sluggish growth and rising inflation and unemployment.[223] In 1963, Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini
Khomeini
wrote a book in which he stated that there is no religious restriction on corrective surgery for transgender individuals. At the time Khomeini
Khomeini
was an anti-Shah revolutionary and his fatwas did not carry any weight with the Imperial government, which did not have any specific policies regarding transsexual individuals.[224] However, after 1979, his fatwa "formed the basis for a national policy" and perhaps in part because of a penal code that "allows for the execution of homosexuals", as of 2005 Iran
Iran
"permits and partly finances seven times as many gender reassignment operation as the entire European Union".[225][226]

Mural of Khomeini

Appearance and habits[edit] Khomeini
Khomeini
was described as "slim", but athletic and "heavily boned".[227] He was known for his punctuality:

He's so punctual that if he doesn't turn up for lunch at exactly ten past everyone will get worried, because his work is regulated in such a way that he turned up for lunch at exactly that time every day. He goes to bed exactly on time. He eats exactly on time. And he wakes up exactly on time. He changes his cloak every time he comes back from the mosque.[228]

Khomeini
Khomeini
was also known for his aloofness and austere demeanor. He is said to have had "variously inspired admiration, awe, and fear from those around him."[229] His practice of moving "through the halls of the madresehs never smiling at anybody or anything; his practice of ignoring his audience while he taught, contributed to his charisma."[230] Khomeini
Khomeini
adhered to traditional beliefs of Islamic hygienical jurisprudence holding that things like urine, excrement, blood, wine etc. and also non-Muslims were some of eleven ritualistically "impure" things that physical contact with which while wet required ritual washing or Ghusl
Ghusl
before prayer or salat.[231][232] He is reported to have refused to eat or drink in a restaurant unless he knew for sure the waiter was a Muslim.[233] Mystique[edit] Khomeini
Khomeini
was noted by many for his mystique. Before the revolution he benefited from the widespread circulation of a Hadith
Hadith
attributed to the Imam Musa al-Kazim
Musa al-Kazim
who is said to have prophesied shortly before his death in 799 that:

A man will come out from Qom
Qom
and he will summon people to the right path. There will rally to him people resembling pieces of iron, not to be shaken by violent winds, unsparing and relying on God'[234]

Khomeini
Khomeini
was the first and only Iranian cleric to be addressed as "Imam", a title hitherto reserved in Iran
Iran
for the twelve infallible leaders of the early Shi'a.[235] He was also associated with the Mahdi or 12th Imam of Shia
Shia
belief in a number of ways. One of his titles was Na'eb-e Imam (Deputy to the Twelfth Imam). His enemies were often attacked as taghut and Mofsed-e-filarz (corrupters of the earth), religious terms used for enemies of the Twelfth Imam. Many of the officials of the overthrown Shah's government executed by Revolutionary Courts were convicted of "fighting against the Twelfth Imam". When a deputy in the majlis asked Khomeini
Khomeini
directly if he was the 'promised Mahdi', Khomeini
Khomeini
did not answer, "astutely" neither confirming nor denying the title.[236]

Khomeini
Khomeini
and a child.

As the revolution gained momentum, even some non-supporters exhibited awe, called him "magnificently clear-minded, single-minded and unswerving."[237] His image was as "absolute, wise, and indispensable leader of the nation"[238]

The Imam, it was generally believed, had shown by his uncanny sweep to power, that he knew how to act in ways which others could not begin to understand. His timing was extraordinary, and his insight into the motivation of others, those around him as well as his enemies, could not be explained as ordinary knowledge. This emergent belief in Khomeini
Khomeini
as a divinely guided figure was carefully fostered by the clerics who supported him and spoke up for him in front of the people.[239]

Even many secularists who firmly disapproved of his policies were said to feel the power of his "messianic" appeal.[240] Comparing him to a father figure who retains the enduring loyalty even of children he disapproves of, journalist Afshin Molavi writes that defenses of Khomeini
Khomeini
are "heard in the most unlikely settings":

A whiskey-drinking professor told an American journalist that Khomeini brought pride back to Iranians. A women's rights activist told me that Khomeini
Khomeini
was not the problem; it was his conservative allies who had directed him wrongly. A nationalist war veteran, who held Iran's ruling clerics in contempt, carried with him a picture of 'the Imam'.[241]

Another journalist tells the story of listening to bitter criticism of the regime by an Iranian who tells her of his wish for his son to leave the country and who "repeatedly" makes the point "that life had been better" under the Shah. When his complaint is interrupted by news that "the Imam" — over 85 years old at the time — might be dying, the critic becomes "ashen faced" and speechless, pronouncing "this is terrible for my country."[242] An example of Khomeini's charisma is the effect a half-hour-long, 1982 speech on the Quran
Quran
by him had on a Muslim
Muslim
Scholar from South Africa, Sheikh Ahmad Deedat:

... And the electric effect he had on everybody, his charisma, was amazing. You just look at the man and tears come down your cheek. You just look at him and you get tears. I never saw a more handsome old man in my life, no picture, no video, no TV could do justice to this man, the handsomest old man I ever saw in my life was this man.[243]

Among some non- Muslim
Muslim
supporters, Khomeini
Khomeini
made a different but also favorable impression. Before Khomeini's coming to power, American academic and activist Richard A. Falk
Richard A. Falk
wrote that, "the depiction of him [Khomeini] as fanatical, reactionary and the bearer of crude prejudices seems certainly and happily false".[244] Furthermore, Khomeini's "entourage was uniformly composed of moderate, progressive individuals,"[245] and that "having created a new model of popular revolution based, for the most part, on nonviolent tactics, Iran
Iran
may yet provide us with a desperately-needed model of humane governance for a third-world country."[246] Family and descendants[edit] Main article: Khomeini
Khomeini
Family

Khomeini
Khomeini
with son (Ahmad) and grandsons (Hassan and Yaser)

In 1929,[247] Khomeini
Khomeini
married Khadijeh Saqafi,[248] the 16-year-old daughter of a cleric in Tehran. By all accounts their marriage was harmonious and happy.[248] She died in 2009.[249] They had seven children, though only five survived infancy. His daughters all married into either merchant or clerical families, and both his sons entered into religious life. Mostafa, the elder son, died in 1977 while in exile in Najaf, Iraq
Iraq
with his father and was rumored by supporters of his father to have been murdered by SAVAK.[250] Ahmad Khomeini, who died in 1995 at the age of 50, was also rumoured to be a victim of foul play, but at the hands of the regime.[251] Perhaps his "most prominent daughter",[252] Zahra Mostafavi, is a professor at the University of Tehran, and still alive. Khomeini's fifteen grandchildren include:

Zahra Eshraghi, granddaughter, married to Mohammad Reza Khatami, head of the Islamic Iran
Iran
Participation Front, the main reformist party in the country, and is considered a pro-reform character herself. Hassan Khomeini, Khomeini's elder grandson Sayid
Sayid
Hasan Khomeini, son of the Seyyed Ahmad Khomeini, is a cleric and the trustee of the Mausoleum of Khomeini
Khomeini
and also has shown support for the reform movement in Iran,[253] and Mir-Hossein Mousavi's call to cancel the 2009 election results.[252] Husain Khomeini
Khomeini
( Sayid
Sayid
Husain Khomeini), Khomeini's other grandson, son of Sayid
Sayid
Mustafa Khomeini, is a mid-level cleric who is strongly against the system of the Islamic Republic. In 2003, he was quoted as saying: "Iranians need freedom now, and if they can only achieve it with American interference I think they would welcome it. As an Iranian, I would welcome it."[254] In that same year Husain Khomeini visited the United States, where he met figures such as Reza Pahlavi, the son of the last Shah
Shah
and the pretender to the Sun Throne. Later that year, Husain returned to Iran
Iran
after receiving an urgent message from his grandmother. According to Michael Ledeen, quoting "family sources", he was blackmailed into returning.[255] In 2006, he called for an American invasion and overthrow of the Islamic Republic, telling Al-Arabiyah television station viewers, "If you were a prisoner, what would you do? I want someone to break the prison [doors open].[256] Another of Khomeini's grandchildren, Ali Eshraghi, was disqualified from the 2008 parliamentary elections on grounds of being insufficiently loyal to the principles of the Islamic revolution, but later reinstated.[257]

Influence[edit] On the thirteenth anniversary of Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini’s death, Hezbollah's Nasrollah presented a lecture on significance the Khomeini to international. He drew parallels between Khomeini’s revolution struggles and suffering and those of the Lebanon resistance factions and the Palestinian intifada and resistance. In particular, Khomeini's tactics, and particularly his steadfastness and intelligence, had greater relevance because Khomeini's movement was not a political one severed from its roots or a Jihadi revival movement disconnected from ideology, but a movement that rested on a very solid base. The domestic struggle between Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Khomeini
and the Pahlavi regime was far less important, than that the Shah
Shah
was an agent and instrument of the United States.[258] Bibliography[edit] Khomeini
Khomeini
was a prolific writer and speaker (200 of his books are online)[259] who authored commentaries on the Qur'an, on Islamic jurisprudence, the roots of Islamic law, and Islamic traditions. He also released books about philosophy, gnosticism, poetry, literature, government and politics.[260] His books include:

Hokumat-e Islami: Velayat-e faqih (Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist) The Little Green Book : A sort of Manifesto of Khomeini's political thought Forty Hadith[261] (Forty Traditions) Adab as Salat[262] (The Disciplines of Prayers) Jihade Akbar[263] (The Greater Struggle) Tahrir al-Wasilah Kashf al-Asrar

Notes[edit]

^ Prior to the International Time Zone
Time Zone
system, every locality had its own time with 12 noon set to match the moment in that city when the sun was at its highest point in the sky. This was natural for an era when travel was relatively slow and infrequent, but would have played havoc with railway timetables and general modern long-distance communications. In the decades after 1880 governments around the world replaced local time with 24 international time zones, each covering 15 degrees of the earth's longitude (with some exceptions for political boundaries). ^ a b The original quote which is part of a speech made in 1979 can be found here:

"I cannot imagine and no wise person can presume the claim that we spared our bloods so watermelon becomes cheaper. No wise person would sacrifice his young offspring for [say] affordable housing. People [on the contrary] want everything for their young offspring. Human being wants economy for his own self; it would therefore be unwise for him to spare his life in order to improve economy [...] Those who keep bringing up economy and find economy the infrastructure of everything -not knowing what human[ity] means- think of human being as an animal who is defined by means of food and clothes[...] Those who find economy the infrastructure of everything, find human beings animals. Animal too sacrifices everything for its economy and economy is its sole infrastructure. A donkey too considers economy as its only infrastructure. These people did not realize what human being [truly] is."

See also[edit]

Ideocracy Ruhollah Khomeini's letter to Mikhail Gorbachev Ruhollah Khomeini’s residency (Jamaran)

References[edit]

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It is not acceptable that a tributary [non- Muslim
Muslim
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Islam
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Kashf al-Asrar
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Iran
at the Crossroads, Edited by John Esposito and R.K. Ramazani, Palgrave, 2001. Quoted in Khomeini
Khomeini
on how Laws in Iran
Iran
will strictly adhere to God's perfect and unchanging divine law ^ a b The Failure of Political Islam
Islam
by Olivier Roy, translated by Carol Volk Harvard University Press, 1994, p.173–74 quoted in "the vilayat-i faqih thesis was rejected by almost the entire dozen grand ayatollahs living in 1981" ^ Ganji, Sorush and Mesbah Yazdi Archived 29 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine.(Persian) ^ The principles of Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
from viewpoint of Imam Khomeini in the speeches of the leader(Persian) ^ About Islamic republic[permanent dead link](Persian) ^ " Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Khomeini
and the Contemporary Debate on Freedom". Jis.oxfordjournals.org. 21 July 2006. doi:10.1093/jis/etl042. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ Dr. Jalal Matini, Translation & Introduction by Farhad Mafie (5 August 2003). "Democracy? I meant theocracy". Iranian.com.  ^ Bakhash, The Reign of the Ayatollahs (1984), p.73 ^ Khomeini, Islam
Islam
and Revolution (1982), p.56 ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia
Shia
Revival, Norton (2006), p.137 ^ Bayan, No.4 (1990), p.8) ^ " Iran
Iran
president bans Western music". BBC
BBC
News. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ Nasr, Vali The Shia
Shia
Revival, Norton, 2006, p.138 ^ "A Revolution Misunderstood. Charlotte Wiedemann". Qantara.de. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ Wright, Sacred Rage, (2001), p.28, 33, ^ for example the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing
1983 Beirut barracks bombing
see:Hizb'allah in Lebanon : The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis Magnus Ranstorp, Department of International Relations University of St. Andrews St. Martins Press, New York, 1997, p.54, 117 ^ Sahifeh Nour (Vol.2 Page 242) ^ in Qom, Iran, 22 October 1979, quoted in, The Shah
Shah
and the Ayatollah : Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution by Fereydoun Hoveyda, Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2003, p.88 ^ p.47, Wright. source: Speech at Feyziyeh Theological School, 24 August 1979; reproduced in Rubin, Barry and Judith Colp Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East: A Documentary Reader, Oxford University Press, 2002, p.34 ^ Roy, The Failure of Political Islam. 1994, p.175 ^ In March 1992, disabled war veterans protested against the mismanagement of the Foundation of the Disinherited. January and May 1992. In January 1992 a Tehran
Tehran
mob attacked grocery stores in a protest against the rise in subsidized milk prices. In May 1992 there were protests by squatters against the demolition of shantytowns in Mashhad. Government buildings were set alight. (Mackey, Sandra, The Iranians : Persia, Islam
Islam
and the soul of a nation, Dutton, c1996. p.361, 362, 366). Quoted in Class Division and Poverty Will Not Be Tolerated ^ ""Economics is for donkeys" Robert Tait. 11 September 2008". Newstatesman.com. 11 September 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ Robert Tait, A fatwa for transsexuals Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine., and a similar article on The Guardian. Gives details on Molkara's plea. ^ Kadri, Sadakat (2012). Heaven on Earth: A Journey Through Shari'a Law from the Deserts of Ancient Arabia ... Macmillan. p. 251. ISBN 9780099523277.  ^ Tait, Robert (27 July 2005). "A fatwa for freedom". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 December 2015.  ^ Taheri, Amir (1986). The spirit of Allah: Khomeini
Khomeini
and the Islamic revolution (1st U.S ed.). Bethesda, Md.: Adler & Adler. ISBN 9780917561047.  ^ According to a daughter quoted in In the Name of God by Robin Wright, 1989, p.45 ^ Brumberg, Reinventing Khomeini
Khomeini
(2001), p.53 ^ Mackay, Iranians (198?) p.224 ^ fatwa No. 83 from A Clarification of Questions : An Unabridged Translation of Resaleh Towzih al-Masael, by Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Syed Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini, Translated by J. Borujerdi, with a Foreword by Michael M. J. Fischer and Mehdi Abedi, Westview Press/ Boulder and London c1984, p.48. ^ Mottahedeh, Roy, The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran, One World, Oxford, 1985, 2000, p.383 ^ Personal communications from Dr. Mansur Farhang, a biographer and supporter of Khomeini
Khomeini
who was the former Iranian representative at the United Nations, with Ervand Abrahamian. Quoted in Abrahamian, Ervand, Khomeinism : Essays on the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
University of California Press, (1993) ^ (Mackay Iranians, p.277. Source: Quoted in Fouad Ajami, The Vanished Imam: Musa al Sadr and the Shia
Shia
of Lebanon (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), p.25 ^ Moin, Khomeini
Khomeini
(2000), p.201 ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia
Shia
Revival, Norton, (2006), p.131 ^ Harney, The Priest and the King (1998) pp. 173–4 ^ Benard/Khalilzad, The Government of God, 1984, p. 121 ^ Moin Khomeini, (2000), p. 297 ^ Wright, In the Name of God, (1989) (p.21-22) ^ Molavi, The Soul of Iran, (2005), p. 256 ^ In the Name of God: The Khomeini
Khomeini
Decade by Robin Wright c 1989, pp. 21–22 ^ "Sunni- Shia
Shia
Unity, A lecture by Sheikh Ahmad Deedat". inminds.com. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ Eli Lake, "U.N. Official Calls for Study Of Neocons' Role in 9/11", The New York Sun, April 10, 2008 ^ Gary Sick, All fall down: America's fateful encounter in Iran, I.B.Tauris, 1985, p. 166. ^ "Trusting Khomeini" (pdf). New York Times. February 16, 1979. Retrieved March 26, 2011.  ^ "Imam Khomeini
Khomeini
Official Website سایت امام خمینی". Imam-khomeini.ir. Retrieved 9 March 2012.  ^ a b Taheri, The Spirit of Allah (1985), p. 90-1 ^ [5] Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Moin, Khomeini, (2001), 184–5 ^ Fisk, Robert (5 June 1995). "Love the revolution, shame about reality". The Independent. London. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ a b "Khamenei vs. Khomeini" by Ali Reza Eshraghi, 20 August 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009. ^ Grandchildren of the revolution. By von Najmeh Bozorgmehr and Roula Khalaf 04.03.2009 Archived 5 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 23 August 2009. ^ "Make Iran
Iran
Next, Says Ayatollah's Grandson", Jamie Wilson, 10 August 2003, The Observer ^ Ledeen, Michael A. (6 January 2004). "Veiled Threats Lure Ayatollah's Grandson Home By Michael A. Ledeen, 6 January 2004". Aei.org. Archived from the original on 24 April 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ PHILIP SHERWELL Published: 12:01 am BST 18 June 2006 (18 June 2006). "Ayatollah's grandson calls for US overthrow of Iran, By PHILIP SHERWELL 19 June 2006". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ " Khomeini
Khomeini
grandson returns to poll, 13 February 2008". BBC
BBC
News. 13 February 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ Ellen Khouri (2002). voice of Hezbollah: the statements of Sayyed hasan Nasrollah. pp. 267–268.  ^ "World: Middle East Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Khomeini
on the Web". BBC
BBC
News. 1 June 1998. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ "The Works and Declarations of Imam Khomeini". Imamreza.net. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ "Forty Hadith, An Exposition, Second Revised Edition". Al-Islam.org.  ^ "Adab as-Salat: The Disciplines of the Prayer
Prayer
Second Revised Edition". Al-Islam.org.  ^ "Journal Articles". al-islam.org. 

Sources[edit]

Brumberg, Daniel (2001). Reinventing Khomeini: The Struggle for Reform in Iran. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-07758-6.  Daniel, Elton L. (2001). The History of Iran. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30731-8.  DeFronzo, James (2007). Revolutions And Revolutionary Movements. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4354-2.  Karsh, Efraim (2007). Islamic Imperialism: A History. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-12263-2.  Khomeini, Ruhollah; Algar, Hamid (2002). Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist. Alhoda UK. ISBN 964-335-499-7.  Keddie, Nikkie R. (2003). Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09856-1.  Milani, Mohsen M. (1994). The Making of Iran's Islamic Revolution: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-8476-1.  Moin, Baqer (2000). Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-26490-9.  Rāhnamā, 'Ali (1994). Pioneers of Islamic Revival. Macmillan. ISBN 1-85649-254-0.  Reich, Bernard (1990). Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-26213-6.  Willett, Edward C. ; Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini, 2004, Publisher:The Rosen Publishing Group ISBN 0-8239-4465-4 Bakhash, Shaul (1984). The Reign of the Ayatollahs : Iran
Iran
and the Islamic Revolution. New York: Basic Books.  Harney, Desmond (1998). The priest and the king : an eyewitness account of the Iranian revolution. I.B. Tauris.  Khomeini, Ruhollah (1981). Algar, Hamid (translator and editor), ed. Islam
Islam
and Revolution: Writing and Declarations of Imam Khomeini. Berkeley: Mizan Press.  Khomeini, Ruhollah (1980). Sayings of the Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini : political, philosophical, social, and religious. Bantam.  Mackey, Sandra (1996). The Iranians : Persia, Islam
Islam
and the Soul of a Nation. Dutton. ISBN 0-525-94005-7.  Molavi, Afshin (2005). The Soul of Iran: a Nation's Journey to Freedom. New York: Norton paperbacks.  Schirazi, Asghar (1997). The Constitution of Iran. New York: Tauris.  Taheri, Amir (1985). The Spirit of Allah. Adler & Adler.  Wright, Robin (1989). In the Name of God : The Khomeini
Khomeini
Decade. New York: Simon & Schuster.  Wright, Robin (2000). The Last Revolution. New York: Knopf.  Ansari, Hamid, The Narrative of Awakening, The Institute for Compilation and publication of the work of Imam Khomeini Lee, James; The Final Word!: An American Refutes the Sayings of Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini, 1984, Publisher:Philosophical Library ISBN 0-8022-2465-2 Dabashi, Hamid; Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, 2006, Publisher:Transaction Publishers ISBN 1-4128-0516-3 Hoveyda, Fereydoun; The Shah
Shah
and the Ayatollah: Iranian Mythology and Islamic Revolution, 2003, Publisher:Praeger/Greenwood ISBN 0-275-97858-3

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Ruhollah Khomeini

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ruhollah Khomeini

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ruhollah Khomeini.

New York Times
New York Times
article on Khomeini's poetry Imam Khomeini's Official Website Documentary: Imam Khomeini
Khomeini
P1 (Free Press TV
Press TV
documentary) Imam Khomeini
Khomeini
– Reformer of the Century (English Subtitles – Press TV Documentary) Documentary about the life of Ruhollah Khomeini
Khomeini
on YouTube Documentary: The man who changed the world on YouTube Documentary: I knew Khomeini
Khomeini
on YouTube Rouhollah Khomeini's Website

Selected bibliography

Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist: Velayat-e Faqeeh [Original Version] Syed Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini
Khomeini
Islamic Government (Hukumat-i Islami) Syed Ruhollah Moosavi Khomeini
Khomeini
– The Last Will... Extracted from speeches of Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Rouhollah Moosavi Khomeini Books by and or about Rouhollah Khomeini Famous letter of Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Khomeini
to Mikhail Gorbachev, dated 1 January 1989. Kayhan
Kayhan
Daily

Political offices

Preceded by New title Supreme Leader of Iran 1979–1989 Succeeded by Ali Khamenei

Military offices

Preceded by Abolhassan Banisadr Commander-in-Chief of the Iranian Armed Forces 1981–1989 Succeeded by Ali Khamenei

v t e

Ruhollah Khomeini

Politics

Iranian Revolution Iranian Cultural Revolution Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists Conspiracy allegations Political thought and legacy Interim Government 1979 Referendum

Books

Islamic Government (Velayat-e faqih) Tahrir al-Wasilah Kashf al-Asrar Forty Hadith
Hadith
of Ruhullah Khomeini Islam
Islam
and Revolution

Family

Khadijeh Saqafi (wife) Mostafa Khomeini (son) Zahra Mostafavi Khomeini
Zahra Mostafavi Khomeini
(daughter) Farideh Mostafavi Khomeini (daughter) Ahmad Khomeini
Ahmad Khomeini
(son) Hussein Khomeini
Khomeini
(grandson) Hassan Khomeini
Khomeini
(grandson) Zahra Eshraghi
Zahra Eshraghi
(granddaughter)

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran
Iran
crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan
Ramadan
Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ Conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Uganda–Tanzania War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA
CIA
and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Khomeini
(1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 88036173 LCCN: n79119039 ISNI: 0000 0001 2142 6391 GND: 11856188X SELIBR: 319553 SUDOC: 027371247 BNF: cb11907692p (data) NLA: 36571622 NDL: 00445618 NKC: jo2000007

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