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An automated pool cleaner is a vacuum cleaner intended to collect debris and sediment from swimming pools with minimal human intervention.

History

Evolution

Swimming pool cleaners evolved from two areas of science: development of the water filter and early cistern cleaners. The forerunner of today's pool cleaners were cistern cleaners. These were developed due to the need to clean pools and cisterns. Roman Baths were well-known for their elaborate cisterns, but they were prevalent in early America as well. The United States Patent and Trademark Office refers to a cistern cleaner patent filed (though never issued) as early as 1798.

In 1883 John E. Pattison of New Orleans applied a "Cistern and Tank Cleaner" and the first discovered patent was issued the following year.[1] It swept and scraped the bottom of a cistern or tank and, through a combination of suction and manipulation of the water pressure, was able to separate and remove sediment without removing the water. Over the next 20 years, his invention was improved upon on numerous occasions. Many pool cleaner patents issued in the modern era refer to some of the cistern cleaners as predecessors of their invention.

Early models

An evolution of the previously patented cistern cleaner, the first swimming pool cleaner was invented in 1912 by Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania citizen John M. Davison. On November 26, 1912, he submitted a patent application to the United States Patent and Trademark Office entitled "Cleaning Apparatus For Swimming Pools And The Like," patent number 1,056,779, which was issued on March 25, 1913.[2]

The first suction-side pool cleaner was invented by Roy B. Everson of Chicago in 1937, which he entitled "Swimming Pool Cleaner".[3]

Nineteen years later, the first suction-side pool cleaner was the work of Joseph Eistrup of San Mateo, California, who called his invention simply "Pool Cleaner".[4]

Two years later, the "Automatic Swimming Pool Cleaner" was created by Andrew L. Pansini of Greenbrae, California, founder of Jandy Corporation. This was the first truly automatic pool cleaner and as patent Number 3,032,044, was touted by Pansini as "effective to remove the scum, dirt and other accumulations from both the bottom and sidewalls of a pool to disperse foreign matter in the water for removal therefrom by a normal pump-filter system of the pool."[5]In 1883 John E. Pattison of New Orleans applied a "Cistern and Tank Cleaner" and the first discovered patent was issued the following year.[1] It swept and scraped the bottom of a cistern or tank and, through a combination of suction and manipulation of the water pressure, was able to separate and remove sediment without removing the water. Over the next 20 years, his invention was improved upon on numerous occasions. Many pool cleaner patents issued in the modern era refer to some of the cistern cleaners as predecessors of their invention.

An evolution of the previously patented cistern cleaner, the first swimming pool cleaner was invented in 1912 by Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania citizen John M. Davison. On November 26, 1912, he submitted a patent application to the United States Patent and Trademark Office entitled "Cleaning Apparatus For Swimming Pools And The Like," patent number 1,056,779, which was issued on March 25, 1913.[2]

The first suction-side pool cleaner was invented by Roy B. Everson of Chicago in 1937, which he entitled "Swimming Pool Cleaner".[3]

Nineteen years later, the first suction-side pool cleaner was the work of Joseph Eistrup of San Mateo, California, who called his invention simply "Pool Cleaner".[4]

Two years later, the "Automatic Swimming Pool Cleaner" was created by Andrew L. Pansini of Greenbrae, California, founder of Jandy Corporation. This was the first truly automatic pool cleaner and as patent Number 3,032,044, was touted by Pansini as "effective to remove the scum, dirt and other accumulations from both the bottom and sidewalls of a pool to disperse foreign matter in the water for removal therefrom by a normal pump-filter system of the pool."[5]

The first robotic pool cleaner which used electricity was the work of Robert B. Myers of Boca Raton, Florida in 1967, who filed a patent.[6]

A third development was the pressure-side cleaner. This was invented by Melvyn Lane Henkin of Tarzana, California in 1972. His "Automati

The first suction-side pool cleaner was invented by Roy B. Everson of Chicago in 1937, which he entitled "Swimming Pool Cleaner".[3]

Nineteen years later, the first suction-side pool cleaner was the work of Joseph Eistrup of San Mateo, California, who called his invention simply "Pool Cleaner".[4]

Two years later, the "Automatic Swimming Pool Cleaner" was created by Andrew L. Pansini of Greenbrae, California, founder of Jandy Corporation. This was the first truly automatic pool cleaner and as patent Number 3,032,044, was touted by Pansini as "effective to remove the scum, dirt and other accumulations from both the bottom and sidewalls of a pool to disperse foreign matter in the water for removal therefrom by a normal pump-filter system of the pool."[5]

The first robotic pool cleaner which used electricity was the work of Robert B. Myers of Boca Raton, Florida in 1967, who filed a patent.[6]

A third development was the pressure-side cleaner. This was invented by Melvyn Lane Henkin of Tarzana, California in 1972. His "Automatic Swimming Pool Cleaner, United States Patent Number 3,822,754" used three wheels to allow the machine "to travel underwater along a random path on the pool vessel surface for dislodging debris therefrom".[7] The design is used as the Polaris Pool Cleaner, a commonly used pool cleaner amongst modern pool owners.[8]

Independently from his American counterparts Ferdinand Chauvier, a hydraulics engineer who emigrated to South Africa from the Belgian Congo, introduced the Kreepy Krauly in Springs, South Africa in 1974.[9]

There are three main types of automated or automatic swimming pool cleaners, classified by the drive mechanism and source of power used: a suction side cleaner, a pressure side cleaner, and an electric robotic cleaner.[10][11]

Suction-side<

There have been attempts for nearly 100 years to mandate the use of pool cleaners, primarily addressed to public pools. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, on a grant provided by the National Swimming Pool Foundation (NSPF), is about to publish the first uniform Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC).[when?] Included is a section on pool filtration proposed regulations directed to the nation's 3200+ state and local agencies that enforce laws and ordinances relating to the operation of swimming pools and spas.[citation needed]

Historical perspective

The proposed MAHC is not the first attempt to propose a uniform aquatic health code. The credit for that goes to the American Public Health Association(APHA) which 100 years ago recognized the dangers of improperly maintained aquatic facilities and formed a committee in 1918 that, for the next 66 years, issued eleven so-called "Swimming Pools and Other Public Bathing Places Standards For Design, Construction, Equipment And Operation" recommended ordinances and regulations. But for a variety of reasons none of these recommendations were adopted, at least not formally or completely adopted.[citation needed]

Uniform Aquatic Health Code

The APHA has tried to develop a uniform aquatic health code, or what is referred to for years as referenced above, and published short reports annually from 1920 through 1925 that it simply referred to as "R

The proposed MAHC is not the first attempt to propose a uniform aquatic health code. The credit for that goes to the American Public Health Association(APHA) which 100 years ago recognized the dangers of improperly maintained aquatic facilities and formed a committee in 1918 that, for the next 66 years, issued eleven so-called "Swimming Pools and Other Public Bathing Places Standards For Design, Construction, Equipment And Operation" recommended ordinances and regulations. But for a variety of reasons none of these recommendations were adopted, at least not formally or completely adopted.[citation needed]

Uniform Aquatic Health Code

  • In 1957, it referred to its report as "Recommended P

    In 1912, coincidentally the same year when the United States Patent and Trademark Office issued the first patent for a swimming pool cleaner, the Sanitary Engineering Section of the American Public Health Association (APHA) convened in New York City to lay the groundwork for the first recommended pool and spa regulations. As reported in the American Journal of Public Health in April 1912 a meeting was held in Havana the previous December and at the New York meeting among the subjects that the committee was to be studying was "Hygiene of swimming pools".[19]

    Six years later a committee on swimming pools was appointed at the APHA's annual meeting in Chicago and in 1920 a similar committee was appointed at the meeting in Washington, D.C. In 1921 and periodically over the next seven decades until the work of the APHA on this subject matter went through a series of divisions and consolidations, diverted elsewhere its committees and joint committees with other health-orientated public and quasi-public organizations issued proposed ordinances and regulations in the form of unenforceable recommendations. Despite their intended and published goals, none became law, uniform, much less national.[20]

    None of the proposed Standards included more than a passing reference of the need to properly clean a pool. A few, but curiously not all of these recommended ordinances and regulations, related to the use of a vacuum, although the first that included any specificity in 1923 at least required a certain level of clarity. The 1921 report, barely a few pages in length, made this reference to the need to clean the pool.

    Pool cleaning is done by completely emptying the pool an average of twice weekly and scrubbing with stiff brushes and soap. Hose flushing follows the scrubbing. After the flushing outlet is opened, the well-turned on and clean water is allowed to water over the floor of the drains, etc...

    The 1923 report of the American Journal of Public Health,

    Six years later a committee on swimming pools was appointed at the APHA's annual meeting in Chicago and in 1920 a similar committee was appointed at the meeting in Washington, D.C. In 1921 and periodically over the next seven decades until the work of the APHA on this subject matter went through a series of divisions and consolidations, diverted elsewhere its committees and joint committees with other health-orientated public and quasi-public organizations issued proposed ordinances and regulations in the form of unenforceable recommendations. Despite their intended and published goals, none became law, uniform, much less national.[20]

    None of the proposed Standards included more than a passing reference of the need to properly clean a pool. A few, but curiously not all of these recommended ordinances and regulations, related to the use of a vacuum, although the first that included any specificity in 1923 at least required a certain level of clarity. The 1921 report, barely a few pages in length, made this reference to the need to clean the pool.

    Pool cleaning is done by completely emptying the pool an average of twice weekly and scrubbing with stiff brushes and soap. Hose flushing follows the scrubbing. After the flushing outlet is opened, the well-turned on and clean water is allowed to water over the floor of the drains, etc...

The 1923 report of the American Journal of Public Health, Sanitary Engineering Section American Public Health Association read before the Sanitary Engineering Section of the American Public Health Association at the Fifty-second Annual Meeting at Boston, Massachusetts, Octobe

The 1923 report of the American Journal of Public Health, Sanitary Engineering Section American Public Health Association read before the Sanitary Engineering Section of the American Public Health Association at the Fifty-second Annual Meeting at Boston, Massachusetts, October 8, 1923. slightly longer, but still very brief stated:

No swimming pool shall be opened to the use of bathers on any day until all visible dirt (not stains) on the bottom of the pool and any visible scum or floating matter on the surface has been removed. Scum and floating matters may be infectious material and should always be removed as soon as possible after they are observed.

Therefore, in 1921 it was recognized that infectious material, namely pathogens collect in the pool a

Therefore, in 1921 it was recognized that infectious material, namely pathogens collect in the pool and should be removed.

It was not

It was not until 1926 twelve years after the organization recognized the need to address swimming pool "hygiene" and eight years after the committee was organized that the first true report was issued and later published in the Journal of the American Public Health Association. Of all of its reports from 1920 through 1981 the first major report by the APHA in 1926, written in narrative form as were the succeeding nine though 1957, the committee included the detailed provisions relating to pool cleaning, vacuuming and vacuums:

E. Suction Cleaner: In the opinion of the committee the only satisfactory method of removing the dirt, hair, etc., settling on the bottom of a pool is using a suction cleaner. As the circulation pumps generally operate such cleaners, they may be classed as an adjunct to the recirculation system. When a suction cleaner is to be operated by the recirculation pump, a gate with a graduated stem or another registering device should be provided for throttling the flow from the pool outlet to permit the pump to operate at maximum efficiency when the suction cleaner is in use. Fixed pipe connections for attachment of suction cleaner to pump suction should be of ample size to reduce friction to a minimum, and the cleaner and all removable connections should be designed to provide a maximum velocity at the suction nozzle.

XXVI Cleaning Pool

A. Visible dirt on the bottom of a swimming pool shall not be permitted to remain more th

XXVI Cleaning Pool

A. Visible dirt on the bottom of a swimming pool shall not be permitted to remain more than 24 hours. B. Any visible scum or floating material on the surface of a pool shall be removed within 24 hours by flushing or other effective means

The 1964 report included the following language:

The CDC was founded (in 1946), followed by the Cabinet-level Department of Health, Education and Welf

The CDC was founded (in 1946), followed by the Cabinet-level Department of Health, Education and Welfare (in 1953), now the Department of Health, and Human Services and its 11 operating divisions, the National Health Service Corps (in 1977) and along the way a variety of private and non-profit aquatic organizations such as the National Spa and Pool Association (in 1956), now the Association of Pool and Spa Professionals the National Swimming Pool Foundation (in 1965).

Presently a

Presently a variety of states and jurisdictions that have codified the requirement of inclusion of an independent vacuum cleaner including the two states with the highest number and concentration of both residential and public pools:

California: 2010 Title 24, Part 2, Vol. 2 California Building Code. Section 3140B, Cleaning Systems:

A vacuum cleaning system shall be available which is capable of removing sediment from all parts of the pool floor. A cleaning system using potable water shall be provided with an approved backflow protection device as required by the California Department of Public Health under Sections 7601 to 7605.

— [21

Florida:

Florida Department of Health section 64E-9.007 Recirculation and Treatment System Requirements

— 
[22

In 2005 the CDC, in response to growing concern and feared epidemic with the pathogen Cryptosporidium, much like the American Public Health Association did in 1912, convened many of the country's foremost medical and scientific experts to study the concern for aquatic health. As a result, in 2007 they began their quest, again much like the APHC, for a uniform aquatic health code.

Each health and safety segment has been assigned to a committee to study it and draft a proposed module open for public comment before being adopted and then recommended to the nation's 3200+ state and local health agencies that enact ordinances and regulations for swimming pools and spa and other aquatic facilities, inspect and monitor them and then enforce the regulations. Since the focus of the MAHC was to respond to the threat of Cryptosporidium the Technical Committee of Recircu

Each health and safety segment has been assigned to a committee to study it and draft a proposed module open for public comment before being adopted and then recommended to the nation's 3200+ state and local health agencies that enact ordinances and regulations for swimming pools and spa and other aquatic facilities, inspect and monitor them and then enforce the regulations. Since the focus of the MAHC was to respond to the threat of Cryptosporidium the Technical Committee of Recirculation Systems and Filtration is a major focus. The University of North Carolina Charlotte Associate Professor James Amburgey is the Chairperson of the Centers For Disease Control, Model Aquatic Health Code Technical Committee on Recirculation Systems and Filtration.

Amburgey has conducted many tests to evaluation existing swimming pool filters and his conclusions have been they are extremely ineffective in most cases to help remove Cryptosporidium.[23] He is reported to be working with several manufacturers of swimming pool and spa vacuum cleaners to develop a filter bag that will result in exponential advancements in the current filter bags, cleaners, and vacuums on the market.