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The Autonomist Party
Autonomist Party
(Italian: Partito Autonomista; Croatian: Autonomaška stranka) was a Dalmatianist political party in the Dalmatian political scene, that existed for around 70 years of the 19th century and until World War I. Its goal was to maintain the autonomy of the Kingdom of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as opposed to the unification with the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. The Autonomist Party
Autonomist Party
has been accused of secretly having been a pro-Italian movement due to their defense of the rights of ethnic Italians in Dalmatia.[1] The Autonomist Party
Autonomist Party
did not claim to be an Italian movement, and indicated that it sympathized with a sense of hetereogeneity amongst Dalmatians in opposition to ethnic nationalism.[1] In the 1861 elections, the Autonomists won twenty-seven seats in Dalmatia, while Dalmatia's Croatian nationalist movement, the National Party, won only fourteen seats.[2] This number rapidly decreased: already in 1870 autonomists lost their majority in the Diet, while in 1908 they won just 6 out of 43 seats.

Contents

1 History 2 Important members 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External links

History[edit] Traditionally linked to the idea of a Dalmatian nation advocated by Niccolò Tommaseo
Niccolò Tommaseo
in the first half of the 19th century and regarded as a meeting of the Latin world with the Slavic world, initially the party also attracted the sympathies of some of the Slavic Dalmatians, while maintaining an undisputed open to the Italian cultural world. The Dalmatian branch of the People's Party (Croatian: Narodna stranka, Italian: Partito del Popolo), which supported the reunification of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
with the remainder of Croatia, viewed the Autonomists as supportive of an Italian annexation of Dalmatia, which was indeed the ambition of the Italian state. The Autonomist Party
Autonomist Party
received the vote of the Dalmatian Italians
Dalmatian Italians
and some bilingual Slavs[3] and controlled most Dalmatian coastal cities: this party had a majority in the Parliament of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
in the mid-19th century. However, in 1870 democratic alterations to the electoral laws allowed the majority Croatian population of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
to influence the elections for the first time. The democratic reforms allowed for a greater part of the general population to vote (but even areas where non-Slav population was the majority were affected) and so the Autonomist Party
Autonomist Party
no longer had a majority: by the outbreak of World War I, only the city of Zara (now called Zadar) remained in Autonomist hands. A similar but independent political development occurred in Fiume, where Michele Maylender, claiming greater autonomy from the centralizing Hungarian executive of Dezső Bánffy, founded the (Fiume) Autonomist Party
Autonomist Party
in 1896. Although the reference with Dalmatia was never made explicit among Fiume
Fiume
autonomists (who widely read Tommaseo and Bajamonti) the goals of the Party were very similar to that in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
as it opposed the inclusion of the city to Croatia.

Antonio Bajamonti, the last Italian mayor of Spalato and leader of the Autonomist Party

As in Zadar
Zadar
the party remained in power up to 1914, and both cities, although claimed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes at the Paris Peace Conference, were finally assigned to Italy: Zara by the Treaty of Rapallo and Fiume
Fiume
with the Treaty of Rome, which gave Fiume to Italy and the adjacent port of Sušak to Yugoslavia. Antonio Bajamonti, the most prominent Autonomist in the history of the party, once remarked:

No joy, only pain and tears, is brought by being a part of the Italian party in Dalmatia. We, the Italians of Dalmatia, retain a single right: to suffer.[4]

Count Francesco Borelli Dalmatian deputy, argued for the autonomy of the Kingdom of Dalmatia, claiming that it had no connection whatsoever with Croatia. Though he admitted that the majority of the population was Slavic in language, mentality and outlook, he pointed out that Dalmatia's "higher" culture was Italian.[5] At the beginning of the 20th century the Autonomist Party, having lost his majority in nearly all Dalmatia, started to be dominated by a group of Dalmatian Italians
Dalmatian Italians
from Zara, led by Luigi Ziliotto and Giovanni Bugatto, who supported Italian irredentism
Italian irredentism
in Dalmatia: the party was suppressed in 1915 when Italy declared war on Austria during World War I.[6] Important members[edit]

Zadar
Zadar
- Cosimo Begna Possedaria,[7] Lorenzo Benevenia,[8] Viktor Bioni, Antonio Cippico,[9] Raimondo Desanti, Vincenzo Duplanich,[10] Natal Filippi, Giacomo Ghiglianovich and his son Roberto Ghiglianovich,[11] Stevan Knežević (Orthodox), Spiridon Petrović (ethnic Serb), Giovanni Salghetti-Drioli,[12] Antonio (Ante) Smirić, Nicolò Trigari,[13]Luigi Ziliotto,[14] Francesco Borelli, Giuseppe Bugatto. Split - Jerolim Alesani, Antonio Bajamonti, Vincenzo Degli Alberti, Ivan Dević, Leonardo Dudan, Giorgio Giovannizio, Simone Michieli Vitturi, Leonardo Pezzoli, Giuseppe Piperata, Antonio Radman, Ercolano Salvi, Antonio Tacconi.[15] Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
- Giovanni Avoscani, Marino Bonda and his son Orsato Bonda, Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola
Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola
(mayor), Luigi Serragli (1816+ 1880) (businessman and bureaucrat) Šibenik
Šibenik
- Simone Bujas, Emanuel Fenzi, Federico Antonio Galvani, Luigi Pini Hvar
Hvar
- Giovanni Machiedo, Giacopo Machiedo Stari Grad (Hvar) - Giovanni Botteri Korčula
Korčula
- Ivan Smrčinić, Stefan Smrčinić Drniš
Drniš
- Melchiore Difnico Makarska
Makarska
- Jakov Vucović Skradin
Skradin
- Natale Krekich,[16] Giovanni Marassovich[13] Sinj
Sinj
- Jerolim Italo Bokšić (Zara), Luigi Lapenna (Zara)[13] Trogir
Trogir
- Antonio (Ante) Fanfogna, Giovanni Fanfogna, Giovanni Lubin, Luigi Nutrizio Vrlika
Vrlika
- Alessandro Dudan[17] (Split)

See also[edit]

Dalmatia Dalmatian Action Dalmatianism Diet of Dalmatia History of Dalmatia Antonio Bajamonti

References[edit]

^ a b Maura Hametz. In the Name of Italy: Nation, Family, and Patriotism in a Fascist Court: Nation, Family, and Patriotism in a Fascist Court. Fordham University Press, 2012. ^ Ivo Goldstein. Croatia: A History. 2nd edition. C. Hurst & Co, 1999, 2001. P. 80. ^ "The Italians of Dalmatia". google.com.  ^ A.Bajamonti, Discorso inaugurale della Società Politica dalmata, Split 1886 ^ "The National Question in Europe in Historical Context". google.cl.  ^ Monzali, Luciano. Italians of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
p.323 ^ "Prijedlozi i projekti željezničkih pruga u Hrvatskoj 1825-1863". google.it.  ^ "Atti e memorie della Società istriana di archeologia e storia patria". google.it.  ^ Then Italian Senator Archived February 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ One of the first Italian irredentist. See J.Vrandečić, Razvoj talijanskog nacionalizma u Dalmaciji, here ^ Then Italian Senator Archived February 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-12-16. Retrieved 2009-03-26.  Brief summary of the article J.Bezić, Musical activity of Zadar
Zadar
Theatre during the absolutism, SVIBOR, Zagreb 1994. Here another complete article (in Croatian) about Salghetti-Drioli ^ a b c [1] M.Đinđić, Identity “Conflict” of Dalmatian Italians, in Croatian Political Science Review, Vol.44 No. 3, September 2007, which stated that Trigari, Lapenna and Marassovich were Italians or chose the Italian identity ^ Then Italian Senator Archived February 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Then Italian Senator ^ Then Italian Senator Archived February 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Then Italian Senator

Sources[edit]

Renzo de' Vidovich, Albo d'Oro delle Famiglie Nobili Patrizie e Illustri nel Regno di Dalmazia, Fondazione Scientifico Culturale Rustia Traine, Trieste 2004 L.Monzali, Italiani di Dalmazia. Dal Risorgimento alla Grande Guerra, Le Lettere, Firenze 2004 L.Monzali, Italiani di Dalmazia. 1914-1924, Le Lettere, Firenze 2007. Monzali, Luciano.Italiani di Dalmazia Toronto University Press. Toronto, 2009 I. Perić, Dalmatinski sabor 1861-1912 (1918), Zadar
Zadar
1978. Duško Kečkemet, Bajamonti i Split, Slobodna Dalmacija: Split 2007. Grga Novak, Prošlost Dalmacije knjiga druga, Marjan tisak: Split 2004. Josip Vrandečić, Dalmatinski autonomistički pokret u XIX. stoljeću, Zagreb, 2002.

External links[edit]

www.ars.com.hr www.cpi.hr Dalmazia e gli autono

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