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The Austronesian people[14] are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania
Oceania
and East Africa
East Africa
that speak languages stemming from the Austronesian family. They include Taiwanese aborigines; the majority of ethnic groups in the Philippines, Malaysia, East Timor, Indonesia, Brunei, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Malay people of Singapore, the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand
New Zealand
and Hawaii, and the non- Papuan people
Papuan people
of Melanesia. All of these people can be connected to the Austronesian language family group. They are also found in the regions of the Southern Thailand, the Cham areas in Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia, and the Hainan
Hainan
region of China, parts of Sri Lanka, southern Myanmar, southern tip of South Africa, Suriname
Suriname
and some of the Andaman Islands. On top of that, Austronesian diaspora also can be found in the United States of America, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, as well as West Asian countries. The people of the Maldives also possess traces of Austronesian genes via gene flow from the Malay Archipelago.[15] The territories populated by Austronesian-speaking peoples are known collectively as Austronesia.

Contents

1 Prehistory and history

1.1 Migration and dispersion

1.1.1 "Out of Taiwan" model 1.1.2 "Southeast Asian origin" model

1.2 Formation of tribes and kingdoms

2 Geographic distribution 3 Culture

3.1 Writing 3.2 Arts 3.3 Religion 3.4 Music

4 Genetic studies 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Books 8 External links

Prehistory and history[edit]

Austronesian expansion map

Colorized photograph of a Tsou warrior wearing traditional clothing, pre-World War II

Archaeological evidence demonstrates a technological connection between the farming cultures of the "south", meaning Southeast Asia and Melanesia, and sites that are first known from mainland China; whereas a combination of archaeological and linguistic evidence has been interpreted as supporting a "northern" origin for the Austronesian language family
Austronesian language family
in mainland southern China
China
and Taiwan. It is theoretically possible that a few thousand years before the Southward expansion of the Han dynasty
Southward expansion of the Han dynasty
and of Vietnam, Austronesian speakers spread down the coast of southern China
China
past Taiwan
Taiwan
as far as the (Gulf of Tonkin). In time, the spread of other language groups such as Austroasiatic, Tai-Kadai, Hmong-Mien and Sino-Tibetan (such as Chinese) led to the assimilation and eventual sinicization of all (proto) Austronesian-speaking populations that remained on the mainland (a process which continues today in Taiwan).[16] In a recent treatment, all Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
were classified into 10 subfamilies, with all the extra-Formosan languages grouped in one subfamily and with representatives of the remaining nine known only in Taiwan.[17] It has been argued that these patterns are best explained by dispersal of an agricultural people from Taiwan
Taiwan
into insular Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and, ultimately, the remote Pacific. Although this model—termed the "express train to Polynesia"[18][19]—is broadly consistent with available data, concerns have been raised.[20] Alternatives to this model posit an indigenous origin for the Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
in Melanesia
Melanesia
or Southeast Asia.[21][22][23][24] Genetic analyses suggest that the Austronesian people in South East Asia
Asia
had spread over Sundaland
Sundaland
(the land mass of Southeastern Asia before rising sea-level created the islands of South East Asia) and evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years.[25] Nevertheless, in 2016, DNA analysis carried out found that one of the genetic markers used in the study but not the others supports a small-scale "out-of-Taiwan" hypothesis.[26] The studies suggest that only a small fraction of the Taiwan
Taiwan
genetic lineages are found among the people of South East Asia, and it is argued that these movements of people from Taiwan, while smaller in scale, had a strong impact on culture and language the people.[27][28][29] Migration and dispersion[edit] See also: Genomics of domestication Further information: Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
§ History Genomic analysis of cultivated coconut (Cocos nucifera) has shed light on the movements of Austronesian peoples. By examining 10 microsatelite loci, researchers found that there are 2 genetically distinct subpopulations of coconut – one originating in the Indian Ocean, the other in the Pacific
Pacific
Ocean. However, there is evidence of admixture, the transfer of genetic material, between the two populations. Given that coconuts are ideally suited for ocean dispersal, it seems possible that individuals from one population could have floated to the other. However, the locations of the admixture events are limited to Madagascar
Madagascar
and coastal east Africa and exclude the Seychelles. Sailing west from Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
in the Indian Ocean, the Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
reached Madagascar
Madagascar
by ca. 50–500 AD, and reached other parts thereafter. This forms a pattern that coincides with the known trade routes of Austronesian sailors. Additionally, there is a genetically distinct subpopulation of coconut on the eastern coast of South America which has undergone a genetic bottleneck resulting from a founder effect; however, its ancestral population is the pacific coconut, which suggests that Austronesian peoples may have sailed as far east as the Americas.[30][31][32] "Out of Taiwan" model[edit]

An Atayal tribal woman from Taiwan
Taiwan
with tattoo on her face as a symbol of maturity, which was a tradition for both males and females.

A Rukai village chief visiting the Department of Anthropology in the Tokyo Imperial University
Tokyo Imperial University
during Japanese rule.

An element in the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking peoples, the one which carried their ancestral language, originated on the island of Taiwan. This occurred after the migration of pre-Austronesian-speaking peoples from continental Asia
Asia
between approximately 10,000–6,000 BC.[33][17] Other research has suggested that, according to radiocarbon dates, Austronesians may have migrated from mainland China to Taiwan
Taiwan
as late as 4000 BC.[34] Before Taiwan, Austronesian speakers are thought to have[by whom?] been descended from the neolithic cultures of Southeastern China, such as the Hemudu culture
Hemudu culture
or the Liangzhu culture.[35][36][37] According to the mainstream "out-of- Taiwan
Taiwan
model", a large-scale Austronesian expansion began around 5000–2500 BC. Population growth
Population growth
primarily fuelled this migration. These first settlers may have landed in northern Luzon
Luzon
in the archipelago of the Philippines, intermingling with the earlier Australo- Melanesian
Melanesian
population who had inhabited the islands since about 23,000 years earlier. Over the next thousand years, Austronesian peoples migrated southeast to the rest of the Philippines, and into the islands of the Celebes Sea, Borneo, and Indonesia. The Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
of Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
sailed eastward, and spread to the islands of Melanesia
Melanesia
and Micronesia
Micronesia
between 1200 BC and 500 AD respectively. The Austronesian inhabitants that spread westward through Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
had reached some parts of mainland Southeast Asia, and later on Madagascar.[33][38] Sailing from Melanesia, and Micronesia, the Austronesian peoples discovered Polynesia
Polynesia
by 1000 BC. These people settled most of the Pacific
Pacific
Islands. They had settled Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
(Easter Island) by 300 AD, Hawaii
Hawaii
by 400 AD, and into New Zealand
New Zealand
by about 1280 AD. There is evidence, based in the spreading of the sweet potato, that they reached South America where they traded with the Native Americans.[39][40] In the Indian Ocean they sailed west from Maritime Southeast Asia; the Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
reached Madagascar
Madagascar
by ca. 50–500 AD.[31][32] "Southeast Asian origin" model[edit] This "out of Taiwan
Taiwan
model" has been recently challenged by a 2008 study. Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that they have been evolving within Island Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
(ISEA) for a longer period than previously believed. Population dispersals occurred at the same time as sea levels rose, which may have resulted in migrations to the Philippines
Philippines
as far north as Taiwan
Taiwan
within the last 10,000 years.[25][41] The population migrations were most likely to have been driven by climate change — the effects of the drowning of a huge ancient subcontinent called ‘Sundaland’ (that extended the Asian landmass as far as Borneo
Borneo
and Java). This happened during the period 15,000 to 7,000 years ago following the last Ice Age. Rising sea levels in three massive pulses caused flooding and the partial submergence of the Sunda subcontinent, creating the Java and South China
China
Seas and the thousands of islands that make up Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Philippines
Philippines
today.[23] The researchers however later found genetic evidence indicating that movements of people from Taiwan
Taiwan
to the islands of South East Asia
Asia
did occur, but they were smaller in scale which nevertheless brought about much larger linguistic and cultural changes.[26] Findings from HUGO (Human Genome Organization) in 2009 also show that Asia
Asia
was populated primarily through a single migration event out of Africa whereby an early population first entered South East Asia before they moved northwards to East Asia.[42] They found genetic similarities between populations throughout Asia
Asia
and an increase in genetic diversity from northern to southern latitudes. Although the Chinese population is very large, it has less variation than the smaller number of individuals living in South East Asia, because the Chinese expansion occurred very recently, following the development of rice agriculture — within only the last 10,000 years. Formation of tribes and kingdoms[edit]

A Tagalog Maginoo
Maginoo
(noble class) couple, both wearing blue-coloured clothing (blue being the distinctive colour of their class).

Borobudur, the world's largest Buddhist
Buddhist
temple, was built under the reign of the Sailendra dynasty, which was bound by dynastic alliance with the city-state of Srivijaya.

By the beginning of the first millennium CE, most of the Austronesian inhabitants in Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
began trading with India
India
and China. The adoption of Hindu statecraft model allowed the creation of Indianized kingdoms such as Tarumanagara, Champa, Langkasuka, Melayu, Srivijaya, Medang Mataram, Majapahit, and Bali. Between the 5th to 15th century Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
were established as the main religion in the region. Muslim traders from the Arabian peninsula
Arabian peninsula
were thought to have brought Islam
Islam
by the 10th century. Islam
Islam
was established as the dominant religion in the Indonesian archipelago by the 16th century. The Austronesian inhabitants of Polynesia
Polynesia
were unaffected by this cultural trade, and retained their indigenous culture in the Pacific region.[43] Kingdom of Larantuka
Kingdom of Larantuka
in Flores, East Nusa Tenggara
East Nusa Tenggara
was the only Christian
Christian
(Roman Catholic) indigenous kingdom in Indonesia
Indonesia
and in Southeast Asia, with the first king named Lorenzo.[44] Western Europeans in search of spices and gold later colonized most of the Austronesian-speaking countries of the Asia- Pacific
Pacific
region, beginning from the 16th century with the Portuguese and Spanish colonization of some parts of Indonesia
Indonesia
(present day East Timor), the Philippines, Palau, Guam, and the Mariana Islands; the Dutch colonization of the Indonesian archipelago; the British colonization of Malaysia
Malaysia
and Oceania; the French colonization of French Polynesia; and later, the American governance of the Pacific. Meanwhile, the British, Germans, French, Americans, and Japanese began establishing spheres of influence within the Pacific
Pacific
Islands during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Japanese later invaded most of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and some parts of the Pacific
Pacific
during World War II. The latter half of the 20th century initiated independence of modern-day Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, and many of the Pacific
Pacific
Island nations. Geographic distribution[edit]

Map showing the distribution of the Austronesian language family (light pink). It roughly corresponds to the distribution of the Austronesian people.

A kanaka maoli (native) from Hawaii
Hawaii
performing Hula
Hula
dance

A Balinese from Indonesia
Indonesia
performing Barong dance

A young Māori man from New Zealand
New Zealand
(Aotearoa) performs in a kapa haka group

Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
consist of the following groupings by name and geographic location.

Formosan: Taiwan. e.g. Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Paiwan. Malayo-Polynesian:

Borneo
Borneo
groups: e.g. Kadazan-Dusun, Murut, Iban, Bidayuh, Dayak, Lun Bawang/Lundayeh Chamic group: Cambodia, Hainan, Cham areas of Vietnam
Vietnam
(remnants of the Champa
Champa
kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam) as well as Aceh
Aceh
in northern Sumatra. e.g. Acehnese, Chams, Jarai, Utsuls. Central Luzon
Luzon
group: Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Sambal. Igorot
Igorot
(Cordillerans): Cordilleras. e.g. Balangao, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Itneg, Kankanaey. Lumad: Mindanao. e.g. Kamayo, Manobo, Tasaday, T'boli. Malagasy: Madagascar. e.g. Betsileo, Merina, Sakalava, Tsimihety. Melanesians: Melanesia. Fijians, e.g. Kanak, Ni-Vanuatu, Solomon Islands Micronesians: Micronesia. e.g. Carolinian, Chamorros, Palauan. Moken: Burma, Thailand. Moro: Bangsamoro ( Mindanao
Mindanao
& Sulu Archipelago). e.g. Maguindanao, Maranao, Tausug, Sama-Bajau. Northern Luzon
Luzon
lowlanders: e.g. Ilocano, Ibanag, Itawes. Polynesians: Polynesia. Māori, Native Hawaiians, Samoans. Southern Luzon
Luzon
lowlanders: e.g. Tagalog, Bicolano Sunda– Sulawesi
Sulawesi
language and ethnic groups including Malay, Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Bataknese (geographically Includes Malaysia, Brunei, Pattani, Singapore, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
parts of Sri Lanka, southern Myanmar
Myanmar
and much of western and central Indonesia). Visayans: Visayas. e.g. Aklanon, Boholano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Masbateño, Waray.

According to a recent studies by Stanford University, there is wide variety of paternal ancestry among the Austronesian people, aside from European introgression found in Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Madagascar. They constitute the dominant ethnic group in the Malay Peninsula, Maritime Southeast Asia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Madagascar. An estimated 380,000,000 people living in these regions are of Austronesian descent. The peoples constitute the dominant ethnic groups in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines, the southernmost part of Thailand and East Timor, which together with Singapore. Outside this area, they inhabit Palau, Guam
Guam
and the Northern Marianas, most of Madagascar, the Cham areas of Vietnam
Vietnam
and Cambodia
Cambodia
(the remnants of the Champa
Champa
kingdom which covered central and southern Vietnam), and all countries in the Micronesian and Polynesian sphere of influence. Culture[edit] The native culture of Austronesia
Austronesia
varies from region to region. The early Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
considered the sea as the basic feature of their life.[citation needed] Following their diaspora to Southeast Asia
Asia
and Oceania, they migrated by boat to other islands. Boats of different sizes and shapes have been found in every Austronesian culture, from Madagascar, Maritime Southeast Asia, to Polynesia, and have different names. In Southeast Asia, head-hunting was restricted to the highlands as a result of warfare. Mummification is only found among the highland Austronesian Filipinos, and in some Indonesian groups in Celebes and Borneo.

Decimal numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

PAN, circa 4000 BC *isa *DuSa *telu *Sepat *lima *enem *pitu *walu *Siwa *puluq

Tagalog isá dalawá tatló ápat limá ánim pitó waló siyám sampu

Kadazan iso duvo tohu apat himo onom tu' vahu sizam hopod

Dusun iso duwo tolu apat limo onom tulu walu siyam hopod

Lun Bawang/Lundayeh aceh due telu apat lime enam tudu walu yiwa puluh

Ilocano maysá dua talló uppát limá inném pitó waló siam sangapúlo

Cebuano usá duhá tuló upat limá unom pitó waló siyám napulu

Chamorro maisa/håcha hugua tulu fatfat lima gunum fiti guålu sigua månot/fulu

Indonesian satu/suatu[45] dua tiga[46][47] empat lima[48] enam tujuh delapan[49] sembilan sepuluh

Malay satu dua tiga[50] empat lima enam tujuh lapan sembilan sepuluh

Javanese siji loro telu papat limo nem pitu wolu songo sepuluh

Sundanese hiji dua tilu opat lima genep tujuh dalapan salapan sapuluh

Tetum ida rua tolu haat lima neen hitu ualu sia sanulu

Fijian dua rua tolu vā lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini

Tongan taha ua tolu fā nima ono fitu valu hiva -fulu

Sāmoan tasi lua tolu fā lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu

Māori tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau (archaic: ngahuru)

Tahitian hō'ē piti toru maha pae ono hitu va'u iva 'ahuru

Marquesan e tahi e 'ua e to'u e fa e 'ima e ono e fitu e va'u e iva 'onohu'u

Hawaiian kahi lua kolu hā lima ono hiku walu iwa -'umi

Malagasy iray/isa roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo

Writing[edit] Main article: Austronesian languages

Left: Petroglyph
Petroglyph
on the western coast of Hawaii. Petroglyphs were symbolic, but could not encode language. Right: An Austronesian abugida known as Baybayin
Baybayin
from the Philippines.

With the possible exception of rongorongo on Easter Island, writing among pre-modern Austronesians was limited to the Indianized states and the sultanates of Maritime Southeast Asia. These systems included abugidas from the Brahmic family, such as Baybayin, the Javanese script, and Old Kawi, and abjads derived from the Arabic script
Arabic script
such as Jawi. Since the 20th century, new scripts were mostly alphabets adapted from the Latin alphabet, as in the Hawaiian alphabet, Filipino alphabet, and Malay alphabet; however, several Formosan languages are written in zhuyin, and Cia-Cia off Sulawesi
Sulawesi
has experimented with hangul. Arts[edit]

Left: A young Bontoc man from the Philippines
Philippines
(c. 1908) with tattoos on the chest and arms (chaklag). These indicated that the man was a warrior who had taken heads during battle.[51] Right: A young Māori woman with traditional tattoos (moko) on the lips and chin (c. 1860–1879). These were symbols of status and rank, as well as being considered marks of beauty.

Body art among Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
is common, especially elaborate tattooing which has ancient origins.[52] It is particularly prominent in Polynesian cultures, from where the word "tattoo" derives. But tattooing is also prominent among Austronesian groups in Taiwan, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia.[53] Among the Māori of New Zealand, tattoos (moko) were originally carved into the skin using bone chisels (uhi) rather than through puncturing as in usual practice.[54] In addition to being pigmented, the skin was also left raised into ridges of swirling patterns.[55] In the Philippines, the Spanish called the Filipinos
Filipinos
they first encountered in the Visayas
Visayas
as the Pintados, ("the painted ones" or "the tattooed ones")[56] due to their practice of tattooing their entire bodies.[57] Tattooing traditions were mostly lost as the natives of the islands converted to Christianity
Christianity
and Islam, though they were still practised in isolated groups in the highlands of Luzon and Mindanao. Philippine tattoos were usually geometric patterns or stylized depictions of animals, plants, and human figures.[58][59][60] Some of the few remaining traditional tattoos in the Philippines
Philippines
are from elders of the Igorot
Igorot
peoples. Most of these were records of war exploits against the Japanese during World War II.[61] Decorated jars and other forms of pottery are also common, with patterns often resembling those used in tattoos. Austronesian peoples living close to mainland Asia
Asia
were also influenced by Chinese, Indian, and Arabic
Arabic
art forms. Religion[edit] See also: the categories Religion in Oceania, Religion in the Philippines, Religion in Indonesia, Religion in Malaysia, Religion in Madagascar, Religion in East Timor, Religion in Brunei, and Religion in Singapore.

Left: A troupe of Bahau Dayak performers during the Hudoq festival (Harvest festival) in Kalimantan, Indonesia). (c. 1898–1900) Right: Balinese small familial house shrines to honor the households' ancestor in Bali
Bali
island, Indonesia.

Indigenous religions were initially predominant. Mythologies vary by culture and geographical location, but are generally bound by the belief in an all-powerful divinity. Other beliefs such as ancestor worship, animism, and shamanism are also practiced. Currently, many of these beliefs have gradually been replaced. Examples of native religions include: Anito, Gabâ, Sunda Wiwitan, Kejawen, and the Māori religion. The moai of the Rapa Nui
Rapa Nui
is another example since they are built to represent deceased ancestors. Southeast Asian contact with India
India
and China
China
allowed the introduction of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism. Later, Muslim traders introduced the Islamic faith between the periods of the 10th, and 13th century. The European Age of Discovery, brought Christianity
Christianity
to various parts of the region, including both New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia. Currently, the dominant religions are Christianity
Christianity
in the Philippines, much of eastern Indonesia, some parts of Indonesian Sumatra
Sumatra
and Borneo, East Timor, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, most of the Pacific
Pacific
Islands, and Madagascar; Islam
Islam
found in Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Thailand, the southern Philippines
Philippines
and Brunei; Hinduism
Hinduism
in Singapore, Bali, some parts of Indonesian Lombok and Java, and some other Indonesian islands. There is also a tiny population in Manado
Manado
on the island of Sulawesi
Sulawesi
who professed Judaism, most of whom either have Jewish ancestry who later mixed with the indigenous Minahasans or converts. Music[edit] Further information: Indonesian music, Melanesian
Melanesian
music, Philippine folk music, Polynesian music, and Malagasy music

Traditional instruments of Gamelan, from the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra, Australia

The Austronesian music in Maritime Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
had a mixture of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic
Arabic
musical styles and sounds that had fused together with the indigenous Austronesian culture and music. In Indonesia, Gamelan, a type of orchestra that incorporates Xylophone and Metallophone elements, is widely used in its Hindu, Buddhist, and Islamic cultural tradition. In some parts of the southern, and northern Philippines, an Arabic
Arabic
gong-drum known as Kulintang, and a gong-chime known as Gangsa, is also used. The Austronesian music of Oceania
Oceania
have retained their indigenous Austronesian sounds. The Slit drums is an indigenous Austronesian musical instrument that were invented and used by the Southeast Asian-Austronesian, and Oceanic-Austronesian ethnic groups. Genetic studies[edit] Genetic studies have been done on the people and related groups.[62] The Haplogroup O1 (Y-DNA)a-M119 genetic marker is frequently detected in Native Taiwanese, northern Philippines
Philippines
and Polynesians, as well as some people in Indonesia
Indonesia
and non-Austronesian populations in southern China.[63] A 2007 analysis of the DNA recovered from human remains in archeological sites of prehistoric peoples along the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
in China
China
also shows high frequencies of Haplogroup O1 in the Neolithic Liangzhu culture, linking them to Austronesian and Tai-Kadai peoples. The Liangzhu culture
Liangzhu culture
existed in coastal areas around the mouth of the Yangtze. Haplogroup O1 was absent in other archeological sites inland. The authors of the study suggest that this may be evidence of two different human migration routes during the peopling of Eastern Asia; one coastal and the other inland, with little genetic flow between them.[64] Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
(mtDNA) analysis in 2008 suggests that the populations in the islands of South East Asia
Asia
may have evolved in situ over the last 35,000 years, that they had already established themselves in the region before the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, long before the Taiwanese people were proposed to have moved out of Taiwan
Taiwan
into the region.[25] Nevertheless, in 2016, DNA analysis carried out found that one of the genetic markers used in the study, haplogroup M7c3c, supports the "out-of-Taiwan" hypothesis, although not from the other genetic markers. Results from these studies suggest that there were movements of Neolithic
Neolithic
people from Taiwan
Taiwan
to the islands of South East Asia
Asia
around 4,000 years ago, but they were small-scale affairs, with greater impact in the Philippines.[26] The fractions of Taiwanese Neolithic
Neolithic
lineages present in the people of the islands of South East Asia
Asia
today are estimated to range from 28% in the Philippines
Philippines
to 13.6% in Western Indonesia
Indonesia
and 10.3% in Kalimantan.[65] The authors argue that the cultural impact on the people was due to small-scale interactions and waves of acculturation, and that the Taiwanese migrants despite being smaller in numbers had a strong influence on the culture and language of the people as they were seen as an elite or associated with a new religion or philosophy.[27][29] Some researchers have proposed a more complex pattern of settlement and dispersal, where the Austronesians were dispersed from mainland South East Asia
Asia
via two routes: a northern route through Taiwan
Taiwan
before they moved further down to the South East Asian islands, and a southern route through western Indonesia.[66] Others have also found genetic links between the ancestors of Austronesians and people of North and South China.[67][68] The Austronesian speaking people can now be grouped into two genetically close groups:[citation needed]

1. The Sunda or Malay group consisting of most people in the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Madagascar
Madagascar
and historically Asian Mainland 2. The Taiwanese-Polynesian group consisting of most people in Taiwan, Northern Philippines, Polynesia, Micronesians and historically Southern China.

See also[edit]

Austronesian languages Polynesian languages Malayo-Polynesian languages Pacific
Pacific
Islander Dayak Kadazan-Dusun Samoans Maori people Tongans Fijian people Cape Malays Native Hawaiians Native Indonesians Taiwanese Aborigines Malagasy people Ethnic Malays Filipinos Javanese people Javanese Surinamese Balinese people Sundanese people Moana (2016 film) Lun Bawang/Lundayeh

Notes[edit]

^ http://www.bps.go.id/website/pdf_publikasi/watermark_Proyeksi%20Penduduk%20Indonesia%202010-2035.pdf ^ "Population, total - Data". data.worldbank.org.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-22.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-22.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 24 July 2016.  ^ http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/2006-census-data/national-highlights/2006-census-quickstats-national-highlights.htm?page=para025Master ^ http://www.stats.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/62F419D4-5946-407A-9553-DA9E7A847622/0/09ethnicgroup.xls ^ About 13.6% of Singaporeans are of Malay descent. In addition to these, many Chinese Singaporeans are also of mixed Austronesian descent. See also "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-25.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-23.  ^ "U.S. 2000 Census".  ^ "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-21.  ^ "A2 : Population by ethnic group according to districts, 2012". Census of Population& Housing, 2011. Department of Census& Statistics, Sri Lanka.  ^ According to the anthropologist Wilhelm Solheim II: "I emphasize again, as I have done in many other articles, that 'Austronesian' is a linguistic term and is the name of a super language family. It should never be used as a name for a people, genetically speaking, or a culture. To refer to people who speak an Austronesian language the phrase 'Austronesian-speaking people' should be used." Origins of the Filipinos
Filipinos
and Their Languages. (January 2006). ^ Maloney, C. (1980). People of the Maldive Islands. Orient Longman Ltd, Madras. ISBN 0-86131-158-2.  ^ Goodenough, Ward Hunt (1996). Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific, Volume 86, Part 5. ISBN 9780871698650.  ^ a b Blust R (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics". In Zeitoun E; Jen-kuei Li, P. Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Taipei: Academia Sinica. pp. 31–94. ISBN 9576716322. OCLC 58527039.  ^ Diamond, Jared M. (1988). "Express train to Polynesia". Nature. 336 (6197): 307–8. Bibcode:1988Natur.336..307D. doi:10.1038/336307a0.  ^ Diamond 1998, pp. 336ff ^ Richards, Martin; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Sykes, Bryan (1998). "mtDNA suggests Polynesian origins in Eastern Indonesia". American Journal of Human Genetics. 63 (4): 1234–6. doi:10.1086/302043. PMC 1377476 . PMID 9758601.  ^ Dyen, Isidore (1962). "The lexicostatistical classification of Malayapolynesian languages". Language. 38 (1): 38–46. doi:10.2307/411187. JSTOR 411187.  ^ Isidore Dyen (1965). "A Lexicostatistical Classification of the Austronesian Languages". Internationald Journal of American Linguistics, Memoir. 19: 38–46.  ^ a b Oppenheimer, Stephen (1998). Eden in the east: the drowned continent. London: Weidenfield & Nicholson. ISBN 0-297-81816-3.  ^ Cristian Capelli; James F. Wilson; Martin Richards; Michael P. H. Stumpf; Fiona Gratrix; Stephen Oppenheimer; Peter Underhill; Vincenzo L. Pascali; Tsang-Ming Ko & David B. Goldstein (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and Oceania". American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (2): 432–443. doi:10.1086/318205. PMC 1235276 . PMID 11170891.  ^ a b c Soares P, Trejaut JA, Loo JH (June 2008). "Climate change and postglacial human dispersals in southeast Asia". Mol. Biol. Evol. 25 (6): 1209–18. doi:10.1093/molbev/msn068. PMID 18359946.  ^ a b c Pedro A. Soares, Jean A. Trejaut, Teresa Rito, Bruno Cavadas, Catherine Hill, Ken Khong Eng, Maru MorminaAndreia Brandão, Ross M. Fraser, Tse-Yi Wang, Jun-Hun Loo, Christopher Snell, Tsang-Ming Ko, António Amorim, Maria Pala, Vincent Macaulay, David Bulbeck, James F. Wilson, Leonor Gusmão, Luísa Pereira, Stephen Oppenheimer, Marie Lin, Martin B. Richard (2016). "Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations". Human Genetics. doi:10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z. PMID 26781090. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b "New research into the origins of the Austronesian languages: Complex genetic data now confirms that Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
found in Pacific
Pacific
islanders was present in Island Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
at a much earlier period". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2017-08-24.  ^ Melton, T.; Clifford, S.; Martinson, J.; Batzer, M.; Stoneking, M. (December 1998). "Genetic evidence for the proto-Austronesian homeland in Asia: mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation in Taiwanese aboriginal tribes". American Journal of Human Genetics. 63 (6): 1807–1823. doi:10.1086/302131. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 1377653 . PMID 9837834.  ^ a b "DNA Analysis Gives Insight into Austronesian Languages". New Historian. 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2017-08-24.  ^ Gunn, Bee; Luc Baudouin; Kenneth M. Olsen (2011). "Independent Origins of Cultivated Coconut ( Cocos nucifera
Cocos nucifera
L.) in the Old World Tropics". PLoS ONE. 6 (6): e21143. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...621143G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021143. PMC 3120816 . PMID 21731660.  ^ a b Dewar, RE; Wright, HT (1993). "The culture history of Madagascar". Journal of World Prehistory. 7 (4): 417–466. doi:10.1007/BF00997802.  ^ a b Burney DA, Burney LP, Godfrey LR, Jungers WL, Goodman SM, Wright HT, Jull AJ (2004). "A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar". Journal of Human Evolution. 47 (1–2): 25–63. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.005. PMID 15288523.  ^ a b Gray, RD; Drummond, AJ; Greenhill, SJ (2009). "Language Phylogenies Reveal Expansion Pulses and Pauses in Pacific
Pacific
Settlement". Science. 323 (5913): 479–483. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..479G. doi:10.1126/science.1166858. PMID 19164742.  ^ Kun, Ho Chuan (2006). "On the Origins of Taiwan
Taiwan
Austronesians". In K. R. Howe. Vaka Moana: Voyages of the Ancestors (3rd ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-8248-3213-1.  ^ Bellwood, Peter (2014). The Global Prehistory of Human Migration. p. 213.  ^ Goodenough, Ward Hunt (1996). Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific, Volume 86, Part 5. American Philosophical Societ. pp. 127–128.  ^ Li, H; Huang, Y; Mustavich, LF; et al. (November 2007). "Y chromosomes of prehistoric people along the Yangtze River". Hum. Genet. 122 (3–4): 383–8. doi:10.1007/s00439-007-0407-2. PMID 17657509. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Pawley, A. (2002). "The Austronesian dispersal: languages, technologies and people". In Bellwood, Peter S.; Renfrew, Colin. Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge. pp. 251–273. ISBN 1902937201.  ^ Van Tilburg, Jo Anne. 1994. Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology and Culture. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press ^ Langdon, Robert. The Bamboo Raft as a Key to the Introduction of the Sweet Potato in Prehistoric Polynesia, The Journal of Pacific History', Vol. 36, No. 1, 2001 ^ "New DNA evidence overturns population migration theory in Island Southeast Asia". Phys.org. 23 May 2008.  ^ "Genetic 'map' of Asia's diversity". BBC News. 11 December 2009.  Kumar, Vikrant (11 December 2009). "Scientific consortium maps the range of genetic diversity in Asia, and traces the genetic origins of Asian populations". HUGO Matters. Human Genome Organisation. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014.  HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium; Abdulla MA; Ahmed I; Assawamakin A; et al. (December 2009). "Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia". Science. 326 (5959): 1541–5. Bibcode:2009Sci...326.1541.. doi:10.1126/science.1177074. PMID 20007900.  ^ Philippine History by Maria Christine N. Halili. "Chapter 3: Precolonial Philippines" (Published by Rex Bookstore; Manila, Sampaloc St. Year 2004) ^ Oktora, Samuel; Ama, Kornelis Kewa (3 April 2010). "Lima Abad Semana Santa Larantuka" (in Indonesian). Kompas. Retrieved 19 August 2017.  ^ The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanword "Ekasila" : "Eka" means 1, "Sila" means "pillar", "principle" appeared in Sukarno's speech ^ In Kedukan Bukit inscription
Kedukan Bukit inscription
the numeral tlu ratus appears as three hundred, tlu as three, in http://www.wordsense.eu/telu/ the word telu is referred to as three in Malay, although the use of telu is very rare. ^ The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanword "Trisila" : "Tri" means 3, "Sila" means "pillar", "principle" appeared in Sukarno's speech ^ The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanword: Pancasila is the 5 principles of sukarno explained here: Pancasila (politics), "Panca" means 5, "Sila" means "pillar", "principle". ^ Lapan is a known shortage of Delapan. ^ In Kedukan Bukit inscription
Kedukan Bukit inscription
the numeral tlu ratus appears as three hundred, tlu as three, in http://www.wordsense.eu/telu/ the word telu is referred to as three in Malay, although the use of telu is very rare. ^ Krutak, Lars (2005–2006). "Return of the Headhunters: The Philippine Tattoo
Tattoo
Revival". The Vanishing Tattoo. Retrieved December 9, 2013.  ^ Kirch, Patrick V. (1998). "Lapita and Its Aftermath: the Austronesian Settlement of Oceania". In Goodenough, Ward H. Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific, Volume 86, Part 5. American Philosophical Society. p. 70. ISBN 0-87169-865-X.  ^ Bellwood, Peter (2007). Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago. ANU E Press. p. 151. ISBN 9781921313127.  ^ Best, Eldson (1904). "The Uhi-Maori, or Native Tattooing Instruments". The Journal of the Polynesian Society. 13 (3): 166–172.  ^ Major-General Robley (1896). "Moko and Mokamokai — Chapter I — How Moko First Became Knows to Europeans". Moko; or Maori Tattooing. Chapman and Hall Limited. p. 5. Retrieved 2009-09-26.  ^ Cummins, Joseph (2006). History's Great Untold Stories: Obscure Events of Lasting Importance. Pier 9. p. 133. ISBN 9781740458085.  ^ Lach, Donald F. & Van Kley, Edwin J. (1998). Asia
Asia
in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 3: Southeast Asia. University of Chicago Press. p. 1499. ISBN 9780226467689.  ^ Masferré, Eduardo (1999). A Tribute to the Philippine Cordillera. Asiatype, Inc. p. 64. ISBN 9789719171201.  ^ Salvador-Amores, Analyn Ikin V. (2002). "Batek: Traditional Tattoos and Identities in Contemporary Kalinga, North Luzon
Luzon
Philippines". Humanities Diliman. 3 (1): 105–142.  ^ Van Dinter; Maarten Hesselt (2005). The World Of Tattoo: An Illustrated History. Centraal Boekhuis. p. 64. ISBN 9789068321920.  ^ Krutak, Lars (2009). "The Kalinga Batok (Tattoo) Festival". The Vanishing Tattoo. Retrieved December 9, 2013.  ^ The Austronesian Moment[permanent dead link] ^ "臺灣原住民族的Y 染色體多樣性與華南史前文化的關連性" (PDF).  ^ Li, Hui; Huang, Ying; Mustavich, Laura F.; Zhang, Fan; Tan, Jing-Ze; Wang, ling-E; Qian, Ji; Gao, Meng-He & Jin, Li (2007). "Y chromosomes of prehistoric people along the Yangtze River" (PDF). Human Genetics. 122 (3–4): 383–388. doi:10.1007/s00439-007-0407-2. PMID 17657509. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2013.  ^ Andreia Brandão, Ken Khong Eng, Teresa Rito, Bruno Cavadas, David Bulbeck, Francesca Gandini, Maria Pala, Maru Mormina, Bob Hudson, Joyce White, Tsang-Ming Ko, Mokhtar Saidin, Zainuddin Zafarina, Stephen Oppenheimer, Martin B. Richards, Luísa Pereira, and Pedro Soares (2016). "Quantifying the legacy of the Chinese Neolithic
Neolithic
on the maternal genetic heritage of Taiwan
Taiwan
and Island Southeast Asia". Hum. Genet. 135: 363–376. doi:10.1007/s00439-016-1640-3. PMC 4796337 . PMID 26875094. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Jean A Trejaut, Estella S Poloni, Ju-Chen Yen, Ying-Hui Lai, Jun-Hun Loo, Chien-Liang Lee, Chun-Lin He and Marie Lin (2014). "Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia". BMC Genetics. 15 (77). doi:10.1186/1471-2156-15-77. PMID 24965575. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Lan-Hai Wei, Shi Yan, Yik-Ying Teo, Yun-Zhi Huang, Ling-Xiang Wang, Ge Yu, Woei-Yuh Saw, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Yan Lu,4 Chao Zhang, Shu-Hua Xu, Li Jin, and Hui Li (April 2017). "Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 reveals patrilineal traces of Austronesian populations on the eastern coastal regions of Asia". PLoS One. 12 (4). Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1275080W. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0175080. PMC 5381892 . PMID 28380021. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Albert Min-Shan Ko, Chung-Yu Chen, Qiaomei Fu, Frederick Delfin, Mingkun Li, Hung-Lin Chiu, Mark Stoneking, and Ying-Chin Ko (March 6, 2014). "Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan". Am J Hum Genet. 94 (3): 426–436. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.02.003. PMC 3951936 . PMID 24607387. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

Books[edit]

Bellwood, Peter S. (1979). Man's conquest of the Pacific: The prehistory of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and Oceania. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195201031.  Bellwood, Peter (2007). Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian Archipelago (3rd, revised ed.). ANU E Press. ISBN 978-1-921313-12-7.  Bellwood, Peter; Fox, James J.; Tryon, Darrell, eds. (2006). The Austronesians : historical and comparative perspectives. Australian National University. ISBN 1920942858.  Diamond, Jared M. (1998). Guns, Germs, and Steel. Vintage. ISBN 84-8306-667-X.  Benitez-Johannot, Purissima, ed. (2009). Paths of Origins. ArtPostAsia Books. ISBN 9719429208.  James J. Fox (2006). Origins, Ancestry and Alliance: Explorations in Austronesian Ethnography. ANU E Press. ISBN 978-1-920942-87-8. 

External links[edit]

Cristian Capelli; et al. (2001). "A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia
Asia
and Oceania" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 68 (2): 432–443. doi:10.1086/318205. PMC 1235276 . PMID 11170891. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2010.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mundās". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Books, some online, on Austronesian subjects by the Australian National University Encyclopædia Britannica: Austronesian Languages

v t e

Culture of indigenous Oceania

List of resources about traditional arts and culture of Oceania

Art

Ahu Australia Austronesia Cook Islands Hawaiʻi kapa (Hawaiʻi) Lei magimagi moai New Zealand

Māori

nguzu nguzu Oceania Papua New Guinea reimiro tā moko tabua ta'ovala tapa ["masi" (Fiji), "ngatu" (Tonga), "siapo" (Sāmoa), " ʻuha" (Rotuma)] tattoo tēfui tivaevae

Broad culture

areca nut kava, " ʻawa" (Hawaii), "yaqona" (Fiji), or "sakau" (Pohnpei) Kava
Kava
culture Lapita Māori Polynesia Polynesian navigation Sāmoa 'ava ceremony wood carving

Geo-specific, general

Australia

Australian Aboriginal astronomy)

Austronesia Caroline Islands, -Pwo Chatham Islands Cook Islands Easter Island Fiji

Lau Islands traditions and ceremonies

Guam Hawaiʻi

Lomilomi massage

Kiribati French Polynesia's Marquesas Islands Marshall Islands

Stick charts of

Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand Niue Norfolk Island Palau Papua New Guinea Pitcairn Islands Sāmoa Solomon Islands Tonga Torres Strait Islands Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna Yap

navigation Weriyeng navigation school

Canoes

Aboriginal Dugout Alingano Maisu Bangka Drua Dugout (boat) Hawaiʻiloa Hōkūleʻa Kaep Karakoa Malia (Hawaiian) Māori migration Outrigger Paraw Polynesian sailing Proa Vinta Waka

list

Walap

Dance

'Aparima cibi fara fire dancing firewalking haka hivinau hula kailao kapa haka Kiribati meke 'ote'a pa'o'a poi Rotuma siva Tahiti tāmūrē tautoga Tonga 'upa'upa

Festivals

Australia

Garma Festival

Hawaiʻi

Aloha Festivals Merrie Monarch Festival World Invitational Hula
Hula
Festival

Fiji New Zealand

Pasifika Festival

The Pacific
Pacific
Community

Festival of Pacific
Pacific
Arts

Papua New Guinea

Languages

by area

v t e

Languages of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

by category

Languages of Oceania

Literature

v t e

Literature of Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

Music

Austral Islands (French Polynesia) Australia Austronesia Cook Islands Easter Island Fiji Guam Hawaiʻi Kiribati Lali Melanesia Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Caledonia New Zealand

Māori

Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Polynesia Sāmoa Slit drum Solomon Islands Tahiti Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna

Mythology

Australian Aboriginal Fijian Hawaiian Mangarevan Maohi Māori Melanesian Menehune Micronesian Oceanian legendary creatures Polynesian Rapa Nui Samoan Tuvaluan Vanuatuan

Research

Asian American and Pacific
Pacific
Islander Policy Research Consortium Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies

People

Indigneous Australian Austronesian Bajau Chamorro Chatham Islander (Moriori or Rekohu) Fijian (iTaukei) Igorot Hawaiian (kānaka maoli) Māori Marshallese Melanesian Micronesian Negrito Norfolk Islander Papuan Polynesian Indigenous Polynesian (Mā’ohi) Rapa Nui Rotuman Ryukyuan Samoan (Tagata Māo‘i) Tahitian Taiwanese aborigines Tongan Torres Strait Islander Yami

Religion

v t e

Religion in Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

Not included: Oceanian: cinema, (indigenous) currency, dress, folkore, cuisine. Also see Category:Oceanian culture.

v t e

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
of the world by continent

Africa

Asia

Europe

North America

Oceania

South America

Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
by

.