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The Autumn Harvest Uprising (simplified Chinese: 秋收起义; traditional Chinese: 秋收起義; pinyin: Qīushōu Qǐyì) was an insurrection that took place in Hunan and Jiangxi provinces, China, on September 7, 1927, led by Mao Zedong, who established a short-lived Hunan Soviet.

After initial success, the uprising was put down. Mao continued to believe in the rural strategy but concluded that it would be necessary to form a party army.