The AVALON PENINSULA is a large peninsula (9,220 km² ) that makes up
the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland .
The peninsula is home to 262,410 people, about 51% of Newfoundland's
population, according to the
Canada 2011 Census . The peninsula is the
location of St. John\'s , the provincial capital and largest city. It
is connected to the main section of the island by the 5 km (3 mi) wide
Isthmus of Avalon. The peninsula protrudes into the rich fishing zones
Grand Banks . Its four major bays—Trinity Bay , Conception
Bay , St. Mary\'s Bay , and
Placentia Bay —have long been the centre
of Newfoundland's fishing industry.
* 1 Geography and geology
* 2 History
* 3 See also
* 4 References
* 5 External links
GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
The coast of the
Avalon Peninsula, in the province of
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Avalon Peninsula is itself pinched into peninsulas by St. Mary's
Bay and Conception Bay. St. John's is located in the northeast of the
Avalon Peninsula is a noted region for
Precambrian fossils , and
many Lagerstätten of the diverse
Ediacaran biota are found on the
peninsula. Mistaken Point is the original location of the first
Aspidella terranovica (which gets its specific
name from Newfoundland). The peninsula gives its name to the ancient
Avalonia of which it was part.
Province of Avalon
In 1497, explorer
John Cabot led an expedition from England in an
attempt to reach the
Spice Islands in the
East Indies , that
supposedly ended up off what is now Bonavista . The first permanent
English settlement was established at Cuper\'s Cove in 1610. Sir
George Calvert was later given a large land holding on the peninsula.
The initial colony of
Ferryland grew to a population of 100, becoming
the first successful permanent settlement on Newfoundland island. In
1623 Calvert was given a
Royal Charter extending the Royal lands and
granting them the name
Province of Avalon "in imitation of Old Avalon
in Somersetshire wherein Glassenbury stands, the first fruits of
Christianity in Britain as the other was in that party of America".
Calvert wished to make the colony a refuge for Roman Catholics facing
persecution in England. In 1625 Calvert was made the first Lord
A series of crises and calamities led Calvert to quit the colony in
1629 for "some other warmer climate of this new world", which turned
out to be Maryland , though his family maintained agents to govern
Avalon until 1637, when the entire island of Newfoundland was granted
by charter to Sir
David Kirke and James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton
Quidi Vidi , a district of St. John\'s
In 1696, during King William\'s War , the French destroyed many
English villages in the
Avalon Peninsula Campaign .
During Queen Anne\'s War ,
John Leake of the Royal Navy
led an expedition aimed at capturing French ships around the Peninsula
and burning French settlements. The expedition was largely successful.
During this same conflict, the French attacked the fortified English
port of St. John\'s , but were defeated . They later returned and
captured the town , burning it to the ground.
Later, during King George\'s War , a single British
Man-of-war , HMS
Kinsale, cruised along the coast , attacking and capturing French
On June 8th, 1755, three British- and three French warships met off
Cape Race on the Peninsula and engaged each other in battle (although
both countries were at peace). This battle was one of a series that
French and Indian War in North America. The war also
ironically ended in Newfoundland, at the decisive Battle of Signal
Hill , in which British soldiers and artillery under the command of
William Amherst drove the French occupants of St. John's from Signal
Hill and into the town\'s fort , where they soon surrendered.
The Peninsula played a large role in both the American Revolutionary
War and the
War of 1812 , in which it served as a training ground for
Royal Navy sailors and marines .
British colonization of the Americas
* ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia:
Avalon Peninsula Archived March 7,
2008, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Census Profile -
Avalon Peninsula". Statistics Canada.
Retrieved 6 January 2013.