In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy,
autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Autonomous organizations or institutions are independent or
Autonomy can also be defined from human resource
perspective and it means a level of discretion granted to an employee
in his or her work. In such cases, autonomy is known to bring some
sense of job satisfaction among the employees.
Autonomy is a term that
is also widely used and in the field of medicine. As a matter of fact,
personal autonomy is greatly recognized and valued in health care.
3.1 According to Kant
3.2 According to Nietzsche
3.3 According to Piaget
3.4 According to Kohlberg
4 Child development
5.1 The disestablishment process
7 International human rights law
8 Celebrity culture on teenage autonomy
10 Various uses
11 See also
14 External links
In the sociology of knowledge, a branch of sociology, a controversy
over the boundaries of autonomy stopped at the concept of relative
autonomy, until a typology of autonomy was created and developed
within science and technology studies. According to it, the
contemporary form of science's existing autonomy is the reflexive
autonomy: actors and structures within the scientific field are able
to translate or to reflect diverse themes presented by social and
political fields, as well as influence them regarding the thematic
choices on research projects.
Institutional autonomy is having the capacities as a legislator to be
able to implant and pursuit official goals. The institutions are
responsible for finding the right amount of resources or modify their
current plans, programmes, courses, responsibilities, and services in
order to be able to have the means fit the end. However, in order
to do so, they must counter the different obstacles that can occur
such as social pressure and socioeconomic difficulties. From a
legislator point of view, to increase institutional autonomy
conditions of self-management[disambiguation needed] and institutional
self-governance must be put in place. An increase in leadership and a
redistribution of the responsibilities of decision-making would be
beneficial to the research of resources.
Autonomy was often seen as a synonym of
self-determination and the government feared that it would lead
institutions to an irredentist or secessionist state. However,
autonomy should be seen as the solution to the struggles of
Self-determination is a movement toward
independent whereas autonomy is a way to accommodate the separatist in
Institutional autonomy has been the answer to different
conflicts regarding minorities and ethnic occurring in a society.
Allowing more autonomy to different groups and institutions help
create diplomatic relationships with them and the government.
In governmental parlence, autonomy refers to self-governance. An
example of an autonomous jurisdiction was the former United States
governance of the Philippine Islands. The Philippine
Autonomy Act of
1916 provided the framework for the creation of an autonomous
government under which the
Filipino people had broader domestic
autonomy than previously, although it reserved certain privileges to
United States to protect its sovereign rights and interests.
Another example was the status of
Kosovo as the Socialist Autonomous
Kosovo under the former Yugoslav government of Marshal
Autonomy is a key concept that has a broad impact on different fields
of philosophy. In metaphysical philosophy, the concept of autonomy is
referenced in discussions about free will, fatalism, determinism, and
agency. In How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time,
Iain King developed an '
Autonomy Principle', which he
defines as "Let people choose for themselves, unless we know their
interests better than they can." King argues it is not enough to
know someone else's interests better than the person; autonomy should
only be infringed if a person is unable to know their own interests on
a particular matter. In moral philosophy, autonomy refers to
subjecting oneself to objective moral law.
According to Kant
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) defined autonomy by three themes regarding
contemporary ethics. Firstly, autonomy as the right for one to make
their own decisions excluding any interference from others. Secondly,
autonomy as the capacity to make such decisions through one’s own
independence of mind and after personal reflection. Thirdly, as an
ideal way of living life autonomously. In summary, autonomy is the
moral right one possesses, or the capacity we have in order to think
and make decisions for oneself providing some degree of control or
power over the events that unfold within one’s everyday life.
The context in which Kant addresses autonomy is in regards to moral
theory, asking both foundational and abstract questions. He believed
that in order for there to be morality, there must be autonomy. He
breaks down autonomy into two distinct components. “Auto” can be
defined as the negative form of independence, or to be free in a
negative sense. This is the aspect where decisions are made on your
own. Whereas, “nomos” is the positive sense, a freedom or
lawfulness, where you are choosing a law to follow. Kantian autonomy
also provides a sense of rational autonomy, simply meaning one
rationally possesses the motivation to govern their own life. Rational
autonomy entails making your own decisions but it cannot be done
solely in isolation[disambiguation needed]. Cooperative rational
interactions are required to both develop and exercise our ability to
live in a world with others.
Kant argued that morality presupposes this autonomy (German:
Autonomie) in moral agents, since moral requirements are expressed in
categorical imperatives. An imperative is categorical if it issues a
valid command independent of personal desires or interests that would
provide a reason for obeying the command. It is hypothetical if the
validity of its command, if the reason why one can be expected to obey
it, is the fact that one desires or is interested in something further
that obedience to the command would entail. "Don't speed on the
freeway if you don't want to be stopped by the police" is a
hypothetical imperative. "It is wrong to break the law, so don't speed
on the freeway" is a categorical imperative. The hypothetical command
not to speed on the freeway is not valid for you if you do not care
whether you are stopped by the police. The categorical command is
valid for you either way. Autonomous moral agents can be expected to
obey the command of a categorical imperative even if they lack a
personal desire or interest in doing so. It remains an open question
whether they will, however.
The Kantian concept of autonomy is often misconstrued, leaving out the
important point about the autonomous agent's self-subjection to the
moral law. It is thought that autonomy is fully explained as the
ability to obey a categorical command independently of a personal
desire or interest in doing so—or worse, that autonomy is "obeying"
a categorical command independently of a natural desire or interest;
and that heteronomy, its opposite, is acting instead on personal
motives of the kind referenced in hypothetical imperatives.
In his Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, Kant applied the
concept of autonomy also to define the concept of personhood and human
dignity. Autonomy, along with rationality, are seen by Kant as the two
criteria for a meaningful life. Kant would consider a life lived
without these not worth living; it would be a life of value equal to
that of a plant or insect. According to Kant autonomy is part of
the reason that we hold others morally accountable for their actions.
Human actions are morally praise- or blame-worthy in virtue of our
autonomy. Non- autonomous beings such as plants or animals are not
blameworthy due to their actions being non-autonomous. Kant’s
position on crime and punishment is influenced by his views on
autonomy. Brainwashing or drugging criminals into being law-abiding
citizens would be immoral as it would not be respecting their
autonomy. Rehabilitation must be sought in a way that respects their
autonomy and dignity as human beings.
According to Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche wrote about autonomy and the moral fight.
Autonomy in this sense is referred to as the free self and entails
several aspects of the self, including self-respect and even
self-love. This can be interpreted as influenced by Kant
Aristotle (self-love). For Nietzsche, valuing
ethical autonomy can dissolve the conflict between love (self-love)
and law (self-respect) which can then translate into reality through
experiences of being self-responsible. Because Nietzsche defines
having a sense of freedom with being responsible for one’s own life,
freedom and self-responsibility can be very much linked to
According to Piaget
The Swiss philosopher
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) believed that autonomy
comes from within and results from a “free decision”. It is of
intrinsic value and the morality of autonomy is not only accepted but
obligatory. When an attempt at social interchange occurs, it is
reciprocal, ideal and natural for there to be autonomy regardless of
why the collaboration with others has taken place. For Piaget, the
term autonomous can be used to explain the idea that rules are
self-chosen. By choosing which rules to follow or not, we are in turn
determining our own behaviour.
Piaget studied the cognitive development of children by analyzing them
during their games and through interviews, establishing (among other
principles) that the children moral maturation process occurs in two
phases, the first of heteronomy and the second of autonomy:
Rules are objective and unchanging. They must be literal because the
authority are ordering it and do not fit exceptions or discussions.
The base of the rule is the superior authority (parents, adults, the
State), that it should not give reason for the rules imposed or
fulfilled them in any case. Duties provided are conceived as given
from oneself. Any moral motivation and sentiments are possible through
what one believes to be right.
Rules are the product of an agreement and, therefore, are modifiable.
They can be subject to interpretation and fit exceptions and
objections. The base of the rule is its own acceptance, and its
meaning has to be explained. Sanctions must be proportionate to the
absence, assuming that sometimes offenses can go unpunished, so that
collective punishment is unacceptable if it is not the guilty. The
circumstances may not punish a guilty. Duties provided are conceived
as given from the outside. One follows rules mechanically as it is
simply a rule, or as a way to avoid a form of punishment.
According to Kohlberg
The American psychologist
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) continues the
studies of Piaget. His studies collected information from different
latitudes to eliminate the cultural variability, and focused on the
moral reasoning, and not so much in the behavior or its consequences.
Through interviews with adolescent and teenage boys, who were to try
and solve “moral dilemmas,” Kohlberg went on to further develop
the stages of moral development. The answers they provided could be
one of two things. Either they choose to obey a given law, authority
figure or rule of some sort or they chose to take actions that would
serve a human need but in turn break this given rule or command.
The most popular moral dilemma asked involved the wife of a man
approaching death due to a special type of cancer. Because the drug
was too expensive to obtain on his own, and because the pharmacist who
discovered and sold the drug had no compassion for him and only wanted
profits, he stole it. Kohlberg asks these adolescent and teenage boys
(10-, 13- and 16-year-olds) if they think that is what the husband
should have done or not. Therefore, depending on their decisions, they
provided answers to Kohlberg about deeper rationales and thoughts and
determined what they value as important. This value then determined
the “structure” of their moral reasoning.
Kohlberg established three stages of morality, each of which is
subdivided into two levels. They are read in progressive sense, that
is, higher levels indicate greater autonomy.
Level 1: Premoral/Preconventional Morality: Standards are met (or not
met) depending on the hedonistic or physical consequences.
[Stage 0: Egocentric Judgment: There is no moral concept independent
of individual wishes, including a lack of concept of rules or
Stage 1: Punishment-Obedience Orientation: The rule is obeyed only to
avoid punishment. Physical consequences determine goodness or badness
and power is deferred to unquestioningly with no respect for the human
or moral value, or the meaning of these consequences. Concern is for
Stage 2: Instrumental-Relativist Orientation: Morals are
individualistic and egocentric. There is an exchange of interests but
always under the point of view of satisfying personal needs. Elements
of fairness and reciprocity are present but these are interpreted in a
pragmatic way, instead of an experience of gratitude or justice.
Egocentric in nature but beginning to incorporate the ability to see
things from the perspective of others.
Level 2: Conventional Morality/Role Conformity: Rules are obeyed
according to the established conventions of a society.
Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation: Morals are conceived in
accordance with the stereotypical social role. Rules are obeyed to
obtain the approval of the immediate group and the right actions are
judged based on what would please others or give the impression that
one is a good person. Actions are evaluated according to intentions.
Law and Order Orientation: Morals are judged in accordance
with the authority of the system, or the needs of the social order.
Laws and order are prioritized.
Level 3: Postconventional Morality/Self-Accepted Moral Principles:
Standards of moral behavior are internalized. Morals are governed by
rational judgment, derived from a conscious reflection on the
recognition of the value of the individual inside a conventionally
Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation: There are individual rights and
standards that have been lawfully established as basic universal
values. Rules are agreed upon by through procedure and society comes
to consensus through critical examination in order to benefit the
Stage 6: Universal Principle Orientation: Abstract ethical principles
are obeyed on a personal level in addition to societal rules and
conventions. Universal principles of justice, reciprocity, equality
and human dignity are internalized and if one fails to live up to
these ideals, guilt or self-condemnation results.
Autonomy in childhood and adolescence is when one strives to gain a
sense of oneself as a separate, self-governing individual. Between
ages 1-3, during the second stage of Erikson's and Freud's stages of
development, the psychosocial crisis that occurs is autonomy versus
shame and doubt. The significant event that occurs during this
stage is that children must learn to be autonomous, and failure to do
so may lead to the child doubting their own abilities and feel
ashamed. When a child becomes autonomous it allows them to explore
and acquire new skills.
Autonomy has two vital aspects wherein there
is an emotional component where one relies more on themselves rather
than their parents and a behavioural component where one makes
decisions independently by using their judgement. The styles of
child rearing affect the development of a child's autonomy.
Authoritative child rearing is the most successful approach, where the
parents engage in autonomy granting appropriate to their age and
Autonomy in adolescence is closely related to their
quest for identity. In adolescence parents and peers act as agents
of influence. Peer influence in early adolescence may help the process
of an adolescent to gradually become more autonomous by being less
susceptible to parental or peer influence as they get older. In
adolescence the most important developmental task is to develop a
healthy sense of autonomy.
In Christianity, autonomy is manifested as a partial self-governance
on various levels of church administration. During the history of
Christianity, there were two basic types of autonomy. Some important
parishes and monasteries have been given special autonomous rights and
privileges, and the best known example of monastic autonomy is the
Eastern Orthodox monastic community on
Mount Athos in Greece.
On the other hand, administrative autonomy of entire ecclesiastical
provinces has throughout history included various degrees of internal
In ecclesiology of
Eastern Orthodox Churches, there is a clear
distinction between autonomy and autocephaly, since autocephalous
churches have full self-governance and independence, while every
autonomous church is subjected to some autocephalous church, having a
certain degree of internal self-governance. Since every autonomous
church had its own historical path to ecclesiastical autonomy, there
are significant differences between various autonomous churches in
respect of their particular degrees of self-governance. For example,
churches that are autonomous can have their highest-ranking bishops,
such as an archbishop or metropolitan, appointed or confirmed by the
patriarch of the mother church from which it was granted its autonomy,
but generally they remain self-governing in many other respects.
In the history of Western
Christianity the question of ecclesiastical
autonomy was also one of the most important questions, especially
during the first centuries of Christianity, since various archbishops
and metropolitans in
Western Europe have often opposed centralizing
tendencies of the Church of Rome. For example, the Roman Catholic
Church is governed by its canon law which applies to all Roman
Catholic churches which are thus not considered autonomous. Various
denominations of Protestant churches usually have more decentralized
power, and churches may be autonomous, thus having their own rules or
laws of government, at the national, local, or even individual level.
Sartre brings the notion of the Cartesian god being totally free and
autonomous. He states that existence precedes essence with god being
the creator of the essences, eternal truths and divine will. This pure
freedom of god relates to human freedom and autonomy; where a human is
not subjected to pre-existing ideas and values.
According to the first amendment, In the
United States of America, the
federal government is restricted in building a national church. This
is due to the first amendment's recognizing people's freedom's to
worship their faith according to their own belief's. For example, the
American government has removed the church from their "sphere of
authority" due to the churches historical impact on politics and
their authority on the public. This was the beginning of the
disestablishment process. The Protestant churches in the United States
had a large impact on American culture, in the nineteenth century,
where they organized the establishment of schools, hospitals,
orphanages, colleges, magazines etc. This has brought up the
famous, however, misinterpreted term of the separation of church and
state. These churches lost the legislative and financial support from
The disestablishment process
The first disestablishment began with the introduction of the bill of
rights. In the twentieth century, due to the great depression of
the 1930s and the completion of the second world war, the American
churches were revived. Specifically the Protestant churches. This was
the beginning of the second disestablishment were churches had
become popular again but held no legislative power. One of the main
reasons why the churches gained attendance and popularity was due to
the baby boom. Where soldiers came back from the second world war and
started their families. The large influx of newborns gave the churches
a new wave of followers. However, these followers did not hold the
same beliefs as their parents and brought upon the political, and
religious revolutions of the 1960s.
During the 1960s, the collapse of religious and cultural middle
brought upon the third disestablishment. Religion became important
to the individual and less likely the community. The changes brought
from these revolutions significantly increased the personal autonomy
of individuals due to the lack of structural restraints giving their
added freedom of choice. This concept is known as "new
voluntarism" where individuals have free choice on how to be
religious and the free choice whether to be religious or not.
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In a medical context, respect for a patient's personal autonomy is
considered one of many fundamental ethical principles in medicine.
Autonomy can be defined as the ability of the person to make his or
her own decisions. This faith in autonomy is the central premise of
the concept of informed consent and shared decision making. This idea,
while considered essential to today's practice of medicine, was
developed in the last 50 years. According to
Tom Beauchamp and James
Childress (in Principles of Biomedical Ethics), the Nuremberg trials
detailed accounts of horrifyingly exploitative medical "experiments"
which violated the subjects' physical integrity and personal
autonomy. These incidences prompted calls for safeguards in
medical research, such as the
Nuremberg Code which stressed the
importance of voluntary participation in medical research. It is
believed that the
Nuremberg Code served as the premise for many
current documents regarding research ethics.
Respect for autonomy became incorporated in health care and patients
could be allowed to make personal decisions about the health care
services that they receive. Notably, autonomy has several aspects as
well as challenges that affect health care operations. The manner in
which a patient is handled may undermine or support autonomy of a
patient and for this reason, the way a patient is communicated to
becomes very crucial. A good relationship between a patient and a
health care practitioner needs to be well defined to ensure that
autonomy of a patient is respected. Just like in any other life
situation, a patient would not like to be under the control of another
person. The move to emphasize respect for patient’s autonomy rose
from the vulnerabilities that were pointed out in regards to autonomy.
However, autonomy does not only apply in a research context. Users of
the health care system have the right to be treated with respect for
their autonomy, instead of being dominated by the physician. This is
referred to as paternalism. While paternalism is meant to be overall
good for the patient, this can very easily interfere with
autonomy. Through the therapeutic relationship, a thoughtful
dialogue between the client and the physician may lead to better
outcomes for the client, as he or she is more of a participant in
Autonomy varies and some patients find it overwhelming especially the
minors when faced with emergency situations. It is important to note
that not every patient is capable of making an autonomous decision.
those who are unable to make the decisions prompt a challenge to
medical practitioners since it becomes difficult to determine the
ability of a patient to make a decision. to some extent, it has
been said that emphasis of autonomy in health care has undermined the
practice of health care practitioners to improve the health of their
patient as necessary. The scenario has led to tension in the
relationship between a patient and a heath care practitioner. This is
because as much as a physician want to prevent a patient from
suffering, he or she still has to respect autonomy. Beneficence allows
physicians to act responsibly in their practice, which may involve
overlooking autonomy. The gap between a patient and a physician has
led to problems because in other cases, the patients have complained
of not being adequately informed.
The seven elements of informed consent (as defined by Beauchamp and
Childress) include threshold elements (competence and voluntariness),
information elements (disclosure, recommendation, and understanding)
and consent elements (decision and authorization). Some
philosophers such as Harry Frankfurt consider Beauchamp and Childress
criteria insufficient. They claim that an action can only be
considered autonomous if it involves the exercise of the capacity to
form higher-order values about desires when acting intentionally.
What this means is that patients may understand their situation and
choices but would not be autonomous unless the patient is able to form
value judgements about their reasons for choosing treatment options
they would not be acting autonomously.
There are many different definitions of autonomy, many of which place
the individual in a social context. See also: relational autonomy,
which suggests that a person is defined through their relationships
with others, and "supported autonomy" which suggests that in
specific circumstances it may be necessary to temporarily compromise
the autonomy of the person in the short term in order to preserve
their autonomy in the long-term. Other definitions of the autonomy
imagine the person as a contained and self-sufficient being whose
rights should not be compromised under any circumstance.
In certain unique circumstances, government may have the right to
temporarily override the right to bodily integrity in order to
preserve the life and well-being of the person. Such action can be
described using the principle of "supported autonomy", a concept
that was developed to describe unique situations in mental health
(examples include the forced feeding of a person dying from the eating
disorder anorexia nervosa, or the temporary treatment of a person
living with a psychotic disorder with antipsychotic medication). While
controversial, the principle of supported autonomy aligns with the
role of government to protect the life and liberty of its citizens.
Terrence F. Ackerman has highlighted problems with these situations,
he claims that by undertaking this course of action physician or
governments run the risk of misinterpreting a conflict of values as a
constraining effect of illness on a patient’s autonomy.
Since the 1960s, there have been attempts to increase patient autonomy
including the requirement that physician’s take bioethics courses
during their time in medical school. Despite large-scale
commitment to promoting patient autonomy, public mistrust of medicine
in developed countries has remained.
Onora O'Neill has ascribed
this lack of trust to medical institutions and professionals
introducing measures that benefit themselves, not the patient.
O’Neill claims that this focus on autonomy promotion has been at the
expense of issues like distribution of healthcare resources and public
One proposal to increase patient autonomy is through the use of
support staff. The use of support staff including medical assistants,
physician assistants, nurse practitioners, nurses, and other staff
that can promote patient interests and better patient care. Nurses
especially can learn about patient beliefs and values in order to
increase informed consent and possibly persuade the patient through
logic and reason to entertain a certain treatment plan. This
would promote both autonomy and beneficence, while keeping the
physician’s integrity intact. Furthermore, Humphreys asserts that
nurses should have professional autonomy within their scope of
practice (35-37). Humphreys argues that if nurses exercise their
professional autonomy more, then there will be an increase patient
International human rights law
After the Second World War there was a push for international human
rights that came in many waves.
Autonomy as a basic human right
started the building block in the beginning of these layers alongside
with liberty. The Universal declarations of Human rights of 1948
has made mention of autonomy or the legal protected right to
individual self-determination in article 22.
Such Documents as the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of
Indigenous Peoples just reconfirms international law in the aspect of
human rights because those laws were already there, but it is also
responsible for making sure that the laws highlighted when it comes to
autonomy, cultural and integrity and land rights are made within an
indigenous context by taking special attention to their historical and
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
article 3 also through international law provides Human rights for
Indigenous individuals through its third article by giving them a
right to self-determination meaning they have all the liberties to
chose their political status, and are capable to go and improve their
economics social, and cultural statuses in society by developing it.
Another example of this is article 4 of the same document which gives
them autonomous rights when it comes to their internal or local
affairs and how they can fund themselves in order to be able to self
Minorities in countries are also protected as well by international
law; the 27th article of the United Nations International covenant on
Political rights or the ICCPR does so by allowing these
individuals to be able to enjoy their own culture or use their
language. Minorities in that manner are people from ethnic religious
or linguistic groups according to the document.
The European Court of Human rights, is an international court that has
been created on behalf of the European Conventions of Human rights.
However, when it comes to autonomy they did not explicitly state it
when it comes to the rights that individuals have. The current article
8 has remedied to that when the case of Petty v the United Nations
which was a case in 2002 involving assisted suicide where autonomy was
used as a legal right in law. It was where
Autonomy was distinguished
and its reach into law was marked as well making it the foundations
for legal precedent in making case law originating from the European
Court of Human rights
The Yogyakarta Principles, a document with no binding effect in
international human rights law, contend that "self-determination" used
as meaning of autonomy on one's own matters including informed consent
or sexual and reproductive rights, is integral for one's self-defined
or gender identity and refused any medical procedures as a requirement
for legal recognition of the gender identity of transgender. If
eventually accepted by the international community in a treaty, this
would make these ideas human rights in the law. The Convention on the
Rights of Persons with Disabilities also defines autonomy as
principles of rights of a person with disability including "the
freedom to make one's own choices, and independence of persons".
Celebrity culture on teenage autonomy
A study conducted by David C. Giles and John Maltby conveyed that
after age effecting factors were removed a high emotional autonomy was
a significant predictor of celebrity interest, as well as high
attachment to peers with a low attachment to parents. Patterns of
intense personal interest in celebrities was found to be conjunction
with low levels of closeness and security. Furthermore, the results
suggested that adults with a secondary group of pseudo-friends during
development from parental attachment, usually focus solely on one
particular celebrity, which could be due to difficulties in making
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Unmanned aerial vehicle
Unmanned aerial vehicle and Cybernetics
Autonomy or Autonomous behavior is a contentious term in reference to
unmanned vehicles due to the poor understanding of whether something
acting without outside commands is doing so through its own ability to
make decisions or through a method of decision making pre-programmed
into it. It is a quality which is rather abstract in nature and rather
difficult to measure. The word is used only in an analogical sense at
this point, and the analogical application carries very little of the
primary content, which refers to moral choices of rational beings.
Automatic means that a system will do exactly as programmed, it has no
choice. Autonomous means that a system has a choice to make free of
outside influence, i.e., an autonomous system has free will.
Brian T Clough, "Metrics, Schmetrics! How The Heck Do You Determine A
An example of semi-autonomous vehicles is unmanned spacecraft.
Autonomy is an increasing feature of unmanned vehicles with two
Mandatory for new functions:
e.g. several spacecraft in formation flight adjust their relative
positions so that interferometric measurements with wide basis can be
e.g. failure detection and recovery by spacecraft system without
ground station involvement reduces Up-/Downlink usage and reduces
operational costs on ground.
An Autonomous Space Craft might make certain decisions for itself
based on imagery observation and a pre-programmed algorithm that will
determine the only possible logical outcome and then perform that task
without having to ask controllers NAND NOR AND types of parameters.
Autonomy in Space does not relate to the socio-political definitions,
here we are talking about a device that can make basic or convoluted
decisions based on LOGIC (in an electronic usage) - see X37b Military
Space Plane for an example
To have true
Autonomy however a device (or entity) would need to have
a longer leash being able to complete complex missions without human
intra direction. Such a system would say further automate the other
elements of the total process making the whole of the "system" larger
by including more devices that multicommunicate with each other
without involving ground-based technicians or communications. (the
military might not want to send possibly interceptable signals to and
from said same)
^^nonsensical; please revise^^
For example: If they automated the ground-based tracking and control
sending and or included additional satellites and/or space planes OR
other devices (autonomous air and seacraft) the X37b Missions could
someday become totally Autonomous.
Basically: Send it on a mission and recover it when it lands.
Autonomy here too has its authority hierarchy whereby
command override is in effect.
If the ground controllers want to they can take control of the
spacecraft at any time. A typical mission though will be preprogrammed
and perform as directed and land.. OR perform a task WHILE and/or
UNTIL (in a software sense) a condition is met (say a signal sent from
the ground) IF/THEN Land the Un-Manned SpaceCraft without further
direction from the ground. The systems so happen to interact but that
is not a necessary condition for autonomy. As each device becomes more
and more autonomous the total network becomes more and more
intelligent and at the same time secure
In computing, an autonomous peripheral is one that can be used with
the computer turned off
Within self-determination theory in psychology, autonomy refers to
'autonomy support versus control', "hypothesizing that
autonomy-supportive social contexts tend to facilitate self-determined
motivation, healthy development, and optimal functioning."
In mathematical analysis, an ordinary differential equation is said to
be autonomous if it is time-independent.
In linguistics, an autonomous language is one which is independent of
other languages, for example, has a standard, grammar books,
dictionaries or literature etc.
In robotics, "autonomy means independence of control. This
characterization implies that autonomy is a property of the relation
between two agents, in the case of robotics, of the relations between
the designer and the autonomous robot. Self-sufficiency, situatedness,
learning or development, and evolution increase an agent’s degree of
autonomy.", according to Rolf Pfeifer.
In spaceflight, autonomy can also refer to manned missions that are
operating without control by ground controllers.
In economics, autonomous consumption is consumption expenditure when
income levels are zero, making spending autonomous to income.
In politics, autonomous territories are States wishing to retain
territorial integrity in opposition to ethnic or indigenous demands
for self-determination or independence (sovereignty).
In anti-establishment activism, an autonomous space is another name
for a non-governmental social center or free space (for community
In social psychology, autonomy is a personality trait characterized by
a focus on personal achievement independence, and a preference for
solitude, often labeled as an opposite of sociotropy.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
List of autonomous areas by country
Equality of autonomy
Teaching for social justice
Viable system model
^ Ancient Greek: αὐτονομία autonomia from
αὐτόνομος autonomos from αὐτο- auto- "self" and
νόμος nomos, "law", hence when combined understood to mean "one
who gives oneself one's own law"
^ Dewey, C.R.
Autonomy without a self.
^ BOURDIEU, 2001 (MARANHÃO, 2005; 2006 Archived October 8, 2010, at
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^ Evans, P. B., Rueschemeyer, D., & Skocpol, T. (1985). Bringing
the state back in.
^ Neave, G. (2012). The evaluative state, institutional autonomy and
re-engineering higher education in Western Europe: The prince and his
^ Weller, M., & Wolff, S. (2014). Autonomy, self-governance, and
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^ "Philippine Bill of 1902 (note: Philippine
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^ Bokovoy, Melissa Katherine; Irvine, Jill A.; Lilly, Carol S. (1997).
State-society relations in Yugoslavia, 1945–1992. New York: St.
Martin's Press. pp. 295–301. ISBN 978-0-312-12690-2.
^ How to Make Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King,
Continuum, 2008, ISBN 978-1847-063-472. p. 100.
^ Chapter 17, 'Letting People Choose for Themselves', of How to Make
Good Decisions and Be Right All the Time, Iain King, Continuum, 2008,
Autonomy in Moral and
Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy). Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
^ Sensen, Oliver (2013). Kant on Moral Autonomy. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 9781107004863.
^ a b Shafer-Landau, Russ. "The fundamentals of ethics." (2010). p.
^ Shafer-Landau, Russ. "The fundamentals of ethics." (2010). p. 163
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved
^ Gemes, Ken; May, Simon (2009-05-07). Nietzsche on
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^ Sugarman, Susan (1990-01-26). Piaget's Construction of the Child's
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^ Shaffer, David (2008-09-19). Social and Personality Development.
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^ a b c d Berk, Laura (2013). Child Development (9 ed.).
^ a b c d Shaffer, David. Social and Personality Development (6
^ Meyendorff 1989, pp. 59-66, 130-139.
^ Macken, John (2008). "The
Autonomy Theme in the Church Dogmatics:
Karl Barth and his Critics". Missing or empty url= (help);
access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Renaud, Robert Joseph; Weinberger, Laed Daniel (2008). "Spheres of
Autonomy Doctrine and the Theological Heritage of
the Separation of Church and State". heinonline.org. Retrieved
^ Hammond, Phillip (1992). Religion and personal autonomy: the third
disestablishment in America.
^ a b c d Hammond, Phillip (1992). "Religion and personal autonomy:
the third disestablishment in America". Missing or empty url=
(help); access-date= requires url= (help)
^ L., Beauchamp, Tom (2013). Principles of biomedical ethics.
Childress, James F. (7th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 9780199924585. OCLC 808107441.
^ Fischer, Bernard A (January 2006). "A Summary of Important Documents
in the Field of Research Ethics". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 32 (1):
69–80. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbj005. ISSN 0586-7614.
PMC 2632196 . PMID 16192409.
^ Riis, A.H. Autonomy, culture and healthcare.
^ Sandman, Lars (2012). "Adherence, Shared Decision-Making and Patient
Autonomy". Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy: 115–27.
^ Cole, Willard, Mummery. "Problematising autonomy and advocacy in
nursing". Nursing ethics. 21 (5): 576–582. CS1 maint: Multiple
names: authors list (link)
^ Informed Consent : Legal Theory and Clinical Practice: Legal
Theory and ... - Schools of
Medicine Jessica W. Berg Assistant
Bioethics Case Western Reserve University, Paul
S. Appelbaum A. F. Zeleznik Distinguished Professor and Chair
University of Massachusetts, Medical School and Director of the Center
for Mental Health Services Research Charles W. Lidz Research Professor
of Psychiatry University of Massachusetts, Center for
Law University of Pittsburgh Lisa S. Parker Associate Professor
and Director of Graduate Education - Google Books. Books.google.ca.
Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
^ Mappes Thomas, A., and David DeGrazia. "Biomedical Ethics." (2006).
^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-24.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved
^ Mappes Thomas, A., and David DeGrazia. "Biomedical Ethics." (2006).
^ Pilnick, Alison; Dingwall, Robert (April 2011). "On the Remarkable
Persistence of Asymmetry in Doctor/Patient Interaction: A Critical
Review". Social Science & Medicine. 72: 1374–82.
^ O'neill, Onora.
Autonomy and Trust in bioethics. Cambridge
University Press, 2002. Pp3
^ Sheather, Julian (2011). "Patient Autonomy". Student BMJ; London.
^ Charles, Sonya (2017). "The Moral Agency of Institutions:
Effectively Using Expert Nurses to Support Patient Autonomy". Journal
of Medical Ethics. 43.8: 506–509.
^ Humphreys, Sally (January 2005). "Patient Autonomy". British Journal
of Perioperative Nursing. 15 (1): 35–38, 40–41, 43.
^ 1966-, Marshall, Jill, (2009). Personal freedom through human rights
law? : autonomy, identity and integrity under the European
Convention on Human Rights. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
ISBN 9004170596. OCLC 567444414.
^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". www.un.org. Retrieved
^ Geoff, G. (1997-02-01). "Religious Minorities and Their Rights: A
Problem of Approach". International Journal on Minority and Group
Rights. 5 (2): 97–134. doi:10.1163/15718119720907435.
^ "A/RES/61/295 - E". undocs.org. Retrieved 2018-03-15.
^ "OHCHR International Covenant on Civil and
www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 2018-03-15. horizontal tab character in
title= at position 10 (help)
^ 1978-, Lõhmus, Katri,. Caring autonomy : European human rights
law and the challenge of individualism. Cambridge, United Kingom.
ISBN 1107081777. OCLC 898273667.
^ The Yogyakarta Principles, Principle 3, The Right to Recognition
before the Law
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Article 3, (a)
^ Giles, David & Maltby, John. (2004). The Role of Media Figures
in Adolescent Development: Relations Between Autonomy, Attachment, and
Interest in Celebrities. Personality and Individual Differences. 36.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-26. Retrieved
^ Bieling, Peter J. (2000). Cognitive Therapy and Research. 24:
763–780. doi:10.1023/A:1005599714224. Missing or empty title=
Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The
Church 450-680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St.
Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88-141056-3.
The dictionary definition of autonomy at Wiktionary
Kastner, Jens. "Autonomy" (2015). University Bielefeld - Center for