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Autonomous prefectures (Chinese: 自治州; pinyin: Zìzhìzhōu) are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the prefectural level, with either ethnic minorities forming over 50% of the population or being the historic home of significant minorities. All autonomous prefectures are mostly dominated, in population, by the Han Chinese. The official name of an autonomous prefecture includes the most dominant minority in that region, sometimes two, rarely three. For example, a Kazakh (Kazak in official naming system) prefecture may be called Kazak Zizhizhou. Like all other prefectural level divisions, autonomous prefectures are divided into county level divisions. There is one exception: Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture contains two prefectures of its own. Under the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, autonomous prefectures cannot be abolished.

Contents

1 List of autonomous prefectures 2 Ethnic composition of autonomous prefectures 3 Former autonomous prefectures of China 4 Administrative prefecture level units with a population of 30% or more of ethnic minorities 5 See also 6 External links

List of autonomous prefectures[edit]

Province Name Simplified Chinese and Pinyin Designated minority Local name Capital

Gansu Linxia 临夏回族自治州 Línxià Huízú Zìzhìzhōu Hui (The Hui speak Chinese) Xiao'erjing: لٍشِا جُوِذُو ذِجِجِوْ‬ Linxia

Gansu Gannan 甘南藏族自治州 Gānnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Tibetan Tibetan: ཀན་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Kan-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Hezuo

Guizhou Qiandongnan 黔东南苗族侗族自治州 Qiándōngnán Miáozú Dòngzú Zìzhìzhōu Miao and Dong Hmong: Cheej Toob Naj Mioj Txhwj Toom Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb Dong: ? Kaili

Guizhou Qiannan 黔南布依族苗族自治州 Qiánnán Bùyīzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu Buyei & Miao Buyei: Qianfnanf Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz ziqziqzouy Hmong: Cheej Naj Pwm Yi Txhwj Mioj Txwj Txim Tsim Tsawb Duyun

Guizhou Qianxinan 黔西南布依族苗族自治州 Qiánxī'nán Bùyīzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu Buyei & Miao Buyei: Qianfxiynanf Buxqyaix Buxyeeuz Ziqziqzouy Hmong: Cheej Xyi Naj Pwm Yi Txhwj Mioj Txwj Txim Tsim Tsawb Xingyi

Hubei Enshi 恩施土家族苗族自治州 Ēnshī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu Tujia & Miao Tujia: ? Hmong: EE Si Thws Ca Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb Enshi

Hunan Xiangxi 湘西土家族苗族自治州 Xiāngxī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu Tujia & Miao Tujia: ? Hmong: Xyaa Xyi Thws Ca Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb Jishou

Jilin Yanbian 延边朝鲜族自治州 Yánbiān Cháoxiǎnzú Zìzhìzhōu Korean Korean: 연변 조선족 자치주 Yeonbyeon Joseonjok Jachiju Yanji

Qinghai Haibei 海北藏族自治州 Hǎiběi Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Tibetan Tibetan: མཚོ་བྱང་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Mtsho-byang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Haiyan County

Qinghai Hainan 海南藏族自治州 Hǎinán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Tibetan Tibetan: མཚོ་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Mtsho-lho Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Gonghe County

Qinghai Huangnan 黄南藏族自治州 Huángnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Tibetan Tibetan: རྨ་ལྷོ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Rma-lho Bod-rigs rang skyong khul Tongren County

Qinghai Golog 果洛藏族自治州 Guǒluò Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Tibetan Tibetan: མགོ་ལོག་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Mgo-log Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Maqên County

Qinghai Yushu 玉树藏族自治州 Yùshù Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Tibetan Tibetan: ཡུལ་ཤུལ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Yul-shul Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Yushu

Qinghai Haixi 海西蒙古族藏族自治州 Hǎixī Měnggǔzú Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Mongol & Tibetan Mongolian: ᠬᠠᠶᠢᠰᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠲᠥᠪᠡᠳ ᠦᠨᠳᠦᠰᠦᠲᠡᠨ ᠦ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠧᠦ Borotal a-yin mongγol ebereen öbertegen zasaqu ǰuu Tibetan: མཚོ་ནུབ་སོག་རིགས་ཆ་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Mtsho-nub Sog-rigs dang Bod-rigs rang-skyong-khul Delingha

Sichuan Ngawa 阿坝藏族羌族自治州 Ābà Zàngzú Qiāngzú Zìzhìzhōu Tibetan & Qiang Tibetan: རྔ་བ་བོད་རིགས་ཆ་བ༹ང་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Rnga-ba Bod-rigs dang Chavang-rigs rang skyong khul Qiangic: Ggabba Shbea Rrmea nyujugvez zhou Barkam

Sichuan Garzê 甘孜藏族自治州 Gānzī Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Tibetan Tibetan: དཀར་མཛེས་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Dkar-mdzes Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul Kangding

Sichuan Liangshan 凉山彝族自治州 Liángshān Yízú Zìzhìzhōu Yi Yi: Niepsha Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho Xichang

Xinjiang Kizilsu 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州 Kèzīlèsū Kē'ěrkèzī Zìzhìzhōu Kyrgyz Kyrgyz: Кызылсуу Кыргыз аптоном обласы‬ Kızılsuu Kırgız avtonom oblastı Artux

Xinjiang Bortala 博尔塔拉蒙古自治州 Bó'ěrtǎlā Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu Mongol Mongolian: ᠪᠣᠷᠣᠲᠠᠯ᠎ᠠ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠧᠦ Borotala mongγol ebereen zasaqu ǰuu Bole

Xinjiang Changji 昌吉回族自治州 Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu Hui (The Hui speak Chinese) Xiao'erjing: چْاکِ خُوِذُوْ ذِجِجِوْ‬ Changji

Xinjiang Bayingolin 巴音郭楞蒙古自治州 Bāyīnguōlèng Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu Mongol Mongolian: ᠪᠠᠶᠠᠨᠭᠣᠣᠯ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠵᠧᠦ Bayangol mongγol ebereen zasaqu ǰuu Korla

Xinjiang Ili (Altay) (Tacheng) 伊犁哈萨克自治州 Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu (阿勒泰地区) (Ālètài Dìqū) (塔城地区) (Tǎchéng Dìqū) Kazakh Kazakh: ىله قازاق اۆتونومىيالى وبلىسى‬ İle Qazaq awtonomïyalıq oblısı (Kazakh: ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى‬) (Altay aymağı) (Kazakh: تارباعاتاي ايماعى‬) (Tarbağatay aymağı) Yining (Altay) (Tacheng)

Yunnan Dehong 德宏傣族景颇族自治州 Déhóng Dǎizú Jǐngpōzú Zìzhìzhōu Dai & Jingpo Tai Nüa - Zaiwa:Sikung Sam Zaizo Byumyu Yumsing Upkang Mau Mang

Yunnan Nujiang 怒江傈僳族自治州 Nùjiāng Lìsùzú Zìzhìzhōu Lisu Lisu: Nolmut lisu shit jilqait guatshit zhou Lushui County

Yunnan Dêqên 迪庆藏族自治州 Díqìng Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu Tibetan Tibetan: བདེ་ཆེན་བོད་རིགས་རང་སྐྱོང་ཁུལ་ Bde-chen Bod-rigs rang-skyong khul Shangri-La

Yunnan Dali 大理白族自治州 Dàlǐ Báizú Zìzhìzhōu Bai Bai: Darl•lit Baif•cuf zirl•zirl•zox Dali

Yunnan Chuxiong 楚雄彝族自治州 Chǔxióng Yízú Zìzhìzhōu Yi Yi: ? ? Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho Chuxiong

Yunnan Honghe 红河哈尼族彝族自治州 Hónghé Hānízú Yízú Zìzhìzhōu Hani & Yi Yi: ? ? ? Nuosu Zytjiejux dde Zho Hani: Haoqhoqzel Mengzi

Yunnan Wenshan 文山壮族苗族自治州 Wenshān Zhuàngzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu Zhuang & Miao Zhuang: Munzsanh Bouxcuengh Myauzcuz Swcicouh Hmong: Veej Sa Tsuaam Txhwj Mioj Txhwj Txim Tsim Tsawb Wenshan

Yunnan Xishuangbanna 西双版纳傣族自治州 Xīshuāngbǎnnà Dǎizú Zìzhìzhōu Dai Tai Lü: Jinghong

Ethnic composition of autonomous prefectures[edit]

Note: * - denotes as the second titular ethnic group

Autonomous Prefecture Year created Province Titular ethnic group Other minorities Han % Total population

% 2000 % 2010

% 2000 % 2010 2000 2010

Bayingolin Prefecture 1954 Xinjiang Mongol 3.40 3.40 Uyghur 31.83 31.83 59.29 59.29 1,323,028

Bortala Prefecture 1954 Xinjiang Mongol 5,64 5.66 Uyghur 12,53 13.32 67,19 64.96 482,615

Changji Prefecture 1954 Xinjiang Hui 11.55 9.52 Kazakh 7.98 9.33 75.14 75.31 1,412,844

Chuxiong Prefecture 1958 Yunnan Yi 26.31 26.70 Lisu 2.03 1.98 67.45 66.94 2,615,109

Dali Prefecture 1956 Yunnan Bai 32.8 32.19 Yi 12.94 13.02 50.35 50.69 3,525,706

Dehong Prefecture 1953 Yunnan Dai 30,14 28.88 Jingpo* 11,53 11.09 50,66 51.93 1,124,432

Dêqên Prefecture 1957 Yunnan Tibetan 33.12 32.36 Lisu 27.78 26.72 16.39 18.34 357,528

Enshi Prefecture 1983 Hubei Tujia 45,0 47.50 Miao* 5,45 5.01 47,24 45.32 3,976,081

Gannan Prefecture 1953 Gansu Tibetan 51.44 54.64 Hui 6.43 6.25 41.75 38.70 723,521

Garzê Prefecture 1950 Sichuan Tibetan 78.37 78.29 Yi 2.56 2.66 18.24 18.24 1,060,632

Golog Prefecture 1954 Qinghai Tibetan 91.63 91.86 Hui 1.11 0.96 6.59 6.57 173,541

Haibei Prefecture 1953 Qinghai Tibetan 24.15 24.36 Hui 30.58 31.52 36.63 35.88 283,230

Hainan Prefecture 1953 Qinghai Tibetan 62.77 66.31 Hui 6.97 6.84 28.06 24.84 446,849

Haixi Prefecture 1954 Qinghai Mongol 7.23 5.53 Tibetan* 12.16 10.93 64.95 66.01 390,743

Honghe Prefecture 1957 Yunnan Hani 16.6 17.55 Yi* 23.57 23.19 44.31 42.85 4,408,699

Huangnan Prefecture 1953 Qinghai Tibetan 66.32 68.55 Mongol 13.54 13.98 7.54 6.08 254,033

Ili Prefecture 1954 Xinjiang Kazakh

21.53 Uyghur

26.88

35.22 2,814,980

Kizilsu Prefecture 1954 Xinjiang Kyrgyz 28.32 27.32 Uyghur 63.98 64.68 6.41 6.78 539,849

Liangshan Prefecture 1952 Sichuan Yi 44,43 49.13 Tibetan 1,49 1.39 51,97 47.55 4,789,421

Linxia Prefecture 1956 Gansu Hui

31.59 Dongxiang

25.99

39.70 2,103,259

Ngawa Prefecture 1953 Sichuan Tibetan 53,72 54.50 Qiang* 18,28 17.58 24,69 24.56 898,846

Nujiang Prefecture 1954 Yunnan Lisu 47.13 48.21 Bai 26.97 26.04 13.13 12.35 520,765

Qiandongnan Prefecture 1956 Guizhou Miao 41.48 41.57 Dong* 31.4 29.02 19.3 21.73 4,535,015

Qiannan Prefecture 1956 Guizhou Buyei 32.46 31.22 Miao* 13.37 12.69 43.37 44.84 4,037,887

Qianxinan Prefecture 1982 Guizhou Buyei 30,04 27.56 Miao* 7,51 7.08 57,53 60.62 3,398,147

Wenshan Prefecture 1958 Yunnan Miao 12,94 13.68 Zhuang* 30,04 29.20 41,99 42.69 3,703,008

Xiangxi Prefecture 1957 Hunan Tujia

42.73 Miao*

33.85

22.85 2,547,833

Xishuangbanna Prefecture 1953 Yunnan Dai 29.89 27.89 Hani 18.73 19.01 29.11 30.03 942,844

Yanbian Prefecture 1952 Jilin Korean 36,26 32.45 Manchu 2,58 2.52 60,70 64.55 2,190,763

Yushu Prefecture 1951 Qinghai Tibetan

96.49 Hui

0.22

3.09 373,427

Former autonomous prefectures of China[edit]

Hainan Li and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (1952–1988) in Guangdong

Administrative prefecture level units with a population of 30% or more of ethnic minorities[edit]

Excluding prefecture level units of autonomous regions in 2000.

Hebei: Chengde (Han - 55.32%, Manchu - 39.87%) Liaoning: Benxi (Han - 66.84%, Manchu - 30.22%), Dandong(Han - 64.11%, Manchu - 32.99%) Hunan: Zhangjiajie (Tujia - 68.40%, Han - 22.81%), Huaihua (Han - 61.33%, Dong - 17.42%, Miao - 15.63%) Guizhou: Anshun (Han - 61.6%, Buyei - 16.92%, Miao - 14.27%), Tongren (Tujia - 37.81%, Han - 31.76%, Miao - 14.87%, Dong - 11.41%) Yunnan: Yuxi (Han - 68,18%, Yi - 19,32%), Pu'er (Han - 40,92%, Hani - 16,98%, Yi - 16.58%, Lahu - 11.47%), Lijiang (Han - 42.71%, Nasi 20.51%, Yi - 18.68%, Lisu - 9.62%), Lincang (Han - 61.22%, Dai - 15.77%, Lahu and Va - 9.76%) Qinghai: Haidong (Han - 56.33%, Hui - 20.38%, Tibetan - 9.2%, Tu - 8.06%)

See also[edit]

List of prefecture-level divisions of China Tusi Native Chieftain System Autonomous regions of China

External links[edit]

Regional Autonomy for Ethnic Minorities in China

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Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

English terms

Common English terms1

Area

Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area

Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area

Urban area

Canton

Half-canton

Borough

County borough Metropolitan borough

Capital

Federal capital Imperial capital

City

City state Autonomous city Charter city Independent city Incorporated city Imperial city Free imperial city Royal free city

Community

Autonomous community Residential community

County

Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county

Non-metropolitan

Viscountcy

Country

Overseas country

Department

Overseas department

District

Capital district City district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district

Non-metropolitan district

Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special district

Division

Census division Police division Subdivision

Municipality

City municipality County municipality

Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality

Direct-controlled municipality District municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality

Prefecture

Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture

Province

Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province

Region

Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special administrative region Statistical region Subregion

Reserve

Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve

State

Federal state Free state Sovereign state

Territory

Capital territory

Federal capital territory

Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory

Town

Census town Market town

Township

Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township

Unit

Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit

Zone

Economic zone

Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special economic zone

Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone

Other English terms

Current

Alpine resort Bailiwick Banner

Autonomous

Block Cadastre Circle Circuit Colony Commune Condominium Constituency Duchy Eldership Emirate Federal dependency Governorate Hamlet Ilkhanate Indian reservation Manor

Royal

Muftiate Neighbourhood Parish Periphery Precinct Principality Protectorate Quarter Regency Autonomous republic Riding Sector

Autonomous

Shire Sultanate Suzerainty Townland Village

Administrative Summer

Ward

Historical

Agency Barony Burgh Exarchate Hide Hundred Imperial Circle March Monthon Presidency Residency Roman diocese Seat Tenth Tithing

Non-English or loanwords

Current

Amt Bakhsh Barangay Bezirk Regierungsbezirk Comune Frazione Fu Gemeinde Județ Kunta / kommun

Finland Sweden

Län Località Megye Muban Oblast

Autonomous

Okrug Ostān Poblacion Purok Shahrestān Sum Sýsla Tehsil Vingtaine

Historical

Commote Gau Heerlijkheid Köping Maalaiskunta Nome

Egypt Greece

Pagus Pargana Plasă Satrapy Socken Subah Syssel Zhou

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Arabic terms for country subdivisions

First-level

Muhafazah (محافظة governorate) Wilayah (ولاية province) Mintaqah (منطقة region) Mudiriyah (مديرية directorate) Imarah (إمارة emirate) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Shabiyah (شعبية "popularate")

Second / third-level

Mintaqah (منطقة region) Qadaa (قضاء district) Nahiyah (ناحية subdistrict) Markaz (مركز district) Mutamadiyah (معتمدية "delegation") Daerah/Daïra (دائرة circle) Liwa (لواء banner / sanjak)

City / township-level

Amanah (أمانة municipality) Baladiyah (بلدية municipality) Ḥai (حي neighborhood / quarter) Mahallah (محلة) Qarya (قرية) Sheyakhah (شياخة "neighborhood subdivision")

English translations given are those most commonly used.

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French terms for country subdivisions

arrondissement département préfecture subprefectures

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Greek terms for country subdivisions

Modern

apokentromenes dioikiseis / geniki dioikisis§ / diamerisma§ / periphereia nomos§ / periphereiaki enotita demos / eparchia§ / koinotita§

Historical

archontia/archontaton bandon demos despotaton dioikesis doukaton droungos eparchia exarchaton katepanikion kephalatikion kleisoura meris naukrareia satrapeia strategis thema toparchia tourma

§ signifies a defunct institution

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Portuguese terms for country subdivisions

Regional subdivisions

Estado Distrito federal Província Região Distrito Comarca Capitania

Local subdivisions

Município Concelho Freguesia Comuna Circunscrição

Settlements

Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar

Historical subdivisions in italics.

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Slavic terms for country subdivisions

Current

dzielnica gmina krai kraj krajina / pokrajina městys obec oblast / oblast' / oblasti / oblys / obwód / voblast' okręg okres okrug opština / općina / občina / obshtina osiedle powiat / povit raion selsoviet / silrada sołectwo voivodeship / vojvodina županija

Historical

darugha gromada guberniya / gubernia jurydyka khutor obshchina okolia opole pogost prowincja sorok srez starostwo / starostva uyezd volost ziemia župa

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Spanish terms for country subdivisions

National, Federal

Comunidad autónoma Departamento Distrito federal Estado Provincia Región

Regional, Metropolitan

Cantón Comarca Comuna Corregimiento Delegación Distrito Mancomunidad Merindad Municipalidad Municipio Parroquia

Ecuador Spain

Urban, Rural

Aldea Alquería Anteiglesia Asentamiento

Asentamiento informal Pueblos jóvenes

Barrio Campamento Caserío Ciudad

Ciudad autónoma

Colonia Lugar Masía Pedanía Población Ranchería Sitio Vereda Villa Village (Pueblito/Pueblo)

Historical subdivisions in italics.

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Turkish terms for country subdivisions

Modern

il (province) ilçe (district) şehir (city) kasaba (town) belediye (municipality) belde (community) köy (village) mahalle (neighbourhood/quarter)

Historical

ağalık (feudal district) bucak (subdistrict) beylerbeylik (province) kadılık (subprovince) kaza (sub-province) hidivlik (viceroyalty) mutasarrıflık (subprovince) nahiye (nahiyah) paşalık (province) reya (Romanian principalities) sancak (prefecture) vilayet (province) voyvodalık (Romanian provinces)

1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics. See also: Census division, Electoral district, Political division, and List of administrative di

.