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AVALOKITEśVARA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: अवलोकितेश्वर, "Lord who contemplates", Khmer : លោកេស្វរៈ, Tibetan : སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, Wylie : _spyan ras gzigs_, THL : _Chenrézik_) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas . This bodhisattva is variably depicted and described and is portrayed in different cultures as either female or male. In Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
, Avalokiteśvara has become the somewhat different female figure Guanyin
Guanyin
. In Cambodia
Cambodia
, he appears as LOKEśVARA, and in Japan he is called KANZEON or KANNON.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Origin

* 2.1 Mahayana Account * 2.2 Theravāda Account * 2.3 Modern scholarship

* 3 Mantras and Dharanis * 4 Thousand-armed Avalokiteśvara * 5 Tibetan
Tibetan
Buddhist Beliefs Concerning Chenrezig * 6 Manifestations * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name _Avalokiteśvara_ combines the verbal prefix _ava_ "down", _lokita_, a past participle of the verb _lok_ "to notice, behold, observe", here used in an active sense; and finally _īśvara _, "lord", "ruler", "sovereign" or "master". In accordance with sandhi ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
rules of sound combination), _a_+_iśvara_ becomes _eśvara_. Combined, the parts mean "lord who gazes down (at the world)". The word _loka _ ("world") is absent from the name, but the phrase is implied. It does appear in the Cambodian form of the name, _Lokeśvara_.

The earliest translation of the name into Chinese by authors such as Xuanzang was _Guānzìzài_ (Chinese : 觀自在), not the form used in East Asian Buddhism
Buddhism
today, _GUANYIN _ (Chinese : 觀音). It was initially thought that this was due to a lack of fluency, as Guanzizai indicates the original Sanskrit
Sanskrit
form was actually _Avalokitasvara_, "who looks down upon sound" (i.e., the cries of sentient beings who need help). It is now understood that was the original form, and is also the origin of _Guanyin_ "Perceiving sound, cries", a translation furthered by the tendency of some Chinese translators, notably Kumārajīva , to use the variant 觀世音 _Guānshìyīn_ "who perceives the world's lamentations"—wherein _lok_ was read as simultaneously meaning both "to look" and "world" ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_loka_; Chinese : 世; pinyin : _shì_). The original form _Avalokitasvara_ appears in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
fragments of the fifth century.

This earlier Sanskrit
Sanskrit
name was supplanted by the form containing the ending _-īśvara_ "lord"; _Avalokiteśvara_ does not occur in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
before the seventh century.

The original meaning of the name fits the Buddhist understanding of the role of a bodhisattva. The reinterpretation presenting him as an _īśvara_ shows a strong influence of Hinduism , as the term _īśvara_ was usually connected to the Hindu notion of Vishnu
Vishnu
(in Vaishnavism ) or Śiva (in Shaivism ) as the Supreme Lord , Creator and Ruler of the world. Some attributes of such a god were transmitted to the bodhisattva, but the mainstream of those who venerated Avalokiteśvara upheld the Buddhist rejection of the doctrine of any creator god. 14th Dalai Lama, at his enthronement ceremony, February 22, 1940 in Lhasa, Tibet
Tibet

In Sanskrit, Avalokiteśvara is also referred to as _Padmapāni_ ("Holder of the Lotus") or _Lokeśvara_ ("Lord of the World"). In Tibetan
Tibetan
, Avalokiteśvara is _Chenrézik_, ( Tibetan
Tibetan
: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་) and is said to emanate as the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
the Karmapa and other high lamas . An etymology of the Tibetan
Tibetan
name Chenrézik is _spyan_ "eye", _ras_ "continuity" and _gzig_ "to look". This gives the meaning of one who always looks upon all beings (with the eye of compassion).

ORIGIN

Avalokiteśvara painting from a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
palm-leaf manuscript . India
India
, 12th century
12th century
.

MAHAYANA ACCOUNT

According to the _Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra _, the sun and moon are said to be born from Avalokiteśvara's eyes, Shiva
Shiva
from his brow, Brahma
Brahma
from his shoulders, Narayana
Narayana
from his heart, Sarasvati from his teeth, the winds from his mouth, the earth from his feet and the sky from his stomach. In this text and others, such as the _Longer Sukhavativyuha Sutra_, Avalokiteśvara is an attendant of Amitabha .

Some texts which mention Avalokiteśvara include:

* _ Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra _ * _ Lotus Sutra _ * _ Kāraṇḍavyūhasūtra _ * _ Heart Sutra (Heart Sūtra)_ * _ Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī Sutra_ * _ Eleven-Faced Avalokitesvara Heart Dharani Sutra _ * _Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra_

The _ Lotus Sutra _ is generally accepted to be the earliest literature teaching about the doctrines of Avalokiteśvara. These are found in the _Lotus Sutra_ chapter 25 (Chinese : 觀世音菩薩普門品). This chapter is devoted to Avalokiteśvara, describing him as a compassionate bodhisattva who hears the cries of sentient beings, and who works tirelessly to help those who call upon his name. A total of 33 different manifestations of Avalokiteśvara are described, including female manifestations, all to suit the minds of various beings. The chapter consists of both a prose and a verse section. This earliest source often circulates separately as its own sutra, called the _ Avalokiteśvara Sūtra_ (Chinese : 觀世音經; pinyin : _Guānshìyīn jīng_), and is commonly recited or chanted at Buddhist temples in East Asia.

When the Chinese monk Faxian traveled to Mathura in India
India
around 400 CE, he wrote about monks presenting offerings to Avalokiteśvara. When Xuanzang traveled to India
India
in the 7th century, he provided eyewitness accounts of Avalokiteśvara statues being venerated by devotees of all walks of life, from kings, to monks, to laypeople. Avalokiteśvara remained popular in India
India
until the 12th century
12th century
when Muslim
Muslim
invaders conquered the land and destroyed Buddhist monasteries. Avalokiteśvara / Padmapani, Ajanta Caves
Ajanta Caves
, India
India

In Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
and East Asia, Tangmi practices for the 18-armed form of Avalokiteśvara called Cundī are very popular. These practices have their basis in early Indian Vajrayana : her origins lie with a yakshini cult in Bengal and Orissa and her name in Sanskrit "connotes a prostitute or other woman of low caste but specifically denotes a prominent local ogress ... whose divinised form becomes the subject of an important Buddhist cult starting in the eighth century". The popularity of Cundī is attested by the three extant translations of the _Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra_ from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to Chinese, made from the end of the seventh century to the beginning of the eighth century. In late imperial China , these early esoteric traditions still thrived in Buddhist communities. Robert Gimello has also observed that in these communities, the esoteric practices of Cundī were extremely popular among both the populace and the elite.

In the Tiantai school, six forms of Avalokiteśvara are defined. Each of the bodhisattva's six qualities are said to break the hindrances respectively of the six realms of existence: hell-beings, pretas , animals, humans, asuras , and devas . Four-armed Tibetan
Tibetan
form of Avalokiteśvara.

THERAVāDA ACCOUNT

Bronze statue of Avalokiteśvara from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, ca. 750 CE

Veneration of Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
has continued to the present day in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
:

In times past both _Tantrayana_ and _Mahayana_ have been found in some of the _Theravada_ countries, but today the Buddhism
Buddhism
of Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia
Cambodia
is almost exclusively _Theravada_, based on the Pali
Pali
Canon. The only _Mahayana_ deity that has entered the worship of ordinary Buddhists in _Theravada_ countries is _ Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokitesvara_. In Ceylon he is known as _Natha-deva_ and mistaken by the majority for the Buddha yet to come, _Bodhisattva Maitreya_. The figure of _Avalokitesvara_ usually is found in the shrine room near the Buddha image.

In more recent times, some western-educated Theravādins have attempted to identify Nātha with Maitreya
Maitreya
Bodhisattva; however, traditions and basic iconography (including an image of Amitābha Buddha on the front of the crown) identify Nātha as Avalokiteśvara. Andrew Skilton writes:

... It is clear from sculptural evidence alone that the Mahāyāna was fairly widespread throughout , although the modern account of the history of Buddhism
Buddhism
on the island presents an unbroken and pure lineage of Theravāda. (One can only assume that similar trends were transmitted to other parts of Southeast Asia with Sri Lankan ordination lineages.) Relics of an extensive cult of Avalokiteśvara can be seen in the present-day figure of Nātha.

Avalokiteśvara is popularly worshiped in Myanmar
Myanmar
, where he is called Lokanat, and Thailand
Thailand
, where he is called Lokesvara. Wood carving of Lokanat at Shwenandaw Monastery , Mandalay
Mandalay
, Burma
Burma

MODERN SCHOLARSHIP

Avalokiteśvara is worshipped as Nātha in Sri Lanka. Tamil Buddhist tradition developed in Chola literature , such as in Buddamitra's _Virasoliyam_ , states that the Vedic
Vedic
sage Agastya learnt Tamil from the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokitesvara
Avalokitesvara
; the earlier Chinese traveler Xuanzang recorded the existence of a temple dedicated to Avalokitesvara
Avalokitesvara
in the South Indian hill Potalaka, a Sanskritzation of the Pothigai hill where Tamil Hindu tradition places Agastya having learnt the Tamil language from the deity Siva. Avalokitesvara
Avalokitesvara
worship gained popularity with the growth of the Abhayagiri Vihara 's Tamraparniyan Mahayana sect. Pothigai Malai in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
, proposed as the original Mount Potalaka in India
India

Western scholars have not reached a consensus on the origin of the reverence for Avalokiteśvara.

Some have suggested that Avalokiteśvara, along with many other supernatural beings in Buddhism, was a borrowing or absorption by Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
of one or more deities from Hinduism , in particular Shiva
Shiva
or Vishnu
Vishnu
, although the reason for this suggestion is because of the current name of the bodhisattva: _Avalokiteśvara_.

The Japanese scholar Shu Hikosaka on the basis of his study of Buddhist scriptures, ancient Tamil literary sources, as well as field survey, proposes the hypothesis that, the ancient mount Potalaka, the residence of Avalokiteśvara described in the _Gaṇḍavyūha Sūtra _ and Xuanzang ’s _ Great Tang Records on the Western Regions _, is the real mountain Pothigai in Ambasamudram , Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
, Tamil Nadu . Shu also says that mount Potalaka has been a sacred place for the people of South India
India
from time immemorial. It is the traditional residence of Siddhar Agastya , at Agastya Mala . With the spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
in the region beginning at the time of the great king Aśoka in the third century BCE, it became a holy place also for Buddhists who gradually became dominant as a number of their hermits settled there. The local people, though, mainly remained followers of the Hindu religion. The mixed Hindu-Buddhist cult culminated in the formation of the figure of Avalokiteśvara.

The name Lokeśvara should not be confused with that of Lokeśvararāja , the Buddha under whom Dharmakara became a monk and made forty-eight vows before becoming Amitābha .

MANTRAS AND DHARANIS

OṂ MAŅI PADME HǕṂ. The six syllable mantra of Avalokiteśvara written in the Tibetan alphabet .

Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
relates Avalokiteśvara to the six-syllable mantra oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ . In Tibetan
Tibetan
Buddhism
Buddhism
, due to his association with this mantra, one form of Avalokiteśvara is called _Ṣaḍākṣarī_ "Lord of the Six Syllables" in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. Recitation of this mantra along with prayer beads is the most popular religious practice in Tibetan
Tibetan
Buddhism. The connection between this famous mantra and Avalokiteśvara occurs for the first time in the _ Kāraṇḍavyūhasūtra _. This text is first dated to around the late 4th century CE to the early 5th century CE. In this sūtra, a bodhisattva is told by the Buddha that recitation of this mantra while focusing on the sound can lead to the attainment of eight hundred samādhis . The _Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra_ also features the first appearance of the dhāraṇī of Cundī , which occurs at the end of the sūtra text. After the bodhisattva finally attains samādhi with the mantra "oṃ maṇipadme hūṃ", he is then able to observe 77 koṭīs of fully enlightened buddhas replying to him in one voice with the Cundī Dhāraṇī: namaḥ saptānāṃ samyaksaṃbuddha koṭīnāṃ tadyathā, oṃ cale cule cunde svāhā.

In Shingon Buddhism
Buddhism
, the mantra for Avalokiteśvara is _On aruri kya sowa ka_ (Japanese : おん あるりきゃ そわか)

The Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī is an 82-syllable dhāraṇī for Avalokiteśvara.

THOUSAND-ARMED AVALOKITEśVARA

Thousand-armed Avalokiteśvara. Guanyin
Guanyin
women's vihara , Anhui
Anhui
, China

One prominent Buddhist story tells of Avalokiteśvara vowing never to rest until he had freed all sentient beings from saṃsāra . Despite strenuous effort, he realizes that still many unhappy beings were yet to be saved. After struggling to comprehend the needs of so many, his head splits into eleven pieces. Amitābha , seeing his plight, gives him eleven heads with which to hear the cries of the suffering. Upon hearing these cries and comprehending them, Avalokiteśvara attempts to reach out to all those who needed aid, but found that his two arms shattered into pieces. Once more, Amitābha comes to his aid and invests him with a thousand arms with which to aid the suffering multitudes.

The Bao\'en Temple located in northwestern Sichuan
Sichuan
has an outstanding wooden image of the Thousand-Armed Avalokiteśvara, an example of Ming dynasty decorative sculpture.

TIBETAN BUDDHIST BELIEFS CONCERNING CHENREZIG

Avalokiteśvara is an important deity in Tibetan
Tibetan
Buddhism
Buddhism
, and is regarded in the Vajrayana teachings as a Buddha.

In Tibetan
Tibetan
Buddhism, Tara came into existence from a single tear shed by Avalokiteśvara. When the tear fell to the ground it created a lake, and a lotus opening in the lake revealed Tara. In another version of this story, Tara emerges from the heart of Avalokiteśvara. In either version, it is Avalokiteśvara's outpouring of compassion which manifests Tara as a being

MANIFESTATIONS

Magnificent clay images of Amoghpasha Lokesvara flanked by Arya Tara and Bhrikuti Tara enshrined at the side wing of Vasuccha Shil Mahavihar, Guita Bahi, Patan : This set of images is popular in traditional monasteries of Kathmandu Valley , Nepal
Nepal
.

Avalokiteśvara has an extraordinarily large number of manifestations in different forms (including wisdom goddesses (vidyaas) directly associated with him in images and texts). Some of the more commonly mentioned forms include:

SANSKRIT MEANING DESCRIPTION

_Aryavalokitesvara_ Sacred Avalokitesvara The root form of the Bodhisattva

_Ekādaśamukha_ Eleven Faced Additional faces to teach all in 10 planes of existence

_Sahasra-bhuja Sahasra-netra_ Thousand-Armed, Thousand-Eyed Avalokitesvara Very popular form: sees and helps all

_Cintamāṇicakra_ Wish Fulfilling Avalokitesvara Holds the bejeweled cintamani wheel

_Hayagrīva_ Horse-necked one Wrathful form; simultaneously bodhisattva and a Wisdom King

_Cundi _ "prostitute or other woman of low caste" Portrayed with many arms

_Amoghapāśa_ Unfailing Rope Avalokitesvara
Avalokitesvara
with rope and net

_Bhrkuti_ Fierce-Eyed

_Pāndaravāsinī_ White and Pure

_Parnaśabarī_ Cloaked With Leaves

_Raktaṣadakṣarī_ Six Red Syllables

_Śvetabhagavatī_ White Lord

_Udakaśrī_ Auspicious Water

GALLERY

*

Gandhāran statue of Avalokiteśvara, abhaya-mudrā . 3rd century CE. *

Indian cave wall painting of Avalokiteśvara. Ajaṇṭā Caves , 6th century CE. *

Torso of Avalokiteśvara from Sanchi in the Victoria and Albert Museum *

Cambodian statue of Avalokiteśvara. Sandstone, 7th century CE. *

Avalokiteshvara sandstone statue, late 7th century CE. *

Padmapani holding a lotus. 8th- 9th century
9th century
Sailendran art, Plaosan temple, Java
Java
, Indonesia
Indonesia
. *

Eight-armed Avalokiteshvara, ca. 12th-13th century (Bàyon). The Walters Art Museum . *

Avalokiteshvara from Bingin Jungut, Musi Rawas , South Sumatra. Srivijayan art (c. 8th- 9th century
9th century
CE) *

The bronze torso statue of Padmapani, 8th century CE Srivijayan art, Chaiya District , Surat Thani Province , Southern Thailand. *

The Privy Seal of King Ananda Mahidol of Thailand
Thailand
show a picture of a Bodhisattva, based on a Srivijayan sculpture of Avalokiteśvara Padmapani which was found at Chaiya District , Surat Thani Province . *

The stone head of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, discovered in Aceh
Aceh
. Srivijayan art, estimated 9th century
9th century
CE. *

Malaysian statue of Avalokiteśvara. Bidor , 8th- 9th century
9th century
CE. *

Chinese statue of Avalokiteśvara looking out over the sea, c. 1025 CE. *

Chinese hanging scroll depicting Shancai , Avalokiteśvara and Longnü , Yuan Dynasty . *

Korean painting of Avalokiteśvara. Kagami Jinjya, Japan, 1310 CE.

*

Nepalese statue of Avalokiteśvara with six arms. 14th century CE.

*

Japanese painting of meditating. 16th century CE. *

Avalokiteśvara, crimson and gilded wood. Restored in 1656 CE. Bút Tháp Temple , Bắc Ninh Province , Vietnam
Vietnam
*

Tibetan
Tibetan
statue of Avalokiteśvara with eleven faces. *

Malaysia
Malaysia
Kek Lok Si Temple in Air Itam, Penang
Penang
. The world tallest octagonal pavilion to shelter the Goddess of Mercy statue. *

Esoteric Cundī form of Avalokiteśvara with eighteen arms. *

Thousand-armed Avalokiteśvara bronze statue from Tibet, circa 1750. Birmingham Museum of Art *

Mongolian statue of Avalokiteśvara ( Migjid Janraisig ). Tallest indoor statue in the world, 26.5-meter-high, 1996 _rebuilt_, (1913)

*

Avalokiteśvara in the form of Cintamani Wheel Avalokiteśvara. A dhāraṇī written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in the Siddhaṃ script behind. Singapore
Singapore
. *

Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokitesvara, Ming Dynasty, Guimet Museum *

Avalokitesvara
Avalokitesvara
Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
in Daan Park, Taipei, Taiwan *

Statue of Avalokiteśvara, date unknown, bronze and gold *

Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokiteśvara from the Museum of Vietnamese History *

*

Painting of Avalokitesvara
Avalokitesvara
Bodhisattva. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra
Sutra
manuscript written in the Ranjana script. Nalanda, Bihar, India. Circa 700-1100 CE

SEE ALSO

* Guanyin
Guanyin
* Ishvara * Pure Land Buddhism
Buddhism
* Vishnu
Vishnu

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Leighton, Taigen Dan (1998). _ Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Archetypes: Classic Buddhist Guides to Awakening and Their Modern Expression_. New York: Penguin Arkana. pp. 158–205. ISBN 0140195564 . OCLC 37211178 .

* ^ Studholme p. 52-54, 57. * ^ _A_ _B_ Pine, Red . _The Heart Sutra: The Womb of the Buddhas_ (2004) Shoemaker 7 Hoard. ISBN 1-59376-009-4 pg 44-45 * ^ Lokesh Chandra (1984). "The Origin of Avalokitesvara" (PDF). _Indologica Taurinenaia_. International Association of Sanskrit Studies. XIII (1985-1986): 189–190. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 6, 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014. * ^ Mironov, N. D. (1927). "Buddhist Miscellanea". _Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland_. 2: 241–252. JSTOR 25221116 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Studholme p. 52-57. * ^ Studholme p. 30-31, 37-52. * ^ "From Birth to Exile". The Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-17. * ^ Martin, Michele (2003). "His Holiness the 17th Gyalwa Karmapa". _Music in the Sky: The Life, Art, and Teachings of the 17th Karmapa_. Karma Triyana Dharmachakra. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-17. * ^ "Glossary". Dhagpo Kundreul Ling. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-10-17. * ^ Bokar Rinpoche
Rinpoche
(1991). _Chenrezig Lord of Love - Principles and Methods of Deity Meditation_. San Francisco, California: Clearpoint Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-9630371-0-2 . * ^ Studholme, Alexander (2002). _The Origins of Om Manipadme Hum: A Study of the Karandavyuha Sutra._ State University of New York Press. p. 39-40. * ^ Studholme, Alexander (2002). _The Origins of Om Manipadme Hum: A Study of the Karandavyuha Sutra._ State University of New York Press. p. 49-50. * ^ Huntington, John (2003). _The Circle of Bliss: Buddhist Meditational Art_: p. 188 * ^ Baroni, Helen (2002). _The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Zen Buddhism_: p. 15 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Ko Kok Kiang. _Guan Yin: Goddess of Compassion._ 2004. p. 10 * ^ _A_ _B_ Lopez 2013 , p. 204. * ^ _A_ _B_ Studholme, Alexander (2002). _The Origins of Oṃ Maṇipadme Hūṃ: A Study of the Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra_: p. 175 * ^ Jiang, Wu (2008). _Enlightenment in Dispute: The Reinvention of Chan Buddhism
Buddhism
in Seventeenth-Century China_: p. 146 * ^ Baruah, Bibhuti. _Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism._ 2008. p. 137 * ^ "Art & Archaeology - Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
- Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokiteshvara". * ^ Skilton, Andrew. _A Concise History of Buddhism._ 2004. p. 151 * ^ Iravatham Mahadevan (2003), EARLY TAMIL EPIGRAPHY, Volume 62. pp. 169 * ^ Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri (1963) Development of Religion in South India
India
- Page 15 * ^ Layne Ross Little (2006) Bowl Full of Sky: Story-making and the Many Lives of the Siddha Bhōgar pp. 28 * ^ Hirosaka, Shu. _The Potiyil Mountain in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and the origin of the Avalokiteśvara cult_ * ^ Läänemets, Märt (2006). " Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokiteśvara in the Gandavyuha Sutra". _Chung-Hwa Buddhist Studies_. Retrieved 2009-09-12.

* ^ Studholme, Alexander (2002). _The Origins of Oṃ Maṇipadme Hūṃ: A Study of the Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra_: p. 2 * ^ Studholme, Alexander (2002) _The Origins of Oṃ Maṇipadme Hūṃ: A Study of the Kāraṇḍavyūha sūtra_: p. 17 * ^ Studholme, Alexander (2002). _The Origins of Oṃ Maṇipadme Hūṃ: A Study of the Kāraṇḍavyūha Sūtra_: p. 106 * ^ "Saptakoṭibuddhamātṛ Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra". Lapis Lazuli Texts. Retrieved 24 July 2013. * ^ Venerable Shangpa Rinpoche. "Arya Avalokitesvara
Avalokitesvara
and the Six Syllable Mantra". Dhagpo Kagyu Ling. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-17. * ^ Guxi, Pan (2002). _Chinese Architecture -- The Yuan and Ming Dynasties_ (English ed.). Yale University Press. pp. 245–246. ISBN 0-300-09559-7 . * ^ Bao Ern Temple, Pingwu, Sichuan
Sichuan
Province Archived 2012-10-15 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Еше-Лодой Рипоче. Краткое объяснение сущности Ламрима. Спб.-Улан-Удэ, 2002. С. 19 (in Russian) * ^ Sakyapa Sonam Gyaltsen (1996). _The Clear Mirror: A traditional account of Tibet's Golden Age_. Snow Lion Publications. pp. 64–65. ISBN 1-55939-048-4 . * ^ Miranda Eberle Shaw (2006). _Buddhist goddesses of India_. Princeton University Press. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-691-12758-3 . * ^ Bokar Rinpoche
Rinpoche
(1991). _Chenrezig Lord of Love - Principles and Methods of Deity Meditation_. San Francisco, California: Clearpoint Press. ISBN 0-9630371-0-2 .

REFERENCES

* Buswell, Robert ; Lopez, Donald S. (2013). _The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism_. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15786-3 . * Ducor, Jérôme (2010). _Le regard de Kannon_ (in French). Gollion: Infolio éditions / Genève: Musée d\'ethnographie de Genève . p. 104. ISBN 978-2-88474-187-3 . ill. colour * Getty, Alice (1914). _The gods of northern Buddhism: their history, iconography and progressive evolution through the northern Buddhist countries_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Holt, John (1991). _Buddha in the Crown: Avalokitesvara
Avalokitesvara
in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka_. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195064186 . * McDermott, James P. (1999). "Buddha in the Crown: Avalokitesvara in the Buddhist Traditions of Sri Lanka". _Journal of the American Oriental Society_. 119 (1): 195–196. * Studholme, Alexander (2002). _The Origins of Om Manipadme Hum_. Albany NY: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-5389-8 . * Tsugunari, Kubo; Akira (tr.), Yuyama (2007). _The Lotus Sutra_ (PDF) (Revised 2nd ed.). Berkeley, Calif.: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. ISBN 978-1-886439-39-9 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-02. * Yü, Chün-fang (2001). _Kuan-Yin: The Chinese Transformation of Avalokitesvara_. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12029-6 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to AVALOKITESHVARA _.

_ Wikiversity has learning resources about YOGA ORACLE#81 THE BLESSING OF THE KARMAPA (MEDITATING ON A THANKA OF AVALOKITESVARA) _

* The Origin of Avalokiteshvara of Potala * An Explanation of the Name Avalokiteshvara * The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
of Compassion and Spiritual Emanation of Amitabha - from Buddhanature.com * Depictions at the Bayon in Cambodia
Cambodia
of Avalokiteshvara as the Khmer King Jayavarman VII * Mantra Avalokitesvara * Avalokiteshvara at Brittanica.com * Chenrezig Tibetan
Tibetan
Buddhist Center of Philadelphia