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The AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia , Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean , with a few members in continental Asia . Austronesian languages are spoken by about 386 million people, making it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers, behind only the Indo-European languages , the Sino-Tibetan languages , the Niger-Congo languages , and the Afroasiatic languages . It is on par with Indo-European , Niger–Congo , and Afroasiatic as one of the best-established language families. Major Austronesian languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian ), Javanese , and Filipino (Tagalog ). The family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family.

Otto Dempwolff was the first researcher to extensively explore Austronesian using the comparative method . Another German, Wilhelm Schmidt , coined the German word _austronesisch_ which comes from Latin _auster_ "south wind" plus Greek _nêsos_ "island". The name _Austronesian_ was formed from the same roots. The family is aptly named, as the vast majority of Austronesian languages are spoken on islands: only a few languages, such as Malay and the Chamic languages , are indigenous to mainland Asia. Many Austronesian languages have very few speakers, but the major Austronesian languages are spoken by tens of millions of people and one Austronesian language, Malay (incl. Indonesian and Malaysian ), is spoken by 250 million people, making it the 8th most spoken language in the world. Twenty or so Austronesian languages are official in their respective countries (see the list of major and official Austronesian languages ).

Different sources count languages differently, but Austronesian and Niger–Congo are the two largest language families in the world, each having roughly one-fifth of the total languages counted in the world. The geographical span of Austronesian was the largest of any language family before the spread of Indo-European in the colonial period, ranging from Madagascar off the southeastern coast of Africa to Easter Island in the eastern Pacific. Hawaiian , Rapa Nui , and Malagasy (spoken on Madagascar ) are the geographic outliers of the Austronesian family.

According to Robert Blust (1999), Austronesian is divided in several primary branches, all but one of which are found exclusively on Taiwan . The Formosan languages of Taiwan are grouped into as many as nine first-order subgroups of Austronesian. All Austronesian languages spoken outside Taiwan (including its offshore Yami language ) belong to the Malayo-Polynesian branch, sometimes called _Extra-Formosan_.

Most Austronesian languages lack a long history of written attestation, making the feat of reconstructing earlier stages – up to distant Proto-Austronesian – all the more remarkable. The oldest inscription in the Cham language , the Đông Yên Châu inscription , dated to the mid-6th century at the latest, is also the first attestation of any Austronesian language.

CONTENTS

* 1 Structure * 2 Lexicon

* 3 Classification

* 3.1 Blust (1999) * 3.2 Li (2008) * 3.3 Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database (2008) * 3.4 Ross (2009)

* 4 Major languages

* 5 Comparison chart

* 5.1 Comparison chart - numerals * 5.2 Comparison chart - thirteen words

* 6 History

* 7 Hypothesized relations

* 7.1 Austric * 7.2 Austro-Tai * 7.3 Sino- Austronesian * 7.4 Japanese * 7.5 Ongan

* 8 Writing systems * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

STRUCTURE

Banknote for 5 dollars, Hawaii, circa 1839, using Hawaiian language

It is difficult to make generalizations about the languages that make up a family as diverse as Austronesian. Very broadly, one can divide the Austronesian languages into three groups: Philippine-type languages, Indonesian-type languages and post-Indonesian type languages (Ross 2002 ):

* The first group includes, besides the languages of the Philippines , the Austronesian languages of Taiwan, Sabah, North Sulawesi and Madagascar. It is primarily characterized by the retention of the original system of Philippine-type voice alternations , where typically three or four verb voices determine which semantic role the "subject"/"topic" expresses (it may express either the actor, the patient, the location and the beneficiary, or various other circumstancial roles such as instrument and concomitant). The phenomenon has frequently been referred to as _focus_ (not to be confused with the usual sense of that term in linguistics). Furthermore, the choice of voice is influenced by the definiteness of the participants. The word order has a strong tendency to be verb-initial. * In contrast, the more innovative Indonesian-type languages, which are particularly represented in Malaysia and western Indonesia, have reduced the voice system to a contrast between only two voices (actor voice and "undergoer" voice), but these are supplemented by applicative morphological devices (originally two: the more direct *_-i_ and more oblique *_-an/-kən_), which serve to modify the semantic role of the "undergoer". They are also characterized by the presence of preposed clitic pronouns. Unlike the Philippine type, these languages mostly tend towards verb-second word-orders. A number of languages, such as the Batak languages , Old Javanese , Balinese , Sasak and several Sulawesi languages seem to represent an intermediate stage between these two types. * Finally, in some languages, which Ross calls "post-Indonesian", the original voice system has broken down completely and the voice-marking affixes no longer preserve their functions.

The Austronesian languages tend to use reduplication (repetition of all or part of a word, as in wiki-wiki or agar-agar ). Like many East and Southeast Asian languages, most Austronesian languages have highly restrictive phonotactics , with generally small numbers of phonemes and predominantly consonant–vowel syllables.

LEXICON

The Austronesian language family has been established by the linguistic comparative method on the basis of cognate sets , sets of words similar in sound and meaning which can be shown to be descended from the same ancestral word in Proto-Austronesian according to regular rules. Some cognate sets are very stable. The word for _eye_ in many Austronesian languages is MATA (from the most northerly Austronesian languages, Formosan languages such as Bunun and Amis all the way south to Māori ). Other words are harder to reconstruct. The word for _two_ is also stable, in that it appears over the entire range of the Austronesian family, but the forms (e.g. Bunun RUSYA, LUSHA; Amis TUSA; Māori RUA) require some linguistic expertise to recognise. The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database gives word lists (coded for cognateness) for approximately 1000 Austronesian languages.

CLASSIFICATION

The internal structure of the Austronesian languages is complex. The family consists of many similar and closely related languages with large numbers of dialect continua , making it difficult to recognize boundaries between branches. However, it is clear that the greatest genealogical diversity is found among the Formosan languages of Taiwan, and the least diversity among the islands of the Pacific, supporting a dispersal of the family from Taiwan or China. The first comprehensive classification to reflect this was Dyen (1965) .

The seminal article in the classification of Formosan—and, by extension, the top-level structure of Austronesian—is Blust (1999) . Prominent Formosanists (linguists who specialize in Formosan languages) take issue with some of its details, but it remains the point of reference for current linguistic analyses, and is shown below. The Malayo-Polynesian languages are frequently included within Blust's Eastern Formosan branch due to their shared leveling of proto- Austronesian *t, *C to /t/ and *n, *N to /n/, their shift of *S to /h/, and vocabulary such as *lima "five" which are not attested in other Formosan languages.

There appear to have been two great migrations of Austronesian languages that quickly covered large areas, resulting in multiple local groups with little large-scale structure. The first was Malayo-Polynesian, distributed across the Philippines, Indonesia, and Melanesia. The Central Malayo-Polynesian languages are similar to each other not because of close genealogical relationships, but rather because they reflect strong substratum effects from non-Austronesian languages . The second migration was that of the Oceanic languages into Polynesia and Micronesia (Greenhill, Blust "> also links five families into a Northern Formosan group. The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database (2008) accepts Northern, rejects Eastern, links Tsouic and Rukai (two highly divergent languages), and links Malayo-Polynesian with Paiwan in a Paiwanic group. Ross (2009) splits Tsouic, and notes that Tsou, Rukai, and Puyuma fall outside of reconstructions of Proto-Austronesian.

Other studies have presented phonological evidence for a reduced Paiwanic family of Paiwanic , Puyuma, Bunun, Amis, and Malayo-Polynesian, but this is not reflected in vocabulary. The Eastern Formosan peoples Basay, Kavalan, and Amis share a homeland motif that has them coming originally from an island called _Sinasay_ or _Sanasay_ (Li 2004 ). The Amis, in particular, maintain that they came from the east, and were treated by the Puyuma, amongst whom they settled, as a subservient group (Taylor 1888 ).

BLUST (1999)

Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization of Taiwan, per Blust (1999). Distribution of the Austronesian languages, per Blust (1999). AUSTRONESIAN

(clockwise from the southwest) TSOUIC (Formosan )

* Tsou language . * Saaroa language . * Kanakanabu language .

WESTERN PLAINS (Formosan )

* Thao language , AKA Sao. Brawbaw and Shtafari dialects.

* Central Western Plains

* Babuza language : Taokas, Poavosa dialects; old Favorlang language . * Papora-Hoanya language : Papora, Hoanya dialects.

NORTHWEST FORMOSAN

* Saisiyat language : Taai and Tungho dialects. * Pazeh language AKA Kulun.

ATAYALIC (Formosan )

* Atayal language . * Seediq language : AKA Truku and Tarok.

EAST FORMOSAN

* Northern (Kavalanic languages).

* Basay language : Trobiawa and Linaw–Qauqaut dialects. * Kavalan language . * Ketagalan language , or Ketangalan.

* Central (Ami ).

* Amis proper . * Nataoran language : North Amis. * Sakizaya dialect .

* Siraya language .

BUNUN LANGUAGE (Formosan ) RUKAI LANGUAGE (Formosan )

* Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects of Rukai are divergent.

PUYUMA LANGUAGE (Formosan ) PAIWAN LANGUAGE (southern tip of Formosa) MALAYO-POLYNESIAN

LI (2008)

Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization, per Li (2008). The three languages in green (Bunun, Puyuma, Paiwan) may form a Southern Formosan branch, but this is uncertain.

This classification retains Blust 's East Formosan, and unites the other northern languages. Li proposes a Proto-Formosan (F0) ancestor and equates it with Proto-Austronesian (PAN), following the model in Starosta (1995). Rukai and Tsouic are seen as highly divergent, although the position of Rukai is highly controversial.

* F0: FORMOSAN = AUSTRONESIAN

* RUKAI

* Mantauran * Maga–Tona, Budai–Labuan–Taromak

* F1

* CENTRAL (TSOUIC )

* Tsou

* Southern Tsouic

* Saaroa * Kanakanabu

* F2

* NORTHERN FORMOSAN

* Northwestern (Plains)

* Saisiyat –Kulon–Pazeh

* Western

* Thao * West Coast (Papora –Hoanya –Babuza –Taokas)

* Atayalic

* Squliq Atayal * Ts\'ole\' Atayal (= C'uli') * Seediq

* EAST FORMOSAN

* Kavalan –Basay * Siraya –Amis

* ? SOUTHERN

* Bunun

* Isbukun * Northern and Central (Takitudu and Takbanuaz)

* Paiwan –Puyuma

AUSTRONESIAN BASIC VOCABULARY DATABASE (2008)

_ Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization, per the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database_ (Greenhill, Blust width:1.5em; height:1.5em; margin:1px 0; border:1px solid black; background-color: #9FD8B3; color:black; font-size:100%; text-align:center;"> KAVALANIC

This is an obvious, low-level grouping

* Basay (Trobiawan, Linaw–Qauqaut dialects) * Kavalan * Ketagalan

NORTHERN FORMOSAN

These groups are linked with an estimated 97% probability.

* Thao (a.k.a. Sao. Brawbaw, Shtafari dialects)

* Western Plains

* Babuza (a.k.a. Favorlang . Taokas, Poavosa dialects) * Papora-Hoanya (Papora , Hoanya dialects)

* Saisiyat (Taai, Tungho dialects) * Pazeh (a.k.a. Kulun)

* Atayalic

* Atayal (Squliq, C’uli’) * Seediq (a.k.a. Truku, Taroko)

AMI

Another low-level grouping

* Sakizaya * Nataoran (North Amis) * Amis

BUNUN

* Bunun

TSOU–RUKAI

Tsou and Rukai are connected with moderate confidence, estimated at 85% probability.

* Tsouic

* Tsou * Saaroa * Kanakanabu

* Rukai (Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects are divergent)

SIRAYA

* Siraya (Taivoan, Makatao dialects)

PUYUMA

* Puyuma

PAIWANIC

Malayo-Polynesian and Paiwan are linked with a low level of confidence (74%).

* Paiwan (southern tip of Formosa) * Malayo-Polynesian

ROSS (2009)

Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization, per Ross (2009).

In 2009, Malcolm Ross proposed a new classification of the Austronesian language family based on morphological evidence from various Formosan languages. He proposed that the current reconstructions for Proto-Austronesian actually correspond to an intermediate stage, which he terms "Proto-Nuclear Austronesian". Notably, Ross' classification does not support the unity of the Tsouic languages , instead considering the Southern Tsouic languages of Kanakanavu and Saaroa to be a separate branch. This supports Chang's (2006) claim that Tsouic is not a valid group. AUSTRONESIAN RUKAI

* (Mantauran and Tona–Maga dialects are divergent)

PUYUMA TSOU NUCLEAR AUSTRONESIAN

* Subdivisions not addressed, apart from Saaroa–Kanakanabu being separate from Tsou.

MAJOR LANGUAGES

Main article: List of major and official Austronesian languages

COMPARISON CHART

Below is a chart comparing list of numbers of 1-10 and thirteen words in Austronesian languages; spoken in Taiwan , the Philippines , the Mariana Islands , Indonesia , Malaysia , Chams or Champa in Thailand , Cambodia , and Vietnam , East Timor , Papua , New Zealand , Hawaii , Madagascar , Borneo and Tuvalu .

COMPARISON CHART - NUMERALS

AUSTRONESIAN LIST OF NUMBERS 1-10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Proto-Austronesian

*əsa *isa *duSa *təlu *Səpat *lima *ənəm *pito *walu *Siwa *(sa-)puluq

_FORMOSAN LANGUAGES _ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Amis

cecay tosa tolo spat lima enem pito falo siwa mo^tep

Atayal

qutux sazing cyugal payat magal mtzyu mpitu mspat mqeru mopuw

Paiwan

ita drusa tjelu sepatj lima enem pitju alu siva tapuluq

Bunun

tasʔa dusa tau paat hima nuum pitu vau siva masʔan

Puyuma

isa zuwa telu pat lima unem pitu walu iwa pulu'

Rukai

itha drusa tulru supate lrima eneme pitu valru bangate pulruku

Tsou

coni yuso tuyu sʉptʉ eimo nomʉ pitu voyu sio maskʉ

Saisiyat

'aeihae' roSa' to:lo' Sopat haseb SayboSi: SayboSi: 'aeihae' maykaSpat hae'hae' lampez

Yami

asa dora atlo apat lima anem pito wao siyam poo

Thao

taha tusha turu shpat tarima katuru pitu kashpat tanathu makthin

Kavalan

usiq uzusa utulu uspat ulima unem upitu uwalu usiwa rabtin

Truku

kingal dha tru spat rima mataru empitu maspat mngari maxal

Sakizaya

cacay tosa tolo sepat lima enem pito walo siwa cacay a bataan

Seediq

kingal daha teru sepac rima mmteru mpitu mmsepac mngari maxal

_MALAYO-POLYNESIAN LANGUAGES _ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Proto-Malayo-Polynesian

*əsa *isa *duha *təlu *əpat *lima *ənəm *pito *walu *hiwa *puluq

_NUCLEAR MALAYO-POLYNESIAN (MP) LANGUAGES _ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

_SUNDA–SULAWESI LANGUAGES _ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Acehnese صيفر sifar سوه soh سا sa دوا duwa لهيي lhee ڤويت peuet ليموڠ limong نم nam توجوە tujoh لاڤن lapan سيكوريوڠ sikureueng سيڤلوه siploh

Balinese a ᬦᬸᬮ᭄ nul ᬩᭂᬲᬶᬓ᭄ besik ᬲᬶᬓᬶ siki ᬤᬸᬯ dua ᬢᭂᬮᬸ telu ᬧᬧᬢ᭄ papat ᬮᬶᬫᬾ lime ᬦᭂᬦᭂᬫ᭄ nenem ᬧᬶᬢᬸ pitu ᬓᬸᬢᬸᬲ᭄ kutus ᬲᬶᬬ sia ᬤᬲ dasa

Banjar

اسا asa دوا dua تالو talu امڤت ampat ليم lima انم anam ڤيتو pitu والو walu ساڠ sanga ساڤولوه sapuluh

Batak, Toba

sada dua tolu opat lima onom pitu ualu sia sampulu

Batak, Karo

sada dua telu empat lima enem pitu waloh siwah sepuloh

Buginese

ᨔᨙᨉᨗ ceddi ᨉᨘᨓ dua ᨈᨛᨒᨘ tellu ᨕᨛᨄ empa ᨒᨗᨆ lima ᨕᨛᨊᨛ enneng ᨄᨗᨈᨘ pitu ᨕᨑᨘᨓ arua ᨕᨙᨔᨑ asera ᨔᨄᨘᨒᨚ seppulo

Cia-Cia

디세 dise ise 루아 rua ghua 똘루 tolu 빠아 pa'a 을리마 lima 노오 no'o 삐쭈 picu 활루 walu oalu 시우아 siua 옴뿔루 ompulu

Cham

sa dua klau pak lima nam tujuh dalapan salapan sapluh

Indonesian kosong nol satu suatu dua tiga empat lima enam tujuh delapan sembilan sepuluh

Javanese (Kawi) b sunya eka dwi tri catur panca sad sapta asta nawa dasa

Javanese (Kuna) das sa (sa' / sak) rwa tĕlu pāt lima nĕm pitu walu sanga sapuluh

Javanese (Krama) ꦤꦺꦴꦭ꧀ nol ꦱꦼꦠꦸꦁꦒꦭ꧀ setunggal ꦏꦭꦶꦃ kalih ꦠꦶꦒ tiga ꦱꦼꦏꦮꦤ꧀ sekawan ꦒꦁꦱꦭ꧀ gangsal ꦲꦼꦤꦼꦩ꧀ enem ꦥꦶꦠꦸ pitu ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸ wolu ꦱꦔ sanga ꦱꦼꦢꦱ sedasa

Javanese (Ngoko) ꦤꦺꦴꦭ꧀ nol ꦱꦶꦗꦶ siji ꦭꦺꦴꦫꦺꦴ loro ꦠꦼꦭꦸ telu ꦥꦥꦠ꧀ papat ꦭꦶꦩ lima ꦲꦼꦤꦼꦩ꧀ enem ꦥꦶꦠꦸ pitu ꦮꦺꦴꦭꦸ wolu ꦱꦔ sanga ꦱꦼꦥꦸꦭꦸꦃ sepuluh

Kelantan-Pattani kosong so duwo tigo pak limo ne tujoh lape smile spuloh

Madurese nol settong dhuwa' tello' empa' lema' ennem petto' ballu' sanga' sapolo

Makassarese ᨒᨚᨅ lobbang ᨊᨚᨒᨚ nolo' ᨙᨔᨙᨑ se're ᨑᨘᨕ rua ᨈᨒᨘ tallu ᨕᨄ appa' ᨒᨗᨆ lima ᨕᨊ annang ᨈᨘᨍ tuju ᨔᨂᨈᨘᨍ sangantuju ᨔᨒᨄ salapang ᨔᨄᨘᨒᨚ sampulo

Malay کوسوڠ kosong صيفر sifar ساتو سواتو satu suatu دوا dua تيݢ tiga امڤت empat ليم lima انم enam توجوە tujuh لاڤن lapan سمبيلن sembilan سڤولوه sepuluh

Minangkabau

چيك ciek دوا duo تيڬو tigo امڤيق ampek ليمو limo انم anam توجوە tujuah سالڤن salapan سمبيلن sambilan ساڤولواه sapuluah

Moken

cha:? thuwa:? teloj (təlɔy) pa:t lema:? nam luɟuːk waloj (walɔy) ch_e_waj (cʰɛwaːy / sɛwaːy) cepOh

Sasak

sekek due telo empat lime enam pituk baluk siwak sepulu

Sundanese ᮔᮧᮜ᮪ nol ᮠᮤᮏᮤ hiji ᮓᮥᮃ dua ᮒᮤᮜᮥ tilu ᮇᮕᮒ᮪ opat ᮜᮤᮙ lima ᮌᮨᮔᮨᮕ᮪ genep ᮒᮥᮏᮥᮂ tujuh ᮓᮜᮕᮔ᮪ dalapan ᮞᮜᮕᮔ᮪ salapan ᮞᮕᮥᮜᮥᮂ sapuluh

Terengganu Malay kosong se duwe tige pak lime nang tujoh lapang smilang spuloh

Tetun nol ida rua tolu hat lima nen hitu ualu sia sanulu

Tsat (HuiHui) c

sa³³ * , ta¹¹ ** tʰua¹¹ kiə³³ pa²⁴ ma³³ naːn³² su⁵⁵ paːn³² tʰu¹ paːn³² piu⁵⁵

There are two forms for numbers 'one ' in Tsat (Hui Hui; Hainan Cham) : ^* The word _sa³³_ is used for serial counting. ^** The word _ta¹¹_ is used with hundreds and thousands and before qualifiers.

_BORNEO–PHILIPPINE LANGUAGES _ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Ilokano ibbong awan maysa dua tallo uppat lima innem pito walo siam sangapulo

Ibanag awan tadday duwa tallu appa' lima annam pitu walu siyam mamfulu

Pangasinan

sakey duwa talo apat lima anem pito walo siyam samplo

Kapampangan ala metung/ isa' adua atlu apat lima anam pitu walu siyam apulu

Tagalog wala isa dalawa tatlo apat limá anim pito walo siyam sampu

Bikol wara sarô duwá tuló apat limá anom pitó waló siyám sampulû

Masbatenyo

isad usad duwa duha tulo upat lima unom pito walo siyam napulo

Aklanon uwa isaea sambilog daywa tatlo ap-at lima an-om pito waeo siyam napueo

Karay-a wara (i)sara darwa tatlo apat lima anəm pito walo siyam napulo

Onhan

isya darwa tatlo upat lima an-om pito walo siyam sampulo

Romblomanon

isa duha tuyo upat lima onum pito wayo siyam napuyo

Hiligaynon wala isa duha tatlo apat lima anom pito walo siyam napulo

Waray waray usa duha tulo upat lima unom pito walo siyam napulo

Cebuano wala usa duha tulo upat lima unom pito walo siyam napulo pulo

Tausug

isa duwa tū upat lima unum pitu walu siyam hangpu'

Maranao

isa dua telu pat lima nem pitu ualu siau sapulu'

Benuaq (Dayak Benuaq)

eray duaq toluu opaat limaq jawatn turu walo sie sepuluh

Dusun aiso iso duo tolu apat limo onom turu walu siam hopod

Malagasy aotra isa iray roa telo efatra dimy enina fito valo sivy folo

Sangirese (Sangir-Minahasan)

sembau darua tatelu epa lima eneng pitu walu sio mapulo

_OCEANIC LANGUAGES _D 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Fijian saiva dua rua tolu vaa lima ono vitu walu ciwa tini

Hawaiian 'ole 'e-kahi 'e-lua 'e-kolu 'e-hā 'e-lima 'e-ono 'e-hiku 'e-walu 'e-iwa 'umi

Kiribati akea teuana uoua tenua aua nimaua onoua itua wanua ruaiwa tebwina

Māori kore tahi rua toru whā rima ono whitu waru iwa tekau ngahuru

Marshallese o̧o juon ruo jilu emān ļalem jiljino jimjuon ralitōk ratimjuon jon̄oul

Motu e

ta rua toi hani ima tauratoi hitu taurahani taurahani-ta gwauta

Niuean nakai taha ua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu hiva hogofulu

Rapanui

tahi rua toru hā rima ono hitu va'u iva angahuru

Rarotongan Māori kare ta'i rua toru 'ā rima ono 'itu varu iva nga'uru

Rotuman

ta rua folu hake lima ono hifu vạlu siva saghulu

Sāmoan o tasi lua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu

Sāmoan (K-type) o kasi lua kolu fa lima ogo fiku valu iva sefulu

Tahitian

hō'ē tahi piti toru maha pae ōno hitu va'u iva hō'ē 'ahuru

Tongan noa taha ua tolu fa nima ono fitu valu hiva hongofulu taha noa

Trukese

eet érúúw één fáán niim woon fúús waan ttiw engoon

Tuvaluan

tahi tasi lua tolu fa lima ono fitu valu iva sefulu

COMPARISON CHART - THIRTEEN WORDS

ENGLISH ONE TWO THREE FOUR PERSON HOUSE DOG ROAD DAY NEW WE WHAT FIRE

TETUM ida rua tolu haat ema uma asu dalan loron foun ita saida ahi

AMIS cecay tosa tolo sepat tamdaw luma wacu lalan cidal faroh kita uman namal

PUYUMA sa dua telu pat taw rumah soan dalan wari vekar mi amanai apue, asi

TAGALOG isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso daan araw bago tayo / kami ano apoy

BIKOL sarô duwá tuló apat táwo harong áyam dálan aldaw bâgo kitá anó kalayó

RINCONADA BIKOL əsad darwā tolō əpat tawō baləy ayam raran aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō

CEBUANO usa, isa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro dalan adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo

WARAY usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam, ido dalan adlaw bag-o kita anu kalayo

HILIGAYNON isa duha tatlo apat tawo balay ido dalan adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo

AKLANON isaea, sambilog daywa tatlo ap-at tawo baeay ayam daean adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo

KINARAY-A (i)sara darwa tatlo apat tawo balay ayam dalan adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo

TAUSUG hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' dan adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu

MARANAO isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso lalan gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy

KAPAMPANGAN metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu dalan aldo bayu ikatamu nanu api

PANGASINAN sakey dua, duara talo, talora apat, apatira too abong aso dalan ageo balo sikatayo anto pool

ILOKANO maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso dalan aldaw baro datayo ania apoy

IVATAN asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito rarahan araw va-yo yaten ango apoy

IBANAG tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu dalan aggaw bagu sittam anni afi

YOGAD tata addu tallu appat tolay binalay atu daddaman agaw bagu sikitam gani afuy

GADDANG antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu dallan aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy

TBOLI sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lan kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih

MALAY /INDONESIAN satu, suatu dua tiga empat orang rumah, balai anjing jalan hari baru kita apa, anu api

OLD JAVANESE esa, eka rwa, dwi tĕlu, tri pat, catur wwang umah asu dalan dina hañar, añar kami apa, aparan apuy, agni

JAVANESE siji, setunggal loro, kalih tĕlu, tiga papat, sekawan uwong, tiyang, priyantun omah, griya, dalem asu, sĕgawon dalan, gili dina, dinten anyar, énggal awaké dhéwé, kula panjenengan apa, punapa gĕni, latu, brama

SUNDANESE hiji dua tilu opat urang imah anjing jalan poe anyar, enggal arurang naon seuneu

ACEHNESE sa duwa lhèë peuët ureuëng rumoh, balè, seuëng asèë röt uroë barô (geu)tanyoë peuë apui

MINANGKABAU ciek duo tigo ampek urang rumah anjiang labuah, jalan hari baru awak apo api

LAMPUNGESE sai khua telu pak jelema lamban kaci ranlaya khani baru kham api apui

BUGINESE sedi dua tellu eppa tau bola asu lalen esso baru idi aga api

TEMUAN satuk duak tigak empat uwang, eang gumah, umah anying, koyok jalan aik, haik bahauk kitak apak apik

BATAKNESE sada dua tolu opat halak jabu biang dalan ari baru hita aha api

KELANTAN-PATTANI so duwo tigo pak oghe ghumoh, dumoh anjing jale aghi baghu kito gapo api

CHAMORRO håcha, maisa hugua tulu fatfat taotao guma ga'lågu chålan ha'åni nuebu hita håfa guafi

MOTU ta, tamona rua toi hani tau ruma sisia dala dina matamata ita, ai dahaka lahi

MāORI tahi rua toru whā tangata whare kurī ara rā hou tāua, tātou/tātau māua, mātou/mātau aha ahi

TUVALUAN tasi lua tolu fá toko fale kuli ala, tuu aso fou tāua a afi

HAWAIIAN kahi lua kolu hā kanaka hale 'īlio ala ao hou kākou aha ahi

BANJARESE asa duwa talu ampat urang rūmah hadupan heko hǎri hanyar kami apa api

MALAGASY isa roa telo efatra olona trano alika lalana andro vaovao isika inona afo

DUSUN iso duo tolu apat tulun walai, lamin tasu ralan tadau wagu tokou onu/nu tapui

KADAZAN iso duvo tohu apat tuhun hamin tasu lahan tadau vagu tokou onu, nunu tapui

RUNGUS iso duvo tolu, tolzu apat tulun, tulzun valai, valzai tasu dalan tadau vagu tokou nunu tapui, apui

SUNGAI/TAMBANUO ido duo tolu opat lobuw waloi asu ralan runat wagu toko onu apui

IBAN satu, sa, siti, sigi dua tiga empat orang, urang rumah ukui, uduk jalai hari baru kitai nama api

SARAWAK MALAY satu, sigek dua tiga empat orang rumah asuk jalan ari baru kita apa api

TERENGGANUAN se duwe tige pak oghang ghumoh, dumoh anjing jalang aghi baghu kite mende, ape, gape, nape api

KANAYATN sa dua talu ampat urakng rumah asu' jalatn ari baru kami', diri' ahe api

HISTORY

Further information: Austronesian peoples § Migration and dispersion

The protohistory of the Austronesian _people_ can be traced farther back through time than can that of the Proto-Austronesian language . From the standpoint of historical linguistics , the home (in linguistic terminology, _ Urheimat _) of the Austronesian languages is the main island of Taiwan , also known as Formosa; on this island the deepest divisions in Austronesian are found, among the families of the native Formosan languages . According to Robert Blust , the Formosan languages form nine of the ten primary branches of the Austronesian language family Blust (1999) . Comrie (2001 :28) noted this when he wrote: Austronesian languages expansion map. Periods are based on archeological studies, though the association of the archeological record and linguistic reconstructions is disputed.

“ ... the internal diversity among the... Formosan languages... is greater than that in all the rest of Austronesian put together, so there is a major genetic split within Austronesian between Formosan and the rest... Indeed, the genetic diversity within Formosan is so great that it may well consist of several primary branches of the overall Austronesian family. ”

At least since Sapir (1968) , linguists have generally accepted that the chronology of the dispersal of languages within a given language family can be traced from the area of greatest linguistic variety to that of the least. For example, English in North America has large numbers of speakers, but relatively low dialectal diversity, while English in Great Britain has much higher diversity; such low linguistic variety by Sapir's thesis suggests a more recent origin of English in North America. While some scholars suspect that the number of principal branches among the Formosan languages may be somewhat less than Blust's estimate of nine (e.g. Li 2006 ), there is little contention among linguists with this analysis and the resulting view of the origin and direction of the migration. For a recent dissenting analysis, see (Peiros 2004 ).

To get an idea of the original homeland of the Austronesian _people_, scholars can probe evidence from archaeology and genetics. Studies from the science of genetics have produced conflicting outcomes. Some researchers find evidence for a proto- Austronesian homeland on the Asian mainland (e.g., Melton et al. 1998 ), while others mirror the linguistic research, rejecting an East Asian origin in favor of Taiwan (e.g., Trejaut et al. 2005 ). Archaeological evidence (e.g., Bellwood 1997 ) is more consistent, suggesting that the ancestors of the Austronesians spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some time around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it is from this island that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages (Diamond 2000 ). It is believed that this migration began around 6,000 years ago (Blust 1999 ). However, evidence from historical linguistics cannot bridge the gap between those two periods. The view that linguistic evidence connects Austronesian languages to the Sino-Tibetan ones, as proposed for example by Sagart (2002) , is a minority one. As Fox (2004 :8) states:

“ Implied in... discussions of subgrouping is a broad consensus that the homeland of the Austronesians was in Taiwan. This homeland area may have also included the P\'eng-hu (Pescadores) islands between Taiwan and China and possibly even sites on the coast of mainland China, especially if one were to view the early Austronesians as a population of related dialect communities living in scattered coastal settlements. ”

Linguistic analysis of the Proto-Austronesian language stops at the western shores of Taiwan; any related mainland language(s) have not survived. The only exceptions, the Chamic languages , derive from more recent migration to the mainland (Thurgood 1999 :225).

HYPOTHESIZED RELATIONS

Genealogical links have been proposed between Austronesian and various families of East and Southeast Asia .

AUSTRIC

Main article: Austric languages

A link with the Austroasiatic languages in an ' Austric ' phylum is based mostly on typological evidence. However, there is also morphological evidence of a connection between the conservative Nicobarese languages and Austronesian languages of the Philippines. Paul K. Benedict extended the Austric proposal to include the Tai–Kadai and Hmong–Mien families, but this has not been followed by other linguists.

AUSTRO-TAI

Main article: Austro-Tai languages

A competing Austro-Tai proposal linking Austronesian and Tai–Kadai is supported by Weera Ostapirat, Roger Blench , and Laurent Sagart, and is based on the traditional comparative method . Ostapirat (2005) proposes a series of regular correspondences linking the two families and assumes a primary split, with Tai–Kadai speakers being the Austronesians who stayed behind in their Chinese homeland. Blench (2004) suggests that, _if_ the connection is valid, the relationship is unlikely to be one of two sister families. Rather, he suggests that proto-Tai–Kadai speakers were Austronesians who migrated to Hainan Island and back to the mainland from the northern Philippines, and that their distinctiveness results from radical restructuring following contact with Hmong–Mien and Sinitic .

SINO-AUSTRONESIAN

Main article: Sino- Austronesian languages

French linguist and Sinologist Laurent Sagart considers the Austronesian languages to be related to the Sino-Tibetan languages , and also groups the Tai–Kadai languages as more closely related to the Malayo-Polynesian languages . He also groups the Austronesian languages in a recursive-like fashion, placing Tai–Kadai as a sister branch of Malayo-Polynesian. His methodology has been found to be spurious by his peers.

JAPANESE

Several linguists have proposed that Japanese may be a relative of the Austronesian family . Some linguists think it is more plausible that Japanese might have instead been influenced by Austronesian languages, perhaps by an Austronesian substratum . Those who propose this scenario suggest that the Austronesian family once covered the islands to the north as well as to the south. Alexander Vovin calls his reconstruction of Proto-Japanese suggestive of a Southeast Asian origin of the Japonic languages . Several Japanese linguists classify Japanese as "Para-Austronesian".

ONGAN

It has recently been proposed that the Austronesian and the Ongan protolanguage are the descendants of an Austronesian–Ongan protolanguage (Blevins 2007 ).

WRITING SYSTEMS

See also: Writing systems of Southeast Asia Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali Manuscript from early 1800s using Batak alphabet

Most Austronesian languages have Latin -based writing systems today. Some non-Latin-based writing systems are listed below.

* Brahmi script

* Kawi script

* Balinese alphabet - used to write Balinese and Sasak . * Batak alphabet - used to write several Batak languages . * Baybayin - used to write Tagalog and several Philippine languages . * Bima alphabet - once used to write the Bima language . * Buhid alphabet - used to write Buhid language . * Hanunó\'o alphabet - used to write Hanuno\'o language . * Javanese alphabet - used to write the Javanese language and several neighbouring languages like Madurese . * Kerinci alphabet (_Kaganga_) - used to write the Kerinci language . * Kulitan alphabet - used to write the Kapampangan language . * Lampung alphabet - used to write Lampung and Komering . * Lontara alphabet - used to write the Buginese , Makassarese and several languages of Sulawesi . * Sundanese alphabet - used to write the Sundanese language . * Rejang alphabet - used to write the Rejang language . * Rencong alphabet - once used to write the Malay language . * Tagbanwa alphabet - once used to write various Palawan languages . * Lota alphabet - used to write the Ende-Li\'o language .

* Cham alphabet - used to write Cham language .

* Arabic script

* Pegon alphabet - used to write Javanese , Sundanese and Madurese as well as several smaller neighbouring languages. * Jawi alphabet - used to write Malay , Acehnese , Banjar , Minangkabau , Tausug , Western Cham and others. * Sorabe alphabet - once used to write several dialects of Malagasy language .

* Hangul - once used to write the Cia-Cia language but the project is no longer active. * Dunging - used to write the Iban language but it was not widely used. * Avoiuli - used to write the Raga language . * Eskayan - used to write the Eskayan language , a secret language based on Boholano . * Woleai script (Caroline Island script) - used to write the Carolinian language (Refaluwasch). * Rongorongo - possibly used to write the Rapa Nui language . * Braille - used in Filipino , Malaysian , Indonesian , Tolai , Motu , Māori , Samoan , Malagasy, and many other Austronesian languages.

SEE ALSO

* Ainu languages * Austric languages * Austronesia * Austronesian Formal Linguistics Association * Austronesian peoples * Austro-Tai * Hmong-Mien * Indonesian language * Japanese language * List of Austronesian languages * List of Austronesian regions * Margaret Florey * Tai-Kadai

NOTES

* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Austronesian". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ " Austronesian Languages". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved 26 October 2016. * ^ Blust, Robert (2016). _History of the Austronesian Languages_. University of Hawaii at Manoa. * ^ John Simpson ; Edmund Weiner , eds. (1989). _Official Oxford English Dictionary (OED2)_ (Dictionary ). Oxford University Press . p. 22000. * ^ Adelaar, K. Alexander and Nikolaus Limmelmann. 2005. The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar. P.6-7 * ^ Croft, William. 2012 Verbs: Aspect and Causal Structure. P.261 * ^ "The Tipuns... are certainly descended from emigrants, and I have not the least doubt but that the Amias are of similar origin; only of later date, and most probably from the Mejaco Simas , a group of islands lying 110 miles to the North-east.... By all accounts the old Pilam savages, who merged into the Tipuns, were the first settlers on the plain; then came the Tipuns, and a long time afterwards the Amias. The Tipuns, for some time, acknowledged the Pilam Chief as supreme, but soon absorbed both the chieftainship and the people, in fact the only trace left of them now, is a few words peculiar to the Pilam village, one of which, makan (to eat), is pure Malay. The Amias submitted themselves to the jurisdiction of the Tipuns." * ^ _A_ _B_ Li, Paul Jen-kuei. 2008. "Time perspective of Formosan Aborigines." In Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia ed. _Past human migrations in East Asia: matching archaeology, linguistics and genetics_. Taylor ">(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2010-10-29. (see page 304) * ^ Benedict (1990), Lewin (1976), Matsumoto (1975), Miller (1967), Murayama (1976), Shibatani (1990). * ^ Vovin, Alexander. "Proto-Japanese beyond the accent system". _Current Issues in Linguistic Theory_. * ^ Blevins, Juliette (2007), "A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands" (PDF), _Oceanic Linguistics_, 46 (1): 154–198, doi :10.1353/ol.2007.0015 , archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-11

REFERENCES

* Bellwood, Peter (July 1991). "The Austronesian Dispersal and the Origin of Languages". _Scientific American_. 265 (1): 88–93. doi :10.1038/scientificamerican0791-88 . * Bellwood, Peter (1997). _Prehistory of the Indo-Malaysian archipelago_. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. * Bellwood, Peter (1998). " Taiwan and the Prehistory of the Austronesians-speaking Peoples". _Review of Archaeology_. 18: 39–48.

* Bellwood, Peter; Fox, James; Tryon, Darrell (1995). _The Austronesians: Historical and comparative perspectives_. Department of Anthropology, Australian National University. ISBN 0-7315-2132-3 . * Bellwood, Peter & Alicia Sanchez-Mazas (June 2005). "Human Migrations in Continental East Asia and Taiwan: Genetic, Linguistic, and Archaeological Evidence". _Current Anthropology_. 46 (3): 480–484. doi :10.1086/430018 . * Blench, Roger (June 10–13, 2004). _Stratification in the peopling of China: how far does the linguistic evidence match genetics and archaeology?_ (PDF). Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan: genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence. Geneva. * Blevins, Juliette (2007). "A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands" (PDF). _Oceanic Linguistics_. 46 (1): 154–198. doi :10.1353/ol.2007.0015 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-01-11. * Blundell, David. " Austronesian Dispersal". _Newsletter of Chinese Ethnology_. 35: 1–26. * Blust, Robert (1985). "The Austronesian Homeland: A Linguistic Perspective". _Asian Perspectives_. 26: 46–67. * Blust, Robert (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative". In Zeitoun, E.; Li, P.J.K. _Selected papers from the Eighth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics_. Taipei: Academia Sinica. pp. 31–94. * Comrie, Bernard (2001). "Languages of the world". In Aronoff, Mark; Rees-Miller,, Janie. _The Handbook of LinguisticsLanguages of the world_. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 19–42. * Diamond, Jared M (2000). "Taiwan\'s gift to the world" (PDF). _Nature_. 403 (6771): 709–10. PMID 10693781 . doi :10.1038/35001685 . * Dyen, Isidore (1965). "A Lexicostatistical classification of the Austronesian languages". _International Journal of American Linguistics_ (Memoir 19). * Fox, James J. (19–20 August 2004). _Current Developments in Comparative Austronesian Studies_ (PDF). Symposium Austronesia Pascasarjana Linguististik dan Kajian Budaya. Universitas Udayana, Bali. * Fuller, Peter (2002). "Reading the Full Picture". _ Asia Pacific Research_. Canberra, Australia: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies. Retrieved July 28, 2005. * Greenhill, S.J.; Blust, R.; Gray, R.D (2008). "The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database: From Bioinformatics to Lexomics". _Evolutionary Bioinformatics_. 4: 271–283. . * "Homepage of linguist Dr. Lawrence Reid". Retrieved July 28, 2005.

* Li, Paul Jen-kuei (2004). "Origins of the East Formosans:Basay, Kavalan, Amis, and Siraya". _Language and Linguistics_. 5 (2): 363–376. * Li, Paul Jen-kuei (17–20 January 2006). _The Internal Relationships of Formosan Languages_ (PDF). Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics (ICAL). Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. * Lynch, John , Malcolm Ross and Terry Crowley (2002). _The Oceanic languages_. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * Melton T.; Clifford S.; Martinson J.; Batzer M. & Stoneking M. (1998). "Genetic evidence for the proto- Austronesian homeland in Asia: mtDNA and nuclear DNA variation in Taiwanese aboriginal tribes" . _American Journal of Human Genetics_. 63 (6): 1807–23. PMC 1377653  _. PMID 9837834 . doi :10.1086/302131 . * Ostapirat, Weera (2005). "Kra–Dai and Austronesian: Notes on phonological correspondences and vocabulary distribution". In Laurent Sagart, Roger Blench & Alicia Sanchez-Mazas. The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics_. London: Routledge Curzon. pp. 107–131. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * Peiros, Ilia (June 10–13, 2004). _Austronesian: What linguists know and what they believe they know_. the workshop on Human migrations in continental East Asia and Taiwan. Geneva. * Ross, Malcolm (2009). "Proto Austronesian verbal morphology: a reappraisal". In Adelaar, K. Alexander; Pawley, Andrew. _Austronesian Historical Linguistics and Culture History: A Festschrift for Robert Blust_. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 295–326. * Ross, Malcolm & Andrew Pawley (1993). " Austronesian historical linguistics and culture history". _Annual Review of Anthropology_. 22: 425–459. OCLC 1783647 . doi :10.1146/annurev.an.22.100193.002233 . * Ross, John (2002). "Final words: research themes in the history and typology of western Austronesian languages". In Wouk, Fay; Ross, Malcolm. _The history and typology of Western Austronesian voice systems_. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. pp. 451–474. * Sagart, Laurent (8–11 January 2002). _Sino-Tibeto-Austronesian: An updated and improved argument_ (PDF). Ninth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics (ICAL9). Canberra, Australia. * Sagart, Laurent (2004). "The higher phylogeny of Austronesian and the position of Tai–Kadai". _Oceanic Linguistics_. 43: 411–440. doi :10.1353/ol.2005.0012 . * Sagart, Laurent (2005). "Sino-Tibeto-Austronesian: An updated and improved argument". In Blench, Roger; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia. _The Peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics_. London: Routledge Curzon. pp. 161–176. * Sapir, Edward (1968). "Time perspective in aboriginal American culture: a study in method". In Mandelbaum, D.G. _Selected writings of Edward Sapir in language, culture and personality_. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 389–467. * Taylor, G. (1888). "A ramble through southern Formosa". _The China Review_. 16: 137–161. * Terrell, John Edward (December 2004). "Introduction: 'Austronesia' and the great Austronesian migration". _World Archaeology_. 36 (4): 586–590. doi :10.1080/0043824042000303764 . * Thurgood, Graham (1999). "From Ancient Cham to Modern Dialects. Two Thousand Years of Language Contact and Change. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications No. 28". Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. * Trejaut JA; Kivisild T; Loo JH; Lee CL; He CL (2005). "Traces of archaic mitochondrial lineages persist in Austronesian-speaking Formosan populations" (PDF). _PLoS Biol_. 3 (8): e247. PMC 1166350  _. PMID 15984912 . doi :10.1371/journal.pbio.0030247 . * Wouk, Fay and Malcolm Ross , eds. (2002), The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems._ Pacific Linguistics. Canberra: Australian National University.

FURTHER READING

* Bengtson, John D., The "Greater Austric" Hypothesis, Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory. * Blust, R. A. (1983). _Lexical reconstruction and semantic reconstruction: the case of the Austronesian "house" words_. Hawaii: R. Blust. * Cohen, E. M. K. (1999). _Fundaments of Austronesian roots and etymology_. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. ISBN 0-85883-436-7 * Marion, P., _Liste Swadesh élargie de onze langues austronésiennes,_ éd. Carré de sucre, 2009 * Pawley, A., & Ross, M. (1994). _ Austronesian terminologies: continuity and change_. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-424-3 * Sagart, Laurent, Roger Blench, and Alicia Sanchez-Nazas (Eds.) (2004). _The peopling of East Asia: Putting Together Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics_. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-415-32242-1 . * Tryon, D. T., ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Austronesian languages

MALAYO-POLYNESIAN

NUCLEAR MALAYO-POLYNESIAN

SUNDA-SULAWESI

MALAYO-SUMBAWAN

SUNDANESE

* Baduy * SUNDANESE

MADURESE

* Kangean * MADURESE

MALAYO-CHAMIC

ACEH–CHAMIC

* ACEHNESE * Cham dialects * Chru * Haroi * Jarai * Rade * Roglai * Tsat (Utsat)

MALAYIC

* Bamayo * BANJAR * Brunei/Kedayan Malay * Berau Malay * Bangka Malay * Balau * Bengkulu * Col * Duano\' * Haji * Iban * JAMBI MALAY * Jakun * KEDAH MALAY * Kutai Malay * Kaur * Kerinci * KELANTAN-PATTANI MALAY (YAWI) * Kendayan * Keninjal * Kubu * Orang Laut * Lubu * JOHORE-RIAU MALAY (MALAYSIAN border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* BALINESE * SASAK * Sumbawa

NORTHWEST SUMATRAN

* Enggano * Gayo * Mentawai * Nias * Sikule * Simeulue

BATAK

* Alas * Batak Angkola * BATAK DAIRI * BATAK KARO * BATAK SIMALUNGUN * BATAK TOBA * MANDAILING

LAMPUNGIC

* Lampung Nyo * Lampung Api * Komering

CELEBIC ?

* Andio * Badaic * Bahonsuai * Balaesang * Balantak * Banggai * Batui * Boano * Bobongko * Bonerate * Bungku * Busoa * Cia-Cia * Dampelas * Dondo * Kalao * Kaili * Kaimbulawa * Kamaru * Kodeoha * Kulisusu * Kumbewaha * Lasalimu * Laiyolo * Lauje * Liabuku * Mbelala * Moronene * Mori Bawah * Mori Atas * Moma * Muna * Padoe * Pancana * Pendau * Rahambuu * Rampi * Saluan * Sarudu * Sedoa * Pamona * Taje * Tajio * Tukang Besi * Tolaki * Tomadino * Topoiyo * Tomini * Totoli * Uma * Waru * Wawonii * Wolio * Wotu

SOUTH SULAWESI

* Aralle-Tabulahan * Bambam * Bentong * Budong-Budong * BUGINESE * Campalagian * Dakka * Duri * Embaloh * Enrekang * Kalumpang * Konjo * Lawa * Lemolang * Maiwa (Sulawesi) * MAKASSARESE * Malimpung * Mamasa * Mamuju * Mandar * Panasuan * Pannei * Selayar * Seko * Tae\' * Talondo\' * Taman * Toraja-Sa\'dan * Ulumanda\'

MOKEN

* Moken dialects

JAVANESE

* Arekan * BANYUMASAN * Mataraman * Kawi ( Old Javanese ) * Kedu * Osing * TENGGERESE

UNCLASSIFIED

* Chamorro * Hukumina † * Palauan

CENTRAL-EASTERN MALAYO-POLYNESIAN

CENTRAL MALAYO-POLYNESIAN

SUMBA–FLORES

* Bima

SUMBA-MANGGARAI

SUMBA

* Hawu ? * Dhao ? * Kambera * Mamboru * Anakalangu * Wanukaka * Pondok * Baliledo * Wejewa * Lamboya * Kodi * Gaura

ENDE-MANGGARAI

* Komodo * Manggarai * Riung * Rembong * Rajong * Kepo\' * Wae Rana * Palu\'e * Ende-Li\'o * Nage * Ke\'o * Ngad\'a * Rongga * So\'a

FLORES-LEMBATA

* Kedang

SIKA-LAMAHOLOT

* Sika

LAMAHOLOTIC

* Lamatuka * Lewo Eleng * Levuka * South Lembata * Lamaholot * Alorese * Lamalera * Lewotobi * Adonara * Ile Ape * Mingar

SELARU

* Selaru * Seluwasan

KEI-TANIMBAR

* Kei * Fordata * Yamdena * Onin * Sekar * Uruangnirin

ARU

* Barakai * Batuley * Dobel * Karey * Koba * Kola * Lola * Lorang * Manombai * Mariri * Tarangan * Ujir

TIMOR-BABAR

TIMORIC ?

* Kemak * Tukudede * Mambai * Idalaka * Dawan * Amarasi * Helong * Bilba * Dengka * Lole * Ringgou * Dela-Oenale * Termanu * Tii * Tetum * Bekais * Wetar * Galoli * Luang * Makuva

BABAR

* West Damar ? * Dawera-Daweloor * North Babar * Dai * Masela * Serili * Southeast Babar * Emplawas * Imroing * Tela\'a

UNCLASSIFIED

* Naueti * Kairui * Waimoa * Midiki

KOWIAI

* Kowiai

CENTRAL MALUKU ?

* Teor-Kur

WEST CENTRAL MALUKU

* Ambelau * Buru * Lisela * Moksela † * Sula * Mangole * Taliabo

EAST CENTRAL MALUKU {Navbox

* Banda * Bati * Geser * Watubela * Bobot * Masiwang * Hoti † * Benggoi * Salas * Liana

NUNUSAKU

* Kayeli † * Nuaulu * Huaulu * Manusela * Wemale * Yalahatan

PIRU BAY ?

* Asilulu * Luhu * Manipa * Wakasihu * Boano (Moluccas) * Sepa-Teluti * Paulohi * Kaibobo * Hitu * Tulehu * Laha * Seit-Kaitetu * Kamarian † * Haruku * Amahai * Nusa Laut * Saparua * Latu

EASTERN MALAYO-POLYNESIAN LINKAGES

* Halmahera–Cenderawasih * Oceanic languages

BORNEO-PHILIPPINE

PHILIPPINE

Northern Philippine

BATANIC (BASHIIC) ?

* Itbayat * Ivatan * Yami

NORTHERN LUZON

* ILOKANO * PANGASINAN * Ibanag * Arta * Isnag * Atta * Itawis * Yogad * Cagayan Aeta * Gaddang * Ga\'dang * Northern Alta * Southern Alta * Isinai * Itneg * Kalinga * Ifugao * Tuwali ? * Balangao * Bontok-Finallig * Kankanaey * Ilongot * Ibaloi * Iwaak * Kallahan * Karao * Dicamay Agta †

CENTRAL LUZON

* KAPAMPANGAN * Abellen * Ambala * Bolinao * Botolan * Mag-antsi * Mag-indi * Mariveleño * Sambali * Remontado Agta (Sinauna)

NORTHERN MINDORO

* Alangan * Iraya * Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

SOUTHERN MINDORO

* Buhid * Hanuno\'o * Tawbuid

Central Philippine

* TAGALOG

VISAYAN

* CEBUANO * HILIGAYNON * WARAY * TAUSUG * Kinaray-a * Aklanon * Capiznon * Asi * Ati * Bantayanon * Baybayanon * Boholano * Butuanon * Caluyanon * Cuyunon * Kinabalian * Onhan * Porohanon * Ratagnon * Romblomanon * Surigaonon

BIKOL

* Central Bikol * Albay Bikol * Isarog Agta * Mount Iraya Agta * Mount Iriga Agta * Pandan Bikol * Rinconada

BISAKOL

* Masbatenyo * South Sorsogon (Gubat) * Central Sorsogon (Masbate)

UNCLASSIFIED Sulod

MANSAKAN

* Davawenyo * Kalagan * Kamayo * Mamanwa * Mandaya * Mansaka

PALAWAN

* Aborlan Tagbanwa * Palawan Batak * Palawano

MINDANAO

* MAGUINDANAO * Maranao * Agusan * Ata Manobo * Binukid * Cotabato Manobo * Higaonon * Ilianen * Iranun * Kagayanen * Kinamigin * Matigsalug * Obo * Sarangani * Subanen * Tagabawa * Western Bukidnon

Gorontalo- Mongondow

* Bolango * Buol * Bintauna * GORONTALO * Kaidipang * Lolak * Suwawa * Mongondow * Ponosakan

KALAMIAN

* Agutaynen * Calamian Tagbanwa

BILIC

* Bagobo * B\'laan * T\'boli * Tiruray

SANGIRIC

* Sangirese * Talaud * Bantik * Ratahan

MINAHASAN

* Tonsawang * Tontemboan * Tombulu * Tondano * Tonsea

UNCLASSIFIED

* Umiray Dumaget

MANIDE-INAGTA

* Inagta Alabat * Manide

BORNEAN

NORTH BORNEAN

SABAHAN

* Ida\'an * Bonggi * Brunei Bisaya * Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) * Lotud * Dusun * Kuijau * Eastern Kadazan * Gana\' * Kota Marudu Talantang * Kinamaragang (Momogun) * Klias River Kadazan * Coastal Kadazan * Yakan * Tombonuwo * Kinabatangan * Sungai * Keningau Murut * Okolod * Tagol * Paluan * Selungai Murut * Timugon * Bookan * Abai * Papar * Kalabakan * Sembakung * Serudung * Nonukan Tidong

UNCLASSIFIED

* Dumpas * Molbog

NORTH SARAWAKAN

* Kenyah (Bakung) * Sebob * Tutoh * Uma\' Lasan * Wahau Kenyah * Penan ? * Kelabit * Lengilu * Lundayeh * Sa\'ban * Tring * Berawan * Belait * Kiput * Narom * Tutong

UNCLASSIFIED

* Bintulu

MELANAU-KAJANG

* Kajaman * Lahanan * Sekapan * Daro-Matu * Kanowit-Tanjong * Melanau * Bukitan * Punan Batu * Sian * Ukit * Basap * Burusu * Bah-Biau Punan * Sajau * Punan Merap * Bukat * Seru † * Lelak †

KAYAN-MURIK

* Kayan * Bahau * Modang * Segai * Hovongan * Aoheng * Aput * Punan * Krio Dayak * Murik

LAND DAYAK

* Bekati\' * Sara * Lara\' * Bukar Sadong * Rejang * Biatah * Tringgus * Jagoi * Jangkang * Kembayan * Semandang * Ribun * Benyadu\' * Sanggau

BARITO

* MALAGASY * Bushi * Deyah * Malang * Witu * Ma\'anyan * Paku * Lawangan * Kohin * Dihoi * Siang * Bakumpai * Ngaju * Ampanang * Tunjung

SAMA-BAJAW ?

* Abaknon * Bajaw * Sama * Pangutaran Sama

FORMOSAN

RUKAIC

* Rukai

TSOUIC

* Tsou * Kanakanabu * Saaroa

NORTHERN FORMOSAN

ATAYALIC

* Atayal * Seediq

NORTHWEST FORMOSAN

* Saisiyat * Pazeh † * Kulon † * Thao * Babuza * Favorlang †

EAST FORMOSAN

* Ketagalan † * Basay † * Kavalan * Amis * Siraya †

SOUTHERN

* Puyuma * Paiwan * Bunun

* BOLD indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers * ? indicates classification dispute * † indicates extinct status

* v * t * e

Formosan languages

RUKAIC

* Rukai

TSOUIC

* Tsou * Kanakanabu * Saaroa

NORTHERN FORMOSAN

ATAYALIC

* Atayal * Seediq

Northwest Formosan

* Saisiyat * Pazeh † * Kulon † * Thao * Babuza * Favorlang †

EAST FORMOSAN

* Ketagalan † * Basay † * Kavalan * Amis * Siraya †

SOUTHERN

* Puyuma * Paiwan * Bunun

* BOLD indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers * ? indicates classification dispute * † indicates extinct status

* v * t * e

Borneo–Philippine languages

PHILIPPINE

Northern Philippine

BATANIC (BASHIIC) ?

* Itbayat * Ivatan * Yami

NORTHERN LUZON

* ILOCANO * PANGASINAN * Ibanag * Arta * Isnag * Atta * Itawis * Yogad * Cagayan Aeta * Gaddang * Ga\'dang * Northern Alta * Southern Alta * Isinai * Itneg * Kalinga * Ifugao * Tuwali ? * Balangao * Bontok-Finallig * Kankanaey * Ilongot * Ibaloi * Iwaak * Kallahan * Karao * Dicamay Agta †

CENTRAL LUZON

* KAPAMPANGAN * Abellen * Ambala * Bolinao * Botolan * Mag-antsi * Mag-indi * Mariveleño * Sambal * Remontado Agta (Sinauna)

NORTHERN MINDORO

* Alangan * Iraya * Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

SOUTHERN MINDORO

* Buhid * Hanuno\'o * Tawbuid

CENTRAL PHILIPPINE

* TAGALOG * CEBUANO * HILIGAYNON * WARAY * CENTRAL BIKOL * TAUSUG * KINARAY-A * Sulodnon * Aklanon * Capiznon * Masbatenyo * Albay Bikol * Asi * Bantayanon * Baybayanon * Boholano * Butuanon * Caluyanon * Cuyunon * South Sorsogon (Gubat) * Central Sorsogon (Masbate) * Isarog Agta * Kabalian * Mount Iraya Agta * Mount Iriga Agta * Onhan * Pandan Bikol * Porohanon * Ratagnon * Rinconada * Romblomanon * Surigaonon

UNCLASSIFIED Sulod

MANSAKAN

* Davawenyo * Kalagan * Kamayo * Mamanwa * Mandaya * Mansaka

PALAWAN

* Aborlan Tagbanwa * Central Tagbanwa * Palawan Batak * Palawano

MINDANAO

* MAGUINDANAO * MARANAO * Agusan * Ata Manobo * Binukid * Cotabato Manobo * Higaonon * Ilianen * Iranun * Kagayanen * Kamigin * Matigsalug * Obo * Sarangani * Subanen * Tagabawa * Western Bukidnon

GORONTALO-MONGONDOW

* Bolango * Buol * Bintauna * Gorontalo * Kaidipang * Lolak * Suwawa * Mongondow * Ponosakan

KALAMIAN

* Agutaynen * Calamian Tagbanwa

BILIC

* Bagobo * B\'laan * T\'boli * Tiruray

SANGIRIC

* Sangirese * Talaud * Bantik * Ratahan

MINAHASAN

* Tonsawang * Tontemboan * Tombulu * Tondano * Tonsea

UNCLASSIFIED

* Umiray Dumaget * Ati

MANIDE-INAGTA

* Inagta Alabat * Manide

BORNEAN

NORTH BORNEAN

SABAHAN

* Ida\'an * Bonggi * Molbog * Brunei Bisaya * Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) * Lotud * Dusun * Kuijau * Eastern Kadazan * Gana\' * Kota Marudu Talantang * Kamaragang (Momogun) * Klias River Kadazan * Coastal Kadazan * Yakan * Tombonuwo * Kinabatangan * Sungai * Keningau Murut * Okolod * Tagol * Paluan * Selungai Murut * Timugon * Bookan * Abai * Papar * Kalabakan * Sembakung * Serudung * Nonukan Tidong

UNCLASSIFIED

* Dumpas

NORTH SARAWAKAN

* Kenyah (Bakung) * Sebob * Tutoh * Uma\' Lasan * Wahau Kenyah * Penan ? * Kelabit * Lengilu * Lundayeh * Sa\'ban * Tring * Berawan * Belait * Kiput * Narom * Tutong

UNCLASSIFIED

* Bintulu

MELANAU-KAJANG

* Kajaman * Lahanan * Sekapan * Daro-Matu * Kanowit-Tanjong * Melanau * Bukitan * Punan Batu * Sian * Ukit * Basap * Burusu * Bah-Biau Punan * Sajau * Punan Merap * Bukat * Seru † * Lelak †

KAYAN-MURIK

* Kayan * Bahau * Modang * Segai * Hovongan * Aoheng * Aput * Punan * Krio Dayak * Murik

LAND DAYAK

* Bekati\' * Sara * Lara\' * Bukar Sadong * Rejang * Biatah * Tringgus * Jagoi * Jangkang * Kembayan * Semandang * Ribun * Benyadu\' * Sanggau

BARITO

* MALAGASY * Deyah * Malang * Witu * Ma\'anyan * Paku * Lawangan * Kohin * Dihoi * Siang * Bakumpai * Ngaju * Ampanang * Tunjung

SAMA-BAJAW ?

* Abaknon * Bajaw * Sinama * Pangutaran Sama

* BOLD indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers * ? indicates classification dispute * † indicates extinct status

* v * t * e

Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages

MALAYO-SUMBAWAN

SUNDANESE

* Sundanese (Baduy )

MADURESE

* Kangean * Madurese

MALAYO-CHAMIC

CHAMIC

* Acehnese * Cham dialects * Chru * Haroi * Jarai * Rade * Roglai * Tsat (Utsat)

MALAYIC

* Bamayo * Banjar * Brunei/Kedayan Malay * Berau Malay * Bangka Malay * Balau * Bengkulu * Col * Duano\' * Haji * Iban * Jambi Malay * Jakun * Kedah Malay * Kutai Malay * Kaur * Kerinci * Kelantan-Pattani Malay (Yawi) * Kendayan * Keninjal * Kubu * Orang Laut * Lubu * Malay language (Malaysian border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Balinese * Sasak * Sumbawa

NORTHWEST SUMATRAN

* Enggano * Gayo * Mentawai * Nias * Sikule * Simeulue

BATAK

* Alas * Batak Angkola * Batak Dairi * Batak Karo * Batak Simalungun * Batak Toba * Mandailing

LAMPUNGIC

* Lampung Api * Lampung Nyo * Komering

Celebic (Disputed)

* Andio * Badaic * Bahonsuai * Balaesang * Balantak * Banggai * Batui * Boano * Bobongko * Bonerate * Bungku * Busoa * Cia-Cia * Dampelas * Dondo * Kalao * Kaili * Kaimbulawa * Kamaru * Kodeoha * Kulisusu * Kumbewaha * Lasalimu * Laiyolo * Lauje * Liabuku * Mbelala * Moronene * Mori Bawah * Mori Atas * Moma * Muna * Padoe * Pancana * Pendau * Rahambuu * Rampi * Saluan * Sarudu * Sedoa * Pamona * Taje * Tajio * Tukang Besi * Tolaki * Tomadino * Topoiyo * Tomini * Totoli * Uma * Waru * Wawonii * Wolio * Wotu

SOUTH SULAWESI

* Aralle-Tabulahan * Bambam * Bentong * Budong-Budong * Buginese * Campalagian * Dakka * Duri * Embaloh * Enrekang * Kalumpang * Konjo * Lemolang * Maiwa (Sulawesi) * Makassarese * Malimpung * Mamasa * Mamuju * Mandar * Panasuan * Pannei * Selayar * Seko * Tae’ * Talondo’ * Taman * Toraja-Sa’dan * Ulumanda’

MOKEN

* Moken dialects

JAVANESE

* Arekan * Banyumasan * Mataraman * Kawi ( Old Javanese ) * Kedu * Osing * Tenggerese

Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian (over 700 languages)

EASTERN MALAYO-POLYNESIAN GROUPS

* Halmahera–Cenderawasih * Oceanic languages

CENTRAL MALAYO-POLYNESIAN LINKAGES

* Aru * Central Maluku * Kei-Tanimbar * Kowiai * Selaru * Sumba–Flores * Teor–Kur * Timoric * West Damar

UNCLASSIFIED

* Chamorro * Hukumina † * Palauan

* v * t * e

Micronesian languages

Nuclear Micronesian

CHUUKIC-POHNPEIC

POHNPEIC

* Mokilese * Ngatikese * Pingelapese * Pohnpeian

CHUUKIC

* Carolinian * Chuukese * _Mapia _ * Mortlockese * Namonuito * Pááfang * Puluwatese * Satawalese * Sonsorolese * Tanapag * Tobian * Ulithian * Woleaian

OTHERS

* Kiribati * Kosraean * Marshallese

NON-NUCLEAR

* Nauruan

* v * t * e

Fijian– Polynesian languages

POLYNESIAN

EAST

MARQUESIC

* Hawaiian * Mangerevan * Marquesan

TAHITIC

* Austral * Māori * Moriori * Penrhyn * Rakahanga-Manihiki * Rarotongan * Tahitian * Tuamotuan

OTHER

* Rapa * Rapa Nui

WEST

SAMOIC

* Niuatoputapu * Pukapuka * Samoan * Tokelauan

ELLICEAN

* Kapingamarangi * Nukumanu * Nukuoro * Nukuria * Ontong Java * Sikaiana * Takuu * Tuvaluan * Vaeakau-Taumako

FUTUNIC

* Anuta * Emae * Futunan * Futuna-Aniwan * Mele-Fila * Pukapukan * Rennellese * Tikopia * Wallisian * West Uvean

TONGIC

* Niuafoʻou * Niuean * Tongan

FIJIAN

EAST

* Fijian * Gone Dau * Lauan * Lomaiviti

WEST

* Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua * Western Fijian

OTHER

* Rotuman

* v * t * e

List of primary language families

AFRICA

* AFRO-ASIATIC * AUSTRONESIAN * Khoe * Kx\'a * NIGER–CONGO * NILO-SAHARAN ? * Tuu * Mande ? * Songhay ? * Ijaw ? * Ubangian ? * Kadu ?

ISOLATES

* Bangime * Hadza * Jalaa * Sandawe * Kwadi ? * Laal ? * Shabo ?

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Arab * BANZSL * French * Lasima * Tanzanian * Others

Europe and Asia

* AFRO-ASIATIC * Ainu * AUSTROASIATIC * AUSTRONESIAN * Chukotko-Kamchatkan * DRAVIDIAN * Eskimo–Aleut * _Great Andamanese _ * HMONG–MIEN * _Hurro-Urartian _ * INDO-EUROPEAN * Japonic * Kartvelian * Koreanic * Mongolic * Northeast Caucasian * Northwest Caucasian * Ongan * SINO-TIBETAN * TAI–KADAI * Tungusic * TURKIC * _Tyrsenian _ * URALIC * Vasconic * Yeniseian * Yukaghir * Dené–Yeniseian ? * Altaic ? * Austronesian–Ongan ? * Austro-Tai ? * Sino- Austronesian ? * Digaro ? * Kho-Bwa ? * Siangic ? * Miji ?

ISOLATES

* Burushaski * _Elamite _ * _Hattic _ * Kusunda * Nihali * Nivkh * _Sumerian _ * Hruso ? * Miju ? * Puroik ?

SIGN LANGUAGES

* BANZSL * French * German * Japanese * Swedish * Chinese * Indo-Pakistani * Arab * Chiangmai–Bangkok * Others

New Guinea and the Pacific

* Amto–Musan * Arafundi * AUSTRONESIAN * Baining * Border (Tami) * Bulaka River * Central Solomons * Doso–Turumsa * East Bird\'s Head – Sentani * East Geelvink Bay * Eastern Trans-Fly * Fas * Goilalan * Kiwaian * Kwomtari * Lakes Plain * Left May * Lower Mamberamo * Mairasi * Mai Brat ? * Monumbo * Namla–Tofanma * Nimboran * North Bougainville * Pahoturi * Pauwasi * Piawi * RAMU–LOWER SEPIK * Senagi * SEPIK * Skou * South Bougainville * Teberan * Tor–Kwerba * TORRICELLI * TRANS–NEW GUINEA * West Papuan * Yam * Yawa * Yuat * Trans-Fly–Bulaka River ? * Yele – West New Britain ?

ISOLATES

* Abinomn * Busa * Kaure * Kol * Kuot * Porome * Pyu * Taiap * Yalë * Abun ? * Amberbaken ? * Dem ? * Hattam ? * Isirawa ? * Lepki ? * Kapori ? * Kosare ? * Massep ? * Murkim ? * Pawaia ? * Sulka ? * Waia ?

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Hawai\'i Sign Language * Others

AUSTRALIA

* Arnhem/Macro-Gunwinyguan * Bunuban * _Darwin River _ * _Eastern Daly _ * _Eastern Tasmanian _ * Garawan * Iwaidjan * Jarrakan * Mirndi * _Northern Tasmanian _ * _Northeastern Tasmanian _ * Nyulnyulan * PAMA–NYUNGAN * Southern Daly * Tangkic * Wagaydyic * Western Daly * _Western Tasmanian _ * Worrorran * Yangmanic (Wardaman)

ISOLATES

* _Giimbiyu _ * Malak-Malak * _Marrgu _ * Tiwi * Wagiman

North America

* ALGIC * _Alsea _ * Caddoan * _Chimakuan _ * _Chinookan _ * _Chumashan _ * _Comecrudan _ * _Coosan _ * Eskimo–Aleut * Iroquoian * _Kalapuyan _ * Keresan * _Maiduan _ * Muskogean * NA-DENE * _Palaihnihan _ * Plateau Penutian * Pomoan * Salishan * _Shastan _ * Siouan * Tanoan * Tsimshianic * Utian * UTO-AZTECAN * Wakashan * _Wintuan _ * Yokutsan * _Yukian _ * Yuman–Cochimí * Dené–Yeniseian ? * Hokan ? * Penutian ?

ISOLATES

* _Chimariko _ * Haida * Karuk * Kutenai * Seri * _Siuslaw _ * _Takelma _ * _Timucua _ * _Waikuri _ * Washo * _Yana _ * Yuchi * Zuni

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Inuit (Inuiuuk) * Plains Sign Talk * Others

MESOAMERICA

* Chibchan * Jicaquean * Lencan * MAYAN * Misumalpan * Mixe–Zoque * OTO-MANGUEAN * Tequistlatecan * Totonacan * UTO-AZTECAN * _Xincan _ * Totozoquean ?

ISOLATES

* _Cuitlatec _ * Huave * Tarascan/Purépecha

SIGN LANGUAGES

* Plains Sign Talk * Mayan * Others

South America

* ARAWAKAN * Arauan * Araucanian * Arutani–Sape * Aymaran * Barbacoan * Bororoan * Cahuapanan * Cariban * _Catacaoan _ * Chapacuran * _Charruan _ * Chibchan * Choco * Chonan * Guaicuruan * Guajiboan * Jê/Gê * Harákmbut–Katukinan * _Jirajaran _ * Jivaroan * Kariri * Katembri–Taruma * Mascoian * Matacoan * Maxakalian * Nadahup * Nambikwaran * Otomákoan * Pano-Tacanan * Peba–Yaguan * Purian * QUECHUAN * Piaroa–Saliban * Ticuna–Yuri * Timotean * Tiniguan * Tucanoan * TUPIAN * Uru–Chipaya * Witotoan * Yabutian * Yanomaman * Zamucoan * Zaparoan * Chimuan ? * Esmeralda–Yaruro ? * Hibito–Cholón ? * Lule–Vilela ? * Macro-Jê ? * Tequiraca–Canichana ?

Isolates (extant in 2000)

* Aikanã ? * Alacalufan * Andoque ? * Camsá * Candoshi * Chimane * Chiquitano * Cofán ? * Fulniô * Guató * Hodï/Joti * Irantxe ? * Itonama * Karajá * Krenak * Leco * _Maku-Auari of Roraima _ * Movima * Mura-Pirahã * Nukak ? * Ofayé * Puinave * Huaorani/Waorani * Trumai * Urarina * Warao * Yamana * Yuracaré

SEE ALSO

* Language isolates * Unclassified languages * Creoles * Pidgins * Mixed languages * Artificial languages * List of sign languages

Families with more than 30 languages are in BOLD. Families in _italics_ have no living members.

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4120145-0 * SUDOC : 092468640

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