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The Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar
Madagascar
and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.[2] Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are spoken by about 386 million people (4.9%), making it the fourth-largest language family by number of speakers, behind the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
(46.3%), the Sino-Tibetan languages (20.4%), and the Niger-Congo languages
Niger-Congo languages
(6.9%). Major Austronesian
Austronesian
languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog). The family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family.[3] Similarities between the languages spoken in the Malay Archipelago
Malay Archipelago
and the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
were first observed in 1706 by the Dutch scholar Adriaan Reland.[4] In the 19th century, researchers (e.g. Wilhelm von Humboldt, Herman van der Tuuk) started to apply the comparative method to the Austronesian
Austronesian
languages, but the first comprehensive and extensive study on the phonological history of the Austronesian language family including a reconstruction of Proto-Austronesian lexicon was made by the German linguist Otto Dempwolff.[5] The term Austronesian
Austronesian
itself was coined by Wilhelm Schmidt (German austronesisch, based on Latin
Latin
auster "south wind" and Greek νῆσος "island").[6] The family is aptly named, as the vast majority of Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are spoken on islands: only a few languages, such as Malay and the Chamic languages, are indigenous to mainland Asia. Many Austronesian
Austronesian
languages have very few speakers, but the major Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are spoken by tens of millions of people and one Austronesian
Austronesian
language, Malay (including both Indonesian and Malaysian variants), is spoken by 250 million people, making it the 8th most spoken language in the world. Approximately twenty Austronesian
Austronesian
languages are official in their respective countries (see the list of major and official Austronesian
Austronesian
languages). Different sources count languages differently, but Austronesian
Austronesian
and Niger–Congo are the two largest language families in the world by the number of languages they contain, each having roughly one-fifth of the total languages counted in the world. The geographical span of Austronesian
Austronesian
was the largest of any language family before the spread of Indo-European in the colonial period, ranging from Madagascar
Madagascar
off the southeastern coast of Africa to Easter Island
Easter Island
in the eastern Pacific. Hawaiian, Rapa Nui, and Malagasy (spoken on Madagascar) are the geographic outliers of the Austronesian
Austronesian
family. According to Robert Blust
Robert Blust
(1999), Austronesian
Austronesian
is divided in several primary branches, all but one of which are found exclusively on Taiwan. The Formosan languages
Formosan languages
of Taiwan
Taiwan
are grouped into as many as nine first-order subgroups of Austronesian. All Austronesian
Austronesian
languages spoken outside Taiwan
Taiwan
(including its offshore Yami language) belong to the Malayo-Polynesian branch, sometimes called Extra-Formosan. Most Austronesian
Austronesian
languages lack a long history of written attestation, making the feat of reconstructing earlier stages – up to distant Proto-Austronesian – all the more remarkable. The oldest inscription in the Cham language, the Đông Yên Châu inscription, but with Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
influences, dated to the mid-6th century at the latest, is also the first attestation of any Austronesian
Austronesian
language.

Contents

1 Structure 2 Lexicon 3 Classification

3.1 Blust (1999) 3.2 Li (2008) 3.3 Austronesian
Austronesian
Basic Vocabulary Database (2008) 3.4 Ross (2009)

4 Major languages 5 Comparison chart

5.1 Comparison chart-numerals 5.2 Comparison chart-thirteen words

6 History 7 Hypothesized relations

7.1 Austric 7.2 Austro-Tai 7.3 Sino-Austronesian 7.4 Japanese 7.5 Ongan

8 Writing systems 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Structure[edit]

Banknote for 5 dollars, Hawaii, circa 1839, using Hawaiian language

It is difficult to make generalizations about the languages that make up a family as diverse as Austronesian. Very broadly, one can divide the Austronesian
Austronesian
languages into three groups: Philippine-type languages, Indonesian-type languages and post-Indonesian type languages (Ross 2002):

The first group includes, besides the languages of the Philippines, the Austronesian
Austronesian
languages of Taiwan, Sabah, North Sulawesi
Sulawesi
and Madagascar. It is primarily characterized by the retention of the original system of Philippine-type voice alternations, where typically three or four verb voices determine which semantic role the "subject"/"topic" expresses (it may express either the actor, the patient, the location and the beneficiary, or various other circumstantial roles such as instrument and concomitant). The phenomenon has frequently been referred to as focus (not to be confused with the usual sense of that term in linguistics). Furthermore, the choice of voice is influenced by the definiteness of the participants. The word order has a strong tendency to be verb-initial. In contrast, the more innovative Indonesian-type languages, which are particularly represented in Malaysia
Malaysia
and western Indonesia, have reduced the voice system to a contrast between only two voices (actor voice and "undergoer" voice), but these are supplemented by applicative morphological devices (originally two: the more direct *-i and more oblique *-an/-[a]kən), which serve to modify the semantic role of the "undergoer". They are also characterized by the presence of preposed clitic pronouns. Unlike the Philippine type, these languages mostly tend towards verb-second word-orders. A number of languages, such as the Batak
Batak
languages, Old Javanese, Balinese, Sasak and several Sulawesi
Sulawesi
languages seem to represent an intermediate stage between these two types.[7][8] Finally, in some languages, which Ross calls "post-Indonesian", the original voice system has broken down completely and the voice-marking affixes no longer preserve their functions.

The Austronesian
Austronesian
languages tend to use reduplication (repetition of all or part of a word, as in wiki-wiki or agar-agar). Like many East and Southeast Asian languages, most Austronesian
Austronesian
languages have highly restrictive phonotactics, with generally small numbers of phonemes and predominantly consonant–vowel syllables. Lexicon[edit] The Austronesian
Austronesian
language family has been established by the linguistic comparative method on the basis of cognate sets, sets of words similar in sound and meaning which can be shown to be descended from the same ancestral word in Proto-Austronesian according to regular rules. Some cognate sets are very stable. The word for eye in many Austronesian
Austronesian
languages is mata (from the most northerly Austronesian
Austronesian
languages, Formosan languages
Formosan languages
such as Bunun and Amis all the way south to Māori). Other words are harder to reconstruct. The word for two is also stable, in that it appears over the entire range of the Austronesian
Austronesian
family, but the forms (e.g. Bunun dusa; Amis tusa; Māori rua) require some linguistic expertise to recognise. The Austronesian
Austronesian
Basic Vocabulary Database gives word lists (coded for cognateness) for approximately 1000 Austronesian
Austronesian
languages. Classification[edit] The internal structure of the Austronesian
Austronesian
languages is complex. The family consists of many similar and closely related languages with large numbers of dialect continua, making it difficult to recognize boundaries between branches. However, it is clear that the greatest genealogical diversity is found among the Formosan languages
Formosan languages
of Taiwan, and the least diversity among the islands of the Pacific, supporting a dispersal of the family from Taiwan
Taiwan
or China. The first comprehensive classification to reflect this was Dyen (1965). The seminal article in the classification of Formosan—and, by extension, the top-level structure of Austronesian—is Blust (1999). Prominent Formosanists (linguists who specialize in Formosan languages) take issue with some of its details, but it remains the point of reference for current linguistic analyses, and is shown below. The Malayo-Polynesian languages
Malayo-Polynesian languages
are frequently included within Blust's Eastern Formosan branch due to their shared leveling of proto- Austronesian
Austronesian
*t, *C to /t/ and *n, *N to /n/, their shift of *S to /h/, and vocabulary such as *lima "five" which are not attested in other Formosan languages. There appear to have been two great migrations of Austronesian languages that quickly covered large areas, resulting in multiple local groups with little large-scale structure. The first was Malayo-Polynesian, distributed across the Philippines, Indonesia, and Melanesia. The Central Malayo-Polynesian languages
Malayo-Polynesian languages
are similar to each other not because of close genealogical relationships, but rather because they reflect strong substratum effects from non-Austronesian languages. The second migration was that of the Oceanic languages
Oceanic languages
into Polynesia and Micronesia (Greenhill, Blust & Gray 2008). In addition to Malayo-Polynesian, thirteen Formosan families are broadly accepted. Debate centers primarily around the relationships between these families. Of the classifications presented here, Blust (1999) links two families into a Western Plains group, two more in a Northwestern Formosan group, and three into an Eastern Formosan group, while Lee (2008)[citation not found] also links five families into a Northern Formosan group. The Austronesian
Austronesian
Basic Vocabulary Database (2008) accepts Northern, rejects Eastern, links Tsouic and Rukai (two highly divergent languages), and links Malayo-Polynesian with Paiwan in a Paiwanic group. Ross (2009) splits Tsouic, and notes that Tsou, Rukai, and Puyuma fall outside of reconstructions of Proto-Austronesian. Other studies have presented phonological evidence for a reduced Paiwanic family of Paiwanic, Puyuma, Bunun, Amis, and Malayo-Polynesian, but this is not reflected in vocabulary. The Eastern Formosan peoples Basay, Kavalan, and Amis share a homeland motif that has them coming originally from an island called Sinasay or Sanasay (Li 2004). The Amis, in particular, maintain that they came from the east, and were treated by the Puyuma, amongst whom they settled, as a subservient group (Taylor 1888).[9] Blust (1999)[edit]

Families of Formosan languages
Formosan languages
before Minnanese colonization of Taiwan, per Blust (1999).

Distribution of the Austronesian
Austronesian
languages, per Blust (1999).

Austronesian

(clockwise from the southwest)   Tsouic (Formosan)

Tsou language. Saaroa language. Kanakanabu language.

  Western Plains (Formosan)

Thao language, AKA Sao. Brawbaw and Shtafari dialects. Central Western Plains

Babuza language: Taokas, Poavosa dialects; old Favorlang language. Papora-Hoanya language: Papora, Hoanya dialects.

  Northwest Formosan

Saisiyat language: Taai and Tungho dialects. Pazeh language
Pazeh language
AKA Kulun.

  Atayalic (Formosan)

Atayal language. Seediq language: AKA Truku/Taroko.

  East Formosan

Northern (Kavalanic languages).

Basay language: Trobiawa and Linaw–Qauqaut dialects. Kavalan language. Ketagalan language, or Ketangalan.

Central (Ami).

Amis proper. Sakizaya.

Siraya language.

   Bunun language
Bunun language
(Formosan)    Rukai language
Rukai language
(Formosan)

Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects of Rukai are divergent.

   Puyuma language
Puyuma language
(Formosan)    Paiwan language
Paiwan language
(southern tip of Formosa)   Malayo-Polynesian Li (2008)[edit]

Families of Formosan languages
Formosan languages
before Minnanese colonization, per Li (2008). The three languages in green (Bunun, Puyuma, Paiwan) may form a Southern Formosan branch, but this is uncertain.

This classification retains Blust's East Formosan, and unites the other northern languages. Li proposes a Proto-Formosan (F0) ancestor and equates it with Proto-Austronesian (PAN), following the model in Starosta (1995).[10][11] Rukai and Tsouic are seen as highly divergent,[10] although the position of Rukai is highly controversial.[12]

F0: Formosan = Austronesian

  Rukai

Mantauran Maga–Tona, Budai–Labuan–Taromak

F1

  Central (Tsouic)

Tsou Southern Tsouic

Saaroa Kanakanabu

F2

  Northern Formosan

Northwestern (Plains)

Saisiyat–Kulon–Pazeh Western

Thao West Coast (Papora–Hoanya–Babuza–Taokas)

Atayalic

Squliq Atayal Ts'ole' Atayal (= C'uli') Seediq

  East Formosan

Kavalan–Basay Siraya–Amis

 ? Southern [uncertain]

  Bunun

Isbukun Northern and Central (Takitudu and Takbanuaz)

  Paiwan–Puyuma [uncertain]

Austronesian
Austronesian
Basic Vocabulary Database (2008)[edit]

Families of Formosan languages
Formosan languages
before Minnanese colonization, per the Austronesian
Austronesian
Basic Vocabulary Database (Greenhill, Blust & Gray 2008).

This investigation keeps Li's Northern Formosan, but breaks up Blust's East Formosan, and suggests Paiwan may be the closest to Malayo-Polynesian. It also unites Tsouic and Rukai, the two most divergent languages in Li.

Austronesian

  Kavalanic This is an obvious, low-level grouping

Basay (Trobiawan, Linaw–Qauqaut dialects) Kavalan Ketagalan

  Northern Formosan These groups are linked with an estimated 97% probability.

Thao (a.k.a. Sao. Brawbaw, Shtafari dialects) Western Plains

Babuza (a.k.a. Favorlang. Taokas, Poavosa dialects) Papora-Hoanya (Papora, Hoanya dialects)

Saisiyat (Taai, Tungho dialects) Pazeh (a.k.a. Kulun) Atayalic

Atayal (Squliq, C’uli’) Seediq (a.k.a. Truku, Taroko)

  Ami Another low-level grouping

Sakizaya Amis

  Bunun

Bunun

  Tsou–Rukai Tsou and Rukai are connected with moderate confidence, estimated at 85% probability.

Tsouic

Tsou Saaroa Kanakanabu

Rukai (Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects are divergent)

  Siraya

Siraya (Taivoan, Makatao dialects)

  Puyuma

Puyuma

  Paiwanic Malayo-Polynesian and Paiwan are linked with a low level of confidence (74%).

Paiwan (southern tip of Formosa) Malayo-Polynesian

Ross (2009)[edit]

Families of Formosan languages
Formosan languages
before Minnanese colonization, per Ross (2009).

In 2009, Malcolm Ross proposed a new classification of the Austronesian
Austronesian
language family based on morphological evidence from various Formosan languages.[13] He proposed that the current reconstructions for Proto-Austronesian actually correspond to an intermediate stage, which he terms "Proto-Nuclear Austronesian". Notably, Ross' classification does not support the unity of the Tsouic languages, instead considering the Southern Tsouic languages
Tsouic languages
of Kanakanavu and Saaroa to be a separate branch. This supports Chang's (2006) claim that Tsouic is not a valid group.[14]

Austronesian

  Rukai

(Mantauran and Tona–Maga dialects are divergent)

  Puyuma   Tsou   Nuclear Austronesian

Subdivisions not addressed, apart from Saaroa–Kanakanabu being separate from Tsou.

Major languages[edit] Main article: List of major and official Austronesian
Austronesian
languages Comparison chart[edit] Below is a chart comparing list of numbers of 1-10 and thirteen words in Austronesian
Austronesian
languages; spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, Indonesia, Malaysia, Chams
Chams
or Champa
Champa
(in Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam), East Timor, Papua, New Zealand, Hawaii, Madagascar, Borneo
Borneo
and Tuvalu. Comparison chart-numerals[edit]

Austronesian
Austronesian
List of Numbers 1-10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Proto-Austronesian

*əsa *isa *duSa *təlu *Səpat *lima *ənəm *pitu *walu *Siwa *(sa-)puluq

Formosan languages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Amis

cecay tosa tolo spat lima enem pito falo siwa mo^tep

Atayal

qutux sazing cyugal payat magal mtzyu mpitu mspat mqeru mopuw

Paiwan

ita drusa tjelu sepatj lima enem pitju alu siva tapuluq

Bunun

tasʔa dusa tau paat hima nuum pitu vau siva masʔan

Puyuma

isa zuwa telu pat lima unem pitu walu iwa pulu'

Rukai

itha drusa tulru supate lrima eneme pitu valru bangate pulruku

Tsou

coni yuso tuyu sʉptʉ eimo nomʉ pitu voyu sio maskʉ

Saisiyat

'aeihae' roSa' to:lo' Sopat haseb SayboSi: SayboSi: 'aeihae' maykaSpat hae'hae' lampez

Yami

asa dora atlo apat lima anem pito wao siyam poo

Thao

taha tusha turu shpat tarima katuru pitu kashpat tanathu makthin

Kavalan

usiq uzusa utulu uspat ulima unem upitu uwalu usiwa rabtin

Truku

kingal dha tru spat rima mataru empitu maspat mngari maxal

Sakizaya

cacay tosa tolo sepat lima enem pito walo siwa cacay a bataan

Seediq

kingal daha teru sepac rima mmteru mpitu mmsepac mngari maxal

Malayo-Polynesian languages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian

*əsa *isa *duha *təlu *əpat *lima *ənəm *pitu *walu *siwa *puluq

Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian (MP) languages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Sunda– Sulawesi
Sulawesi
languages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Acehnese sifar soh sa duwa lhee peuet limong nam tujoh lapan sikureueng siploh

Balinesea

nul

besik siki

dua

telu

papat

lime

nenem

pitu

kutus

sia dasa

Banjar

asa dua talu ampat lima anam pitu walu sanga sapuluh

Batak, Toba

sada dua tolu opat lima onom pitu ualu sia sampulu

Buginese

ceddi dua tellu empa lima enneng pitu arua asera seppulo

Cia-Cia

디세 dise ise 루아 rua ghua 똘루 tolu 빠아 pa'a 을리마 lima 노오 no'o 삐쭈 picu 활루 walu oalu 시우아 siua 옴뿔루 ompulu

Cham

sa dua klau pak lima nam tujuh dalapan salapan sapluh

Javanese (Kawi)b[15] sunya

eka

dwi

tri

catur

panca

sad

sapta

asta

nawa dasa

Old Javanese[16] das sa (sa' / sak) rwa tĕlu pāt lima nĕm pitu walu sanga sapuluh

Javanese (Krama) nol setunggal kalih tiga sekawan gangsal enem pitu wolu sanga sedasa

Javanese (Ngoko)[17] nol siji loro telu papat lima enem pitu wolu sanga sepuluh

Kelantan-Pattani kosong so duwo tigo pak limo ne tujoh lape smile spuloh

Madurese nol settong dhuwa' tello' empa' lema' ennem petto' ballu' sanga' sapolo

Makassarese ᨒᨚᨅ lobbang ᨊᨚᨒᨚ nolo' ᨙᨔᨙᨑ se're ᨑᨘᨕ rua ᨈᨒᨘ tallu ᨕᨄ appa' ᨒᨗᨆ lima ᨕᨊ annang ᨈᨘᨍ tuju ᨔᨂᨈᨘᨍ sangantuju ᨔᨒᨄ salapang ᨔᨄᨘᨒᨚ sampulo

Standard Malay (both Indonesian and Malaysian) kosong sifar[18] nol[19] satu suatu[20] dua tiga[21][22] empat lima[23] enam tujuh delapan lapan[24] sembilan sepuluh

Minangkabau[25]

ciek duo tigo ampek limo anam tujuah salapan sambilan sapuluah

Moken

cha:? thuwa:? teloj (təlɔy) pa:t lema:? nam luɟuːk waloj (walɔy) chewaj (cʰɛwaːy / sɛwaːy) cepoh

Sasak

sekek due telo empat lime enam pituk baluk siwak sepulu

Sundanese ᮔᮧᮜ᮪ nol ᮠᮤᮏᮤ hiji ᮓᮥᮃ dua ᮒᮤᮜᮥ tilu ᮇᮕᮒ᮪ opat ᮜᮤᮙ lima ᮌᮨᮔᮨᮕ᮪ genep ᮒᮥᮏᮥᮂ tujuh ᮓᮜᮕᮔ᮪ dalapan ᮞᮜᮕᮔ᮪ salapan ᮞᮕᮥᮜᮥᮂ sapuluh

Terengganu Malay kosong se duwe tige pak lime nang tujoh lapang smilang spuloh

Tetun nol ida rua tolu hat lima nen hitu ualu sia sanulu

Tsat (HuiHui)c

sa³³ *, ta¹¹ ** tʰua¹¹ kiə³³ pa²⁴ ma³³ naːn³² su⁵⁵ paːn³² tʰu¹ paːn³² piu⁵⁵

There are two forms for numbers 'one' in Tsat (Hui Hui; Hainan Cham) : ^* The word sa³³ is used for serial counting. ^** The word ta¹¹ is used with hundreds and thousands and before qualifiers.

Borneo–Philippine languages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Ilocano ibbong awan maysa dua tallo uppat lima innem pito walo siam sangapulo

Ibanag awan tadday duwa tallu appa' lima annam pitu walu siyam mafulu

Pangasinan

sakey duwa talo apat lima anem pito walo siyam samplo

Kapampangan ala metung/ isa' adua atlu apat lima anam pitu walu siyam apulu

Tagalog ᜏᜎ walâ ᜁᜐ isá ᜇᜎᜏ dalawá ᜆᜆ᜔ᜎᜓ tatló ᜀᜉᜆ᜔ apat ᜎᜒᜋ limá ᜀᜈᜒᜋ᜔ anim ᜉᜒᜆᜓ pitó ᜏᜎᜓ waló ᜐᜒᜌᜋ᜔ siyám ᜐᜋ᜔ᜉᜓ sampû

Bikol wara sarô duwá tuló apat limá anom pitó waló siyám sampulû

Aklanon uwa isaea sambilog daywa tatlo ap-at lima an-om pito waeo siyam napueo

Karay-a wara (i)sara darwa tatlo apat lima anəm pito walo siyam napulo

Onhan

isya darwa tatlo upat lima an-om pito walo siyam sampulo

Romblomanon

isa duha tuyo upat lima onum pito wayo siyam napuyo

Masbatenyo

isad usad duwa duha tulo upat lima unom pito walo siyam napulo

Hiligaynon wala isa duha tatlo apat lima anom pito walo siyam napulo

Cebuano wala usa duha tulo upat lima unom pito walo siyam napulo pulo

Waray waray usa duha tulo upat lima unom pito walo siyam napulò

Tausug

isa duwa tū upat lima unum pitu walu siyam hangpu'

Maranao

isa dua telu pat lima nem pitu ualu siau sapulu'

Benuaq (Dayak Benuaq)

eray duaq toluu opaat limaq jawatn turu walo sie sepuluh

Lun Bawang/ Lundayeh na luk dih eceh dueh teluh epat limeh enem tudu' waluh liwa' pulu'

Dusun aiso iso duo tolu apat limo onom turu walu siam hopod

Malagasy aotra isa iray roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo

Sangirese (Sangir-Minahasan)

sembau darua tatelu epa lima eneng pitu walu sio mapulo

Oceanic languagesd 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Fijian saiva dua rua tolu vaa lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini

Hawaiian 'ole 'e-kahi 'e-lua 'e-kolu 'e-hā 'e-lima 'e-ono 'e-hiku 'e-walu 'e-iwa 'umi

Kiribati akea teuana uoua tenua aua nimaua onoua itua wanua ruaiwa tebwina

Māori kore tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau ngahuru

Marshallese[26] o̧o juon ruo jilu emān ļalem jiljino jimjuon ralitōk ratimjuon jon̄oul

Motue[27]

ta rua toi hani ima tauratoi hitu taurahani taurahani-ta gwauta

Niuean nakai taha ua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu hiva hogofulu

Rapanui

tahi rua toru hā rima ono hitu va'u iva angahuru

Rarotongan Māori kare ta'i rua toru 'ā rima ono 'itu varu iva nga'uru

Rotuman

ta rua folu hake lima ono hifu vạlu siva saghulu

Sāmoan o tasi lua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu

Sāmoan (K-type) o kasi lua kolu fa lima ogo fiku valu iva sefulu

Tahitian

hō'ē tahi piti toru maha pae ōno hitu va'u iva hō'ē 'ahuru

Tongan noa taha ua tolu fa nima ono fitu valu hiva hongofulu taha noa

Trukese

eet érúúw één fáán niim woon fúús waan ttiw engoon

Tuvaluan

tahi tasi lua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu

Comparison chart-thirteen words[edit]

English one two three four person house dog road day new we what fire

Proto-Austronesian *əsa, *isa *duSa *təlu *əpat *Cau *balay, *Rumaq *asu *zalan *qaləjaw, *waRi *baqəRu *kita, *kami *anu, *apa *Sapuy

Tetum ida rua tolu haat ema uma asu dalan loron foun ita saida ahi

Amis cecay tosa tolo sepat tamdaw luma wacu lalan cidal faroh kita uman namal

Puyuma sa dua telu pat taw rumah soan dalan wari vekar mi amanai apue, asi

Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso daan araw bago tayo / kami ano apoy

Bikol sarô duwá tuló apat táwo harong áyam dálan aldaw bâgo kitá anó kalayó

Rinconada Bikol əsad darwā tolō əpat tawō baləy ayam raran aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō

Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam, ido dalan adlaw bag-o kita anu kalayo

Cebuano usa, isa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro dalan adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo

Hiligaynon isa duha tatlo apat tawo balay ido dalan adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo

Aklanon isaea, sambilog daywa tatlo ap-at tawo baeay ayam daean adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo

Kinaray-a (i)sara darwa tatlo apat tawo balay ayam dalan adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo

Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' dan adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu

Maranao isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso lalan gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy

Kapampangan metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu dalan aldo bayu ikatamu nanu api

Pangasinan sakey dua, duara talo, talora apat, apatira too abong aso dalan ageo balo sikatayo anto pool

Ilokano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso dalan aldaw baro datayo ania apoy

Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito rarahan araw va-yo yaten ango apoy

Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu dalan aggaw bagu sittam anni afi

Yogad tata addu tallu appat tolay binalay atu daddaman agaw bagu sikitam gani afuy

Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu dallan aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy

Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lan kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih

Lun Bawang/ Lundayeh eceh dueh teluh epat lemulun/lun ruma' uko' dalan eco beruh teu enun apui

Malay (Malaysian/Indonesian)

satu, suatu dua tiga[28] empat orang rumah, balai anjing jalan hari baru kita apa, anu api

Old Javanese esa, eka rwa, dwi tĕlu, tri pat, catur[29] wwang umah asu dalan dina hañar, añar[30] kami[31] apa, aparan apuy, agni

Javanese siji, setunggal loro, kalih tĕlu, tiga[32] papat, sekawan uwong, tiyang, priyantun[32] omah, griya, dalem[32] asu, sĕgawon dalan, gili[32] dina, dinten[32] anyar, énggal[32] awaké dhéwé, kula panjenengan[32] apa, punapa[32] gĕni, latu, brama[32]

Sundanese hiji dua tilu opat urang imah anjing jalan poe anyar, enggal arurang naon seuneu

Acehnese sa duwa lhèë peuët ureuëng rumoh, balè, seuëng asèë röt uroë barô (geu)tanyoë peuë apui

Minangkabau ciek duo tigo ampek urang rumah anjiang labuah, jalan hari baru awak apo api

Lampungese sai khua telu pak jelema lamban kaci ranlaya khani baru kham api apui

Buginese se'di dua tellu eppa' tau bola asu laleng esso baru idi' aga api

Temuan satuk duak tigak empat uwang, eang gumah, umah anying, koyok jalan aik, haik bahauk kitak apak apik

Toba Batak sada dua tolu opat halak jabu biang dalan ari baru hita aha api

Kelantan-Pattani so duwo tigo pak oghe ghumoh, dumoh anjing jale aghi baghu kito gapo api

Chamorro håcha, maisa hugua tulu fatfat taotao/tautau guma' ga'lågu[33] chålan ha'åni nuebu[34] hita håfa guåfi

Motu ta, tamona rua toi hani tau ruma sisia dala dina matamata ita, ai dahaka lahi

Māori tahi rua toru whā tangata whare kurī ara rā hou tāua, tātou/tātau māua, mātou/mātau aha ahi

Tuvaluan tasi lua tolu fá toko fale kuli ala, tuu aso fou tāua a afi

Hawaiian kahi lua kolu hā kanaka hale 'īlio ala ao hou kākou aha ahi

Banjarese asa duwa talu ampat urang rūmah hadupan heko hǎri hanyar kami apa api

Malagasy isa roa telo efatra olona trano alika lalana andro vaovao isika inona afo

Dusun iso duo tolu apat tulun walai, lamin tasu ralan tadau wagu tokou onu/nu tapui

Kadazan iso duvo tohu apat tuhun hamin tasu lahan tadau vagu tokou onu, nunu tapui

Rungus iso duvo tolu, tolzu apat tulun, tulzun valai, valzai tasu dalan tadau vagu tokou nunu tapui, apui

Sungai/Tambanuo ido duo tolu opat lobuw waloi asu ralan runat wagu toko onu apui

Iban satu, sa, siti, sigi dua tiga empat orang, urang rumah ukui, uduk jalai hari baru kitai nama api

Sarawak Malay satu, sigek dua tiga empat orang rumah asuk jalan ari baru kita apa api

Terengganuan se duwe tige pak oghang ghumoh, dumoh anjing jalang aghi baghu kite mende, ape, gape, nape api

Kanayatn sa dua talu ampat urakng rumah asu' jalatn ari baru kami', diri' ahe api

History[edit] Further information: Austronesian peoples
Austronesian peoples
§ Migration and dispersion The protohistory of the Austronesian
Austronesian
people can be traced farther back through time than can that of the Proto-Austronesian language. From the standpoint of historical linguistics, the home (in linguistic terminology, Urheimat) of the Austronesian
Austronesian
languages is the main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa; on this island the deepest divisions in Austronesian
Austronesian
are found, among the families of the native Formosan languages. According to Robert Blust, the Formosan languages form nine of the ten primary branches of the Austronesian
Austronesian
language family (Blust 1999). Comrie (2001:28) noted this when he wrote:

... the internal diversity among the... Formosan languages... is greater than that in all the rest of Austronesian
Austronesian
put together, so there is a major genetic split within Austronesian
Austronesian
between Formosan and the rest... Indeed, the genetic diversity within Formosan is so great that it may well consist of several primary branches of the overall Austronesian
Austronesian
family.

Austronesian
Austronesian
languages expansion map. Periods are based on archeological studies, though the association of the archeological record and linguistic reconstructions is disputed.

At least since Sapir (1968), linguists have generally accepted that the chronology of the dispersal of languages within a given language family can be traced from the area of greatest linguistic variety to that of the least. For example, English in North America has large numbers of speakers, but relatively low dialectal diversity, while English in Great Britain has much higher diversity; such low linguistic variety by Sapir's thesis suggests a more recent origin of English in North America. While some scholars suspect that the number of principal branches among the Formosan languages
Formosan languages
may be somewhat less than Blust's estimate of nine (e.g. Li 2006), there is little contention among linguists with this analysis and the resulting view of the origin and direction of the migration. For a recent dissenting analysis, see (Peiros 2004). To get an idea of the original homeland of the Austronesian
Austronesian
people, scholars can probe evidence from archaeology and genetics. Studies from the science of genetics have produced conflicting outcomes. Some researchers find evidence for a proto- Austronesian
Austronesian
homeland on the Asian mainland (e.g., Melton et al. 1998), while others mirror the linguistic research, rejecting an East Asian origin in favor of Taiwan
Taiwan
(e.g., Trejaut et al. 2005). Archaeological evidence (e.g., Bellwood 1997) is more consistent, suggesting that the ancestors of the Austronesians spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan
Taiwan
at some time around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it is from this island that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian
Austronesian
languages (Diamond 2000). It is believed that this migration began around 6,000 years ago (Blust 1999). However, evidence from historical linguistics cannot bridge the gap between those two periods. The view that linguistic evidence connects Austronesian languages to the Sino-Tibetan ones, as proposed for example by Sagart (2002), is a minority one. As Fox (2004:8) states:

Implied in... discussions of subgrouping [of Austronesian
Austronesian
languages] is a broad consensus that the homeland of the Austronesians was in Taiwan. This homeland area may have also included the P'eng-hu (Pescadores) islands between Taiwan
Taiwan
and China and possibly even sites on the coast of mainland China, especially if one were to view the early Austronesians as a population of related dialect communities living in scattered coastal settlements.

Linguistic analysis of the Proto-Austronesian language stops at the western shores of Taiwan; any related mainland language(s) have not survived. The only exceptions, the Chamic languages, derive from more recent migration to the mainland (Thurgood 1999:225). Hypothesized relations[edit] Genealogical links have been proposed between Austronesian
Austronesian
and various families of East and Southeast Asia. Austric[edit] Main article: Austric
Austric
languages A link with the Austroasiatic languages
Austroasiatic languages
in an 'Austric' phylum is based mostly on typological evidence. However, there is also morphological evidence of a connection between the conservative Nicobarese languages
Nicobarese languages
and Austronesian
Austronesian
languages of the Philippines. Paul K. Benedict extended the Austric
Austric
proposal to include the Tai–Kadai and Hmong–Mien families, but this has not been followed by other linguists. Austro-Tai[edit] Main article: Austro-Tai
Austro-Tai
languages A competing Austro-Tai
Austro-Tai
proposal linking Austronesian
Austronesian
and Tai–Kadai is supported by Weera Ostapirat, Roger Blench, and Laurent Sagart, and is based on the traditional comparative method. Ostapirat (2005) proposes a series of regular correspondences linking the two families and assumes a primary split, with Tai–Kadai speakers being the Austronesians who stayed behind in their Chinese homeland. Blench (2004) suggests that, if the connection is valid, the relationship is unlikely to be one of two sister families. Rather, he suggests that proto-Tai–Kadai speakers were Austronesians who migrated to Hainan Island and back to the mainland from the northern Philippines, and that their distinctiveness results from radical restructuring following contact with Hmong–Mien and Sinitic. Sino-Austronesian[edit] Main article: Sino- Austronesian
Austronesian
languages French linguist and Sinologist Laurent Sagart considers the Austronesian
Austronesian
languages to be related to the Sino-Tibetan languages, and also groups the Tai–Kadai languages
Tai–Kadai languages
as more closely related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages.[35] He also groups the Austronesian languages in a recursive-like fashion, placing Tai–Kadai as a sister branch of Malayo-Polynesian. His methodology has been found to be spurious by his peers. Japanese[edit] Several linguists have proposed that Japanese may be a relative of the Austronesian
Austronesian
family.[36] Some linguists think it is more plausible that Japanese might have instead been influenced by Austronesian languages, perhaps by an Austronesian
Austronesian
substratum. Those who propose this scenario suggest that the Austronesian
Austronesian
family once covered the islands to the north as well as to the south. Alexander Vovin calls his reconstruction of Proto-Japanese suggestive of a Southeast Asian origin of the Japonic languages.[37] Several Japanese linguists classify Japanese as "Para-Austronesian".[citation needed] Ongan[edit] It has recently been proposed that the Austronesian
Austronesian
and the Ongan protolanguage are the descendants of an Austronesian–Ongan protolanguage (Blevins 2007).[38] Writing systems[edit] See also: Writing systems of Southeast Asia

Sign in Balinese and Latin
Latin
script at a Hindu
Hindu
temple in Bali

Manuscript from early 1800s using Batak
Batak
alphabet

Most Austronesian
Austronesian
languages have Latin-based writing systems today. Some non-Latin-based writing systems are listed below.

Brahmi script

Kawi script

Balinese alphabet
Balinese alphabet
- used to write Balinese and Sasak. Batak
Batak
alphabet - used to write several Batak
Batak
languages. Baybayin
Baybayin
- used to write Tagalog and several Philippine languages. Bima alphabet - once used to write the Bima language. Buhid alphabet
Buhid alphabet
- used to write Buhid language. Hanunó'o alphabet
Hanunó'o alphabet
- used to write Hanuno'o language. Javanese alphabet
Javanese alphabet
- used to write the Javanese language
Javanese language
and several neighbouring languages like Madurese. Kerinci alphabet (Kaganga) - used to write the Kerinci language. Kulitan alphabet
Kulitan alphabet
- used to write the Kapampangan language. Lampung alphabet - used to write Lampung and Komering. Lontara alphabet
Lontara alphabet
- used to write the Buginese, Makassarese and several languages of Sulawesi. Sundanese alphabet
Sundanese alphabet
- used to write the Sundanese language. Rejang alphabet
Rejang alphabet
- used to write the Rejang language. Rencong alphabet
Rencong alphabet
- once used to write the Malay language. Tagbanwa alphabet
Tagbanwa alphabet
- once used to write various Palawan languages. Lota alphabet - used to write the Ende-Li'o language.

Cham alphabet
Cham alphabet
- used to write Cham language.

Arabic
Arabic
script

Pegon alphabet
Pegon alphabet
- used to write Javanese, Sundanese and Madurese as well as several smaller neighbouring languages. Jawi alphabet
Jawi alphabet
- used to write Malay, Acehnese, Banjar, Minangkabau, Tausug, Western Cham and others. Sorabe alphabet - once used to write several dialects of Malagasy language.

Hangul
Hangul
- once used to write the Cia-Cia language
Cia-Cia language
but the project is no longer active. Dunging - used to write the Iban language but it was not widely used. Avoiuli
Avoiuli
- used to write the Raga language. Eskayan - used to write the Eskayan language, a secret language based on Boholano. Woleai script
Woleai script
(Caroline Island script) - used to write the Carolinian language (Refaluwasch). Rongorongo
Rongorongo
- possibly used to write the Rapa Nui language. Braille
Braille
- used in Filipino, Malaysian, Indonesian, Tolai, Motu, Māori, Samoan, Malagasy, and many other Austronesian
Austronesian
languages.

See also[edit]

Ainu languages Austric
Austric
languages Austronesia Austronesian
Austronesian
Formal Linguistics Association Austronesian
Austronesian
peoples Austro-Tai Hmong-Mien Indonesian language
Indonesian language
and Malaysian language Japanese language List of Austronesian
Austronesian
languages List of Austronesian
Austronesian
regions Margaret Florey Tai-Kadai

Notes[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Austronesian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ " Austronesian
Austronesian
Languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 October 2016.  ^ Blust, Robert (2016). History of the Austronesian
Austronesian
Languages. University of Hawaii
Hawaii
at Manoa.  ^ Asya Pereltsvaig (2018). Languages of the World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-62196-7.  ^ Dempwolff, Otto (1934-37). Vergleichende Lautlehre des austronesischen Wortschatzes. (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für Eingeborenen-Sprachen 15;17;19). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. (3 vols.) ^ John Simpson; Edmund Weiner, eds. (1989). Official Oxford English Dictionary (OED2) (Dictionary). Oxford University Press. p. 22000. . ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander and Nikolaus Limmelmann. 2005. The Austronesian
Austronesian
Languages of Asia
Asia
and Madagascar. P.6-7 ^ Croft, William. 2012 Verbs: Aspect and Causal Structure. P.261 ^ "The Tipuns... are certainly descended from emigrants, and I have not the least doubt but that the Amias are of similar origin; only of later date, and most probably from the Mejaco Simas [that is, Miyako-jima], a group of islands lying 110 miles to the North-east.... By all accounts the old Pilam savages, who merged into the Tipuns, were the first settlers on the plain; then came the Tipuns, and a long time afterwards the Amias. The Tipuns, for some time, acknowledged the Pilam Chief as supreme, but soon absorbed both the chieftainship and the people, in fact the only trace left of them now, is a few words peculiar to the Pilam village, one of which, makan (to eat), is pure Malay. The Amias submitted themselves to the jurisdiction of the Tipuns." ^ a b Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2008. "Time perspective of Formosan Aborigines." In Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia ed. Past human migrations in East Asia: matching archaeology, linguistics and genetics. Taylor & Francis US. ^ Starosta, S. 1995. "A grammatical subgrouping of Formosan languages." In P. Li, Cheng-hwa Tsang, Ying-kuei Huang, Dah-an Ho, and Chiu-yu Tseng eds. Austronesian
Austronesian
Studies Relating to Taiwan, pp. 683–726, Taipei: Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica. ^ "The position of Rukai is the most controversial: Tsuchida... treats it as more closely related to Tsouic languages, based on lexicostatistic evidence, while Ho... believes it to be one of the Paiwanic languages, i.e. part of my Southern group, as based on a comparison of fourteen grammatical features. In fact, Japanese anthropologists did not distinguish between Rukai, Paiwan and Puyuma in the early stage of their studies" (Li 2008: 216). ^ Ross, Malcolm. 2009. "Proto Austronesian
Austronesian
verbal morphology: A reappraisal." In Alexander Adelaar and Andrew Pawley (eds.). Austronesian
Austronesian
historical linguistics and culture history: a festschrift for Robert Blust. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. ^ Chang, Henry Yungli. 2006. "Rethinking the Tsouic Subgroup Hypothesis: A Morphosyntactic Perspective." In Chang, H., Huang, L. M., Ho, D. (eds.). Streams converging into an ocean: Festschrift in honor of Professor Paul Jen-Kuei Li on his 70th birthday. Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica. ^ Siman Widyatmanta, Adiparwa. Vol. I dan II. Cetakan Ketiga. Yogyakarta: U.P. "Spring", 1968. ^ Zoetmulder, P.J., Kamus Jawa Kuno-Indonesia. Vol. I-II. Terjemahan Darusuprapto-Sumarti Suprayitno. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1995. ^ [1] Javanese alphabet, pronunciation, and language (Aksara Jawa), http://www.omniglot.com/writing/javanese.htm ^ from the Arabic
Arabic
صِفْر ṣifr ^ Predominantly in Indonesia, comes from the Latin
Latin
nullus ^ The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanword "Ekasila" : "Eka" means 1, "Sila" means "pillar", "principle" appeared in Sukarno's speech ^ In Kedukan Bukit inscription
Kedukan Bukit inscription
the numeral tlu ratus appears as three hundred, tlu as three, in http://www.wordsense.eu/telu/ the word telu is referred to as three in Malay, although the use of telu is very rare. ^ The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
loanword "Trisila" : "Tri" means 3, "Sila" means "pillar", "principle" appeared in Sukarno's speech ^ loanword from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
पञ्चन् páñcan - see Sukarno's Pancasila: "five principles", Pancawarna: "five colours, colourful". ^ lapan is a known contraction of delapan; predominant in Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei. ^ [2] ^ Cook, Richard (1992). Peace Corps Marshall Islands: Marshallese Language Training Manual (PDF), pg. 22. Accessed August 27, 2007 ^ Percy Chatterton, (1975). Say It In Motu: An instant introduction to the common language of Papua. Pacific Publications. ISBN 978-0-85807-025-7 ^ In Kedukan Bukit inscription
Kedukan Bukit inscription
appears the numeral Tlu ratus as Three hundred, Tlu as Three, in http://www.wordsense.eu/telu/ the word Telu is referred as Three in Malay and Indonesian Language although the use of Telu is very rare. ^ s.v. kawan, Old Javanese-English Dictionary, P.J. Zoetmulder and Stuart Robson, 1982 ^ s.v. hañar, Old Javanese-English Dictionary, P.J. Zoetmulder and Stuart Robson, 1982 ^ s.v. kami, this could mean both first person singular and plural, Old Javanese-English Dictionary, P.J. Zoetmulder and Stuart Robson, 1982 ^ a b c d e f g h i Javanese English Dictionary, Stuart Robson and Singgih Wibisono, 2002 ^ From Spanish "galgo" ^ From Spanish "nuevo" ^ van Driem, George. 2005. Sino- Austronesian
Austronesian
vs. Sino-Caucasian, Sino-Bodic vs. Sino-Tibetan, and Tibeto-Burman as default theory. Contemporary Issues in Nepalese Linguistics, pp. 285–338. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2010-10-29.  (see page 304) ^ Benedict (1990), Lewin (1976), Matsumoto (1975), Miller (1967), Murayama (1976), Shibatani (1990). ^ Vovin, Alexander. "Proto-Japanese beyond the accent system". Current Issues in Linguistic Theory.  ^ Blevins, Juliette (2007), "A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands" (PDF), Oceanic Linguistics, 46 (1): 154–198, doi:10.1353/ol.2007.0015, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-11 

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and the position of Tai–Kadai". Oceanic Linguistics. 43 (2): 411–440. doi:10.1353/ol.2005.0012.  Sagart, Laurent (2005). "Sino-Tibeto-Austronesian: An updated and improved argument". In Blench, Roger; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia. The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. London: Routledge Curzon. pp. 161–176.  Sapir, Edward (1968). "Time perspective in aboriginal American culture: a study in method". In Mandelbaum, D.G. Selected writings of Edward Sapir in language, culture and personality. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 389–467.  Taylor, G. (1888). "A ramble through southern Formosa". The China Review. 16: 137–161.  Terrell, John Edward (December 2004). "Introduction: 'Austronesia' and the great Austronesian
Austronesian
migration". World Archaeology. 36 (4): 586–590. doi:10.1080/0043824042000303764.  Thurgood, Graham (1999). "From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects. Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change. Oceanic Linguistics Special
Special
Publications No. 28". Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.  Trejaut JA; Kivisild T; Loo JH; Lee CL; He CL (2005). "Traces of archaic mitochondrial lineages persist in Austronesian-speaking Formosan populations" (PDF). PLoS Biol. 3 (8): e247. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030247. PMC 1166350 . PMID 15984912.  Wouk, Fay and Malcolm Ross, eds. (2002), The history and typology of western Austronesian
Austronesian
voice systems. Pacific Linguistics. Canberra: Australian National University.

Further reading[edit]

Bengtson, John D., The "Greater Austric" Hypothesis, Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory. Blust, R. A. (1983). Lexical reconstruction and semantic reconstruction: the case of the Austronesian
Austronesian
"house" words. Hawaii: R. Blust. Blust, Robert (2013). The Austronesian
Austronesian
Languages (revised ed.). Australian National University. ISBN 978-1-922185-07-5.  Cohen, E. M. K. (1999). Fundaments of Austronesian
Austronesian
roots and etymology. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. ISBN 0-85883-436-7 Marion, P., Liste Swadesh élargie de onze langues austronésiennes, éd. Carré de sucre, 2009 Pawley, A., & Ross, M. (1994). Austronesian
Austronesian
terminologies: continuity and change. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-424-3 Sagart, Laurent, Roger Blench, and Alicia Sanchez-Nazas (Eds.) (2004). The peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-32242-1. Tryon, D. T., & Tsuchida, S. (1995). Comparative Austronesian dictionary: an introduction to Austronesian
Austronesian
studies. Trends in linguistics, 10. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3110127296 Wittmann, Henri (1972). "Le caractère génétiquement composite des changements phonétiques du malgache." Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 7.807-10. La Haye: Mouton. Wolff, John U., "Comparative Austronesian
Austronesian
Dictionary. An Introduction to Austronesian
Austronesian
Studies", Language, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 145–56, Mar 1997, ISSN 0097-8507

External links[edit]

Blust's Austronesian
Austronesian
Comparative Dictionary Austronesian
Austronesian
Basic Vocabulary Database – ABVD (contains over 650 Austronesian
Austronesian
Languages) Swadesh lists of Austronesian
Austronesian
basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix) Summer Institute of Linguistics site showing languages (Austronesian and Papuan) of Papua New Guinea. Austronesian
Austronesian
Language Resources (defunct? moved?) (Archived November 22, 2004, at the Wayback Machine.) Spreadsheet of 1600+ Austronesian
Austronesian
and Papuan number names and systems – ongoing study to determine their relationships and distribution Languages of the World: The Austronesian
Austronesian
(Malayo-Polynesian) Language Family Introduction to Austronesian
Austronesian
Languages and Culture (video) (Malayo-Polynesian) Language Family on YouTube 南島語族分布圖

v t e

Austronesian
Austronesian
languages

Malayo-Polynesian

Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian

Sunda-Sulawesi

Malayo-Sumbawan

Sundanese

Baduy Sundanese

Madurese

Kangean Madurese

Malayo-Chamic

Aceh–Chamic

Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat)

Malayic

Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Johore-Riau Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi'

Bali–Sasak

Balinese Sasak Sumbawa

Northwest Sumatran

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue

Batak

Alas Batak
Batak
Angkola Batak
Batak
Dairi Batak
Batak
Karo Batak
Batak
Simalungun Batak
Batak
Toba Mandailing

Lampungic

Lampung Nyo Lampung Api Komering

Celebic ?

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lawa Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae' Talondo' Taman Toraja-Sa'dan Ulumanda'

Moken

Moken dialects

Javanese

Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese

Unclassified

Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan

Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian

Central Malayo-Polynesian

Sumba–Flores

Bima

Sumba-Manggarai

Sumba

Hawu ? Dhao ? Kambera Mamboru Anakalangu Wanukaka Pondok Baliledo Wejewa Lamboya Kodi Gaura

Ende-Manggarai

Komodo Manggarai Riung Rembong Rajong Kepo' Wae Rana Palu'e Ende-Li'o Nage Ke'o Ngad'a Rongga So'a

Flores-Lembata

Kedang

Sika-Lamaholot

Sika

Lamaholotic

Lamatuka Lewo Eleng Levuka South Lembata Lamaholot Alorese Lamalera Lewotobi Adonara Ile Ape Mingar

Selaru

Selaru Seluwasan

Kei-Tanimbar

Kei Fordata Yamdena Onin Sekar Uruangnirin

Aru

Barakai Batuley Dobel Karey Koba Kola Lola Lorang Manombai Mariri Tarangan Ujir

Timor-Babar

Timoric ?

Kemak Tukudede Mambai Idalaka Dawan Amarasi Helong Bilba Dengka Lole Ringgou Dela-Oenale Termanu Tii Tetum Bekais Wetar Galoli Luang Makuva

Babar

West Damar ? Dawera-Daweloor North Babar Dai Masela Serili Southeast Babar Emplawas Imroing Tela'a

Unclassified

Naueti Kairui Waimoa Midiki

Kowiai

Kowiai

Central Maluku ?

Teor-Kur

West Central Maluku

Ambelau Buru Lisela Moksela † Sula Mangole Taliabo

East Central Maluku

Navbox

Banda Bati Geser Watubela Bobot Masiwang Hoti † Benggoi Salas Liana

Nunusaku

Kayeli † Nuaulu Huaulu Manusela Wemale Yalahatan

Piru Bay ?

Asilulu Luhu Manipa Wakasihu Boano (Moluccas) Sepa-Teluti Paulohi Kaibobo Hitu Tulehu Laha Seit-Kaitetu Kamarian † Haruku Amahai Nusa Laut Saparua Latu

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian linkages

Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages

Borneo-Philippine

Philippine

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilokano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta †

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambali Remontado Agta (Sinauna)

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalog

Visayan

Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Tausug Kinaray-a Aklanon Capiznon Asi Ati Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon Kinabalian Onhan Porohanon Ratagnon Romblomanon Surigaonon

Bikol

Central Bikol Albay Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada

Bisakol

Masbatenyo South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate)

Unclassified

Sulod

Mansakan

Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka

Palawan

Aborlan Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano

Mindanao

Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kinamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon

Gorontalo- Mongondow

Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan

Kalamian

Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa

Bilic

Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray

Sangiric

Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan

Minahasan

Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea

Unclassified

Umiray Dumaget

Manide-Inagta

Inagta Alabat Manide

Bornean

North Bornean

Sabahan

Ida'an Bonggi Brunei Bisaya Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kinamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong

Unclassified

Dumpas Molbog

North Sarawakan

Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong

Unclassified

Bintulu

Melanau-Kajang

Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak †

Kayan-Murik

Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik

Land Dayak

Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau

Barito

Malagasy Bushi Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung

Sama-Bajaw ?

Abaknon Bajaw Sama Pangutaran Sama

Formosan

Rukaic

Rukai

Tsouic

Tsou Kanakanabu Saaroa

Northern Formosan

Atayalic

Atayal Seediq

Northwest Formosan

Saisiyat Pazeh † Kulon † Thao Babuza Favorlang †

East Formosan

Ketagalan † Basay † Kavalan Amis Siraya †

Southern

Puyuma Paiwan Bunun

Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status

v t e

Formosan languages

Rukaic

Rukai

Tsouic

Tsou Kanakanabu Saaroa

Northern Formosan

Atayalic

Atayal Seediq

Northwest Formosan

Saisiyat Pazeh † Kulon † Thao Babuza † Favorlang †

East Formosan

Ketagalan † Basay † Kavalan Amis Sakizaya Siraya † Taivoan † Nataoran

Southern

Puyuma Paiwan Bunun

Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status

v t e

Borneo–Philippine languages

Philippine

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilocano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta †

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal Remontado Agta (Sinauna)

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalog Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Central Bikol Tausug Kinaray-a Sulodnon Aklanon Capiznon Masbatenyo Albay Bikol Asi Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate) Isarog Agta Kabalian Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Onhan Pandan Bikol Porohanon Ratagnon Rinconada Romblomanon Surigaonon

Unclassified

Sulod

Mansakan

Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka

Palawan

Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan Batak Palawano

Mindanao

Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon

Gorontalo-Mongondow

Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan

Kalamian

Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa

Bilic

Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray

Sangiric

Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan

Minahasan

Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea

Unclassified

Umiray Dumaget Ati

Manide-Inagta

Inagta Alabat Manide

Bornean

North Bornean

Sabahan

Ida'an Bonggi Molbog Brunei Bisaya Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong

Unclassified

Dumpas

North Sarawakan

Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong

Unclassified

Bintulu

Melanau-Kajang

Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak †

Kayan-Murik

Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik

Land Dayak

Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau

Barito

Malagasy Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung

Sama-Bajaw ?

Abaknon Bajaw Sinama Pangutaran Sama

Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status

v t e

Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages

Malayo-Sumbawan

Sundanese

Sundanese (Bantenese, Baduy)

Madurese

Kangean Madurese

Malayo-Chamic

Chamic

Acehnese Cham dialects Chru Haroi Jarai Rade Roglai Tsat (Utsat)

Malayic

Bamayo Banjar Brunei/Kedayan Malay Berau Malay Bangka Malay Balau Bengkulu Col Duano' Haji Iban Jambi Malay Jakun Kedah Malay Kutai Malay Kaur Kerinci Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) Kendayan Keninjal Kubu Orang Laut Lubu Malay (Malaysian & Indonesian) Minangkabau Musi Mualang Orang Kanaq Orang Seletar Pahang Malay Pekal Perak Malay Remun Sarawak Malay Seberuang Sebuyau Temuan Terengganu Malay Urak Lawoi'

Bali–Sasak

Balinese Sasak Sumbawa

Northwest Sumatran

Enggano Gayo Mentawai Nias Sikule Simeulue

Batak

Alas Batak
Batak
Angkola Batak
Batak
Dairi Batak
Batak
Karo Batak
Batak
Simalungun Batak
Batak
Toba Mandailing

Lampungic

Lampung Api Lampung Nyo Komering

Celebic (Disputed)

Andio Badaic Bahonsuai Balaesang Balantak Banggai Batui Boano Bobongko Bonerate Bungku Busoa Cia-Cia Dampelas Dondo Kalao Kaili Kaimbulawa Kamaru Kodeoha Kulisusu Kumbewaha Lasalimu Laiyolo Lauje Liabuku Mbelala Moronene Mori Bawah Mori Atas Moma Muna Padoe Pancana Pendau Rahambuu Rampi Saluan Sarudu Sedoa Pamona Taje Tajio Tukang Besi Tolaki Tomadino Topoiyo Tomini Totoli Uma Waru Wawonii Wolio Wotu

South Sulawesi

Aralle-Tabulahan Bambam Bentong Budong-Budong Buginese Campalagian Dakka Duri Embaloh Enrekang Kalumpang Konjo Lemolang Maiwa (Sulawesi) Makassarese Malimpung Mamasa Mamuju Mandar Panasuan Pannei Selayar Seko Tae’ Talondo’ Taman Toraja-Sa’dan Ulumanda’

Moken

Moken dialects

Javanese

Arekan Banyumasan Mataraman Kawi (Old Javanese) Kedu Osing Tenggerese

Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (over 700 languages)

Eastern Malayo-Polynesian groups

Halmahera–Cenderawasih Oceanic languages

Central Malayo-Polynesian linkages

Aru Central Maluku Kei-Tanimbar Kowiai Selaru Sumba–Flores Teor–Kur Timoric West Damar

Unclassified

Chamorro Hukumina † Palauan

v t e

Micronesian languages

Nuclear Micronesian

Chuukic-Pohnpeic

Pohnpeic

Mokilese Ngatikese Pingelapese Pohnpeian

Chuukic

Carolinian Chuukese Mapia Mortlockese Namonuito Pááfang Puluwatese Satawalese Sonsorolese Tanapag Tobian Ulithian Woleaian

Others

Kiribati Kosraean Marshallese

Non-Nuclear

Nauruan

v t e

Fijian–Polynesian languages

Polynesian

East

Marquesic

Hawaiian Mangerevan Marquesan

Tahitic

Austral Māori Moriori Penrhyn Rakahanga-Manihiki Rarotongan Tahitian Tuamotuan

Other

Rapa Rapa Nui

West

Samoic

Niuatoputapu Pukapuka Samoan Tokelauan

Ellicean

Kapingamarangi Nukumanu Nukuoro Nukuria Ontong Java Sikaiana Takuu Tuvaluan Vaeakau-Taumako

Futunic

Anuta Emae Futunan Futuna-Aniwan Mele-Fila Pukapukan Rennellese Tikopia Wallisian West Uvean

Tongic

Niuafoʻou Niuean Tongan

Fijian

East

Fijian Gone Dau Lauan Lomaiviti

West

Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua Western Fijian

Other

Rotuman

v t e

List of primary language families

Africa

Afro-Asiatic Austronesian Khoe Kx'a Niger–Congo Nilo-Saharan? Tuu Mande? Songhay? Ijaw? Ubangian? Kadu?

Isolates

Bangime Hadza Jalaa Sandawe Kwadi? Laal? Shabo?

Sign languages

Arab BANZSL French Lasima Tanzanian Others

Europe and Asia

Afro-Asiatic Ainu Austroasiatic Austronesian Chukotko-Kamchatkan Dravidian Eskimo–Aleut Great Andamanese Hmong–Mien Hurro-Urartian Indo-European Japonic Kartvelian Koreanic Mongolic Northeast Caucasian Northwest Caucasian Ongan Sino-Tibetan Tai–Kadai Tungusic Turkic Tyrsenian Uralic Yeniseian Yukaghir Dené–Yeniseian? Altaic? Austronesian–Ongan? Austro-Tai? Sino-Austronesian? Digaro? Kho-Bwa? Siangic? Miji? Vasconic?

Isolates

Basque Burushaski Elamite Hattic Kusunda Nihali Nivkh Sumerian Hruso? Miju? Puroik?

Sign languages

BANZSL French German Japanese Swedish Chinese Indo-Pakistani Arab Chiangmai–Bangkok Others

New Guinea and the Pacific

Arai–Samaia Arafundi Austronesian Baining Binanderean–Goilalan Border Bulaka River Central Solomons Chimbu–Wahgi Doso–Turumsa East Geelvink Bay East Strickland Eleman Engan Fas Kaure–Kosare Kiwaian Kutubuan Kwomtari Lakes Plain Lower Mamberamo Lower Sepik Madang Mairasi North Bougainville Pauwasi Piawi Ramu Senagi Sentani Sepik Skou South Bougainville Teberan Tor–Kwerba–Nimboran Torricelli Trans-Fly Trans–New Guinea Turama–Kikorian West Papuan Yam Yawa Yuat North Papuan? Northeast New Guinea? Papuan Gulf?

Isolates

Abinomn Anêm? Ata? Kol Kuot Porome Taiap? Pawaia Porome Sulka? Tambora Wiru

Sign languages

Hawai'i Sign Language Others

Australia

Arnhem/Macro-Gunwinyguan Bunuban Darwin River Eastern Daly Eastern Tasmanian Garawan Iwaidjan Jarrakan Mirndi Northern Tasmanian Northeastern Tasmanian Nyulnyulan Pama–Nyungan Southern Daly Tangkic Wagaydyic Western Daly Western Tasmanian Worrorran Yangmanic (Wardaman)

Isolates

Giimbiyu Malak-Malak Marrgu Tiwi Wagiman

North America

Algic Alsea Caddoan Chimakuan Chinookan Chumashan Comecrudan Coosan Eskimo–Aleut Iroquoian Kalapuyan Keresan Maiduan Muskogean Na-Dene Palaihnihan Plateau Penutian Pomoan Salishan Shastan Siouan Tanoan Tsimshianic Utian Uto-Aztecan Wakashan Wintuan Yokutsan Yukian Yuman–Cochimí Dené–Yeniseian? Hokan? Penutian?

Isolates

Chimariko Haida Karuk Kutenai Seri Siuslaw Takelma Timucua Waikuri Washo Yana Yuchi Zuni

Sign languages

Inuit (Inuiuuk) Plains Sign Talk Others

Mesoamerica

Chibchan Jicaquean Lencan Mayan Misumalpan Mixe–Zoque Oto-Manguean Tequistlatecan Totonacan Uto-Aztecan Xincan Totozoquean?

Isolates

Cuitlatec Huave Tarascan/Purépecha

Sign languages

Plains Sign Talk Mayan Others

South America

Arawakan Arauan Araucanian Arutani–Sape Aymaran Barbacoan Boran Borôroan Cahuapanan Cariban Catacaoan Chapacuran Charruan Chibchan Choco Chonan Guaicuruan Guajiboan Jê/Gê Harákmbut–Katukinan Jirajaran Jivaroan Kariri Katembri–Taruma Mascoian Matacoan Maxakalian Nadahup Nambikwaran Otomákoan Pano-Tacanan Peba–Yaguan Purian Quechuan Piaroa–Saliban Ticuna–Yuri Timotean Tiniguan Tucanoan Tupian Uru–Chipaya Witotoan Yabutian Yanomaman Zamucoan Zaparoan Chimuan? Esmeralda–Yaruro? Hibito–Cholón? Lule–Vilela? Macro-Jê? Tequiraca–Canichana?

Isolates (extant in 2000)

Aikanã? Alacalufan Andoque? Camsá Candoshi Chimane Chiquitano Cofán? Fulniô Guató Hodï/Joti Irantxe? Itonama Karajá Krenak Kunza Leco Maku-Auari of Roraima Movima Mura-Pirahã Nukak? Ofayé Puinave Huaorani/Waorani Trumai Urarina Warao Yamana Yuracaré

See also

Language isolates Unclassified languages Creoles Pidgins Mixed languages Artificial languages List of sign languages

Families with more than 30 languages are in bold. Families in italics have no living members.

Authority control

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