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Automated Clearing House
Automated Clearing House
(ACH) is an electronic network for financial transactions in the United States. ACH processes large volumes of credit and debit transactions in batches. ACH credit transfers include direct deposit, payroll and vendor payments. ACH direct debit transfers include consumer payments on insurance premiums, mortgage loans, and other kinds of bills. Debit transfers also include new applications such as the point-of-purchase (POP) check conversion pilot program sponsored by the National Automated Clearing House Association (NACHA). Both the government and the commercial sectors use ACH payments. Businesses increasingly use ACH online to have customers pay, rather than via credit or debit cards.[1] ACH is a computer-based clearing and settlement facility established to process the exchange of electronic transactions between participating depository institutions. Rules and regulations that govern the ACH network are established by NACHA and the Federal Reserve. In 2015, this network processed nearly 24 billion ACH transactions with a total value of $41.6 trillion.[2] Credit card
Credit card
payments are handled by separate networks. The Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Banks, through the FedACH system, are collectively the nation's largest ACH operator. In 2005, they processed 60% of commercial interbank ACH transactions; the remaining 40% was processed by the Electronic Payments Network (EPN), the United States' only private-sector ACH operator. EPN and the Reserve Banks rely on each other for the processing of some transactions when either party to the transaction is not their customer. These interoperator transactions are settled by the Reserve Banks.[citation needed]

Contents

1 Uses of the ACH payment system 2 SEC codes 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Uses of the ACH payment system[edit]

Bank treasury management departments sell this service to business and government customers Business-to-business
Business-to-business
payments Direct debit payment of consumer bills such as mortgages, loans, utilities, insurance premiums, rents, and any other regular payment Direct deposit of payroll, Social Security and other government payments, and tax refunds E-commerce
E-commerce
payments Federal, state, and local tax payments Non-immediate transfer of funds between accounts at different financial institutions (when a real-time transfer is required, a wire transfer using a system such as the Federal Reserve's Fedwire is employed instead)

SEC codes[edit] Some common Standard Entry Class (SEC) codes: AT

ARC Accounts receivable conversion. A consumer check converted to a one-time ACH debit. The difference between ARC and POP is that ARC can result from a check mailed in whereas POP is in-person.[3] BOC Back office conversion. A single entry debit initiated at the point of purchase or at a manned bill payment location to transfer funds through conversion to an ACH debit entry during back office processing. Unlike ARC entries, BOC conversions require that the customer be present, and that the vendor post a notice that checks may be converted to BOC ACH entries.[4] CBR Corporate cross-border payment. Used for international business transactions, replaced by SEC Code IAT.[5] CCD Corporate Credit or Debit Entry. Used to consolidate and sweep cash funds within an entity's controlled accounts, or make/collect payments to/from other corporate entities. CIE Customer Initiated Entries. Use limited to credit applications where the consumer initiates the transfer of funds to a company for payment of funds owed to that company, typically through some type of home banking product or bill payment service provider.[6] CTX Corporate trade exchange. Transactions that include ASC X12 or EDIFACT information.[3] DNE Death notification entry. Issued by the federal government. IAT International ACH transaction. This is a SEC code for cross-border payment traffic to replace the PBR and CBR codes. The code has been implemented since September 18, 2009.[5] PBR Consumer cross-border payment. Used for international household transactions, replaced by SEC Code IAT.[5] POP Point-of-purchase. A check presented in-person to a merchant for purchase is presented as an ACH entry instead of a physical check. POS Point-of-sale. A debit at an electronic terminal initiated by use of a plastic card. An example is using your debit card to purchase gas. PPD Prearranged payment and deposits. Used to credit or debit a consumer account. Popularly used for payroll direct deposits and preauthorized bill payments. RCK Represented check entries. A physical check that was presented but returned because of insufficient funds may be represented as an ACH entry. TEL Telephone-initiated entry. Oral authorization by telephone to issue an ACH entry such as checks by phone. (TEL code allowed for inbound telephone orders only. NACHA disallows the use of this code for outbound telephone solicitations unless a prior business arrangement with the customer has been established.) WEB Web-initiated entry. Electronic authorization through the Internet to create an ACH entry. XCK Destroyed check entry. A physical check that was destroyed because of a disaster can be presented as an ACH entry.

See also[edit]

Clearing (finance) Clearing house (finance) Clearing House Association Electronic funds transfer Wire transfer Directo a México Originating Depository Financial Institution Pan-European automated clearing house Universal Payment Identification Code

References[edit]

^ Century Business Solutions (March 24, 2017) ACH Payments ^ "ACH Volume Grows by 5.6 Percent Adding 1.3 Billion Payments in 2015". NACHA. 2016-04-14. Retrieved July 25, 2016.  ^ a b "ACH Glossary". Ach.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-28. Retrieved 2012-10-24.  ^ "POP, ARC & BOC comparison". Witsends.com. Retrieved 2012-01-08.  ^ a b c " NACHA Moves Back IAT Deadline to Allow More Time for Testing". Retrieved 2014-07-22.  ^ "Understand the ACH Network: An ACH Primer" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-26. 

External links[edit]

NACHA, The Electronic Payments Association ACH Rules Online Electronic Payments Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Payment Systems Intro to the ACH Network Federal Reserve's ACH Number Lookup Regulation E ACH Return Codes & Explanations ACH Terms and Definitions ACH vs Credit Cards Report to the Congress on the Use of the Automated Clearinghouse System for Remittance Transfers to Foreign Countries International ACH Transactions (IAT) Solutions Center ACH Payment Integrati

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