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The AUSTRIAN LITTORAL (German : Österreichisches Küstenland, Italian : Litorale Austriaco, Slovene : Avstrijsko primorje, Croatian : Austrijsko primorje, Hungarian : Osztrák Tengermellék) was established as a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire in 1849. It consisted of three regions: the Istria
Istria
peninsula, Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca , and the city of Trieste
Trieste
. Throughout history, the region has been frequently contested, with parts of it controlled at various times by the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
, Italy
Italy
, and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
among others.

The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
annexed it after World War I
World War I
according to the Treaty of London and later Treaty of Rapallo . After World War II
World War II
, it was split between Italy
Italy
(West), Slovenia
Slovenia
(North), and Croatia
Croatia
(South).

Trieste
Trieste
had strategic importance as Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
's primary seaport and the coast of the Littoral was a resort destination, the Austrian Riviera . The region was a multi-national one, with Italians , Slovenes
Slovenes
, Croats
Croats
, Germans and Friulians being the main ethnic groups. In 1910, it had an area of 7,969 square kilometres (3,077 sq mi) and a population of 894,287.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Area and population

* 2.1 Linguistic composition

* 3 Districts

* 3.1 Gorizia and Gradisca * 3.2 Istria
Istria

* 4 See also * 5 References

HISTORY

The territory of the medieval Patriarchate of Aquileia had gradually been conquered by the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
( Domini di Terraferma ) until the early 15th century. In the east, the Habsburg archdukes of Austria , based on the March of Carniola
March of Carniola
they held from 1335, had gained suzerainty over Istrian Pazin
Pazin
in 1374 and the port of Trieste
Trieste
in 1382. They also purchased Duino and Rijeka
Rijeka
(Fiume) on the northern Adriatic coast in 1474, and inherited the Friulian lands of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500. In 1511 Emperor Maximilian I annexed the city of Gradisca from Venice. Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
in 1897

The Habsburgs however did little initially to consolidate or develop their holdings in the Littoral. The supremacy of La Serenissima in the Adriatic and the attention to the threat posed by an expanding Ottoman Empire gave the Austrian archdukes little opportunity to enlarge their coastal possessions. Incorporated into the Austrian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire , Görz, Trieste
Trieste
and Istria
Istria
remained separately administered and retained their autonomy until into the 18th century.

Emperor Charles VI increased the sea power of the Habsburg Monarchy by making peace with the Ottomans and declaring free shipping in the Adriatic. In 1719, Trieste
Trieste
and Fiume were made free ports . In 1730, administration of the Littoral was unified under the INTENDANCY IN TRIESTE. However, in 1775, Emperor Joseph II divided the administration of the two main ports, assigning Trieste
Trieste
as the port for the Austrian "hereditary lands" and Fiume for the Kingdom of Hungary . Shortly after, Trieste
Trieste
was merged with the Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca in the north.

During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
gained Venetian lands in the Istrian Peninsula and the Quarnero (Kvarner) Islands as part of the Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
of 1797. However, these territories and all of the new Austrian Empire 's Adriatic lands were soon lost to the French Empire 's puppet state, the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
by the Treaty of Pressburg of 1805. The 1809 Treaty of Schönbrunn
Treaty of Schönbrunn
then transferred the area to the Illyrian Provinces which were directly ruled by France.

With Napoleon 's defeats, the Austrian Empire regained the region and, in 1813, all of the Littoral including Trieste, Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca, all of Istria, the Quarnero Islands , Fiume, and the hinterland of Fiume, Civil Croatia
Croatia
, including Karlstadt (Karlovac) became one administrative unit. From 1816, the Littoral was a part of the Austrian Empire's Kingdom of Illyria . In 1822, Fiume and Civil Croatia
Croatia
were separated from the territory and ceded to the Kingdom of Hungary (and in 1849 to Croatia
Croatia
).

The Littoral was officially the Trieste
Trieste
(Triest) Province, one of two provinces (or gouvernements) of the Kingdom, the other being Laibach (Ljubljana). It was subdivided into four districts (kreis): Gorizia (Görz; including Gorizia
Gorizia
and the Julian March
Julian March
), Istria
Istria
(Istrien; Eastern Istria
Istria
and the Quarnero Islands), Trieste
Trieste
(Triest; the Trieste hinterland and Western Istria), and Trieste
Trieste
city (Triester Stadtgebiet).

Around 1825, the Littoral was reorganized into only two subdivisions: Istria
Istria
with its capital at Mitterburg (Pisino/Pazin) and Gorizia
Gorizia
with Trieste
Trieste
and its immediate surroundings under the direct control of the crown and separate from the local administrative structure.

In 1849, the Kingdom of Illyria was dissolved and the Littoral became a separate crown land with a governor in Trieste. It was formally divided into the Margravate of Istria and the Princely County (Gefürstete Grafschaft) of Gorizia and Gradisca with Trieste remaining separate from both.

By the 1861 February Patent
February Patent
, Gorizia and Gradisca and Istria
Istria
became administratively separate entities and, in 1867, Trieste
Trieste
received separate status as well, and the Littoral was divided into the three crown lands of the Imperial Free City
Imperial Free City
of Trieste
Trieste
and its suburbs, the Margraviate of Istria
Istria
, and the Princely County
County
of Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca , which each had separate administrations and Landtag assemblies, but were all subject to a k.k. statholder at Trieste
Trieste
.

Following the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the Littoral fell within Italy
Italy
's newly expanded borders as part of the Julian March. An area of similar extent under the name of Adriatic Littoral (Adriatisches Küstenland) was one of the operational zones of German forces during World War II
World War II
after the capitulation of Italy
Italy
in September 1943 until the end of the war. After World War II, most of it was included in the Second Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
.

Today Croatia
Croatia
and Slovenia
Slovenia
each hold portions of the territory and the city of Trieste
Trieste
remains under Italian rule. The name of the region lives on in its Slovene version, Primorska (Slovenian Littoral), a region of Slovenia.

AREA AND POPULATION

AREA:

* Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca: 2,918 km2 * Istria: 4,956 km2 * Triest: 95 km2

POPULATION (1910 Census):

* Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca: 260,721 - 89.3 persons/km2 * Istria: 403,566 - 81.4 persons/km2 * Triest: 230,000 - 2414.8 persons/km2

LINGUISTIC COMPOSITION

According to the last Austrian census of 1910 (1911 in Trieste), the Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
was composed of the following linguistic communities:

TOTAL:

* Italian : 356,676 (including estimated 60,000-75,000 Friulian language speakers) (40%) * Slovene : 476,398 (50%) * German : 29,077 (3%) * Other languages or unknown: 59,347(7%)

GORIZIA AND GRADISCA:

* Slovene: 154,564 (58%) * Italian: 90,119 (including 60,000-75,000 Friulian-speakers) (36%) * German : 4,486 (2%)

TRIESTE:

* Italian: 118,957 (51.85%) * Slovene: 56,845 (24.78%) * German: 11,856 (5.17%) * Serbocroatian*: 2,403 (1.05%) * Other: 779 (0.34%) * Non-Austrian citizens, among them 75% from Italy: 38,597 (16.82%)

ISTRIA:

* Serbocroatian*: 168,184 (43.5%) * Italian: 147,417 (38.1%) * Slovene: 55,134 (14.3%) * German: 12,735 (3.3%)

The Austrian censuses did not count ethnic groups , nor the mother tongue , but the "language of daily interaction" (Umgangssprache). Except for a small Serbian community in Trieste
Trieste
and the village of Peroj in Istria, the vast majority of Croatian speakers in the Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
can be identified as Croats
Croats
.

After 1880, Italian and Friulian languages were counted under one category, as Italian. The estimated number of Friulian speakers can be extrapolated from the Italian census of 1921, the only one in the 20th century when Friulian was counted as a distinct linguistic category. The Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
had a large number of foreign nationals (around 71,000 or 7.9% of the overall population), which were not asked about their language of interaction. More than half of them resided in the city of Trieste. The majority were citizens of the Kingdom of Italy, followed by citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
(part of the Dual Monarchy) and the German Empire. It can be supposed that the majority of these foreign citizens were Italian speakers, followed by German, Croatian (from Rijeka
Rijeka
and Croatia-Slavonia ) and Slovene (from Venetian Slovenia
Slovenia
), and Hungarian speakers.

DISTRICTS

GORIZIA AND GRADISCA

* Gorizia
Gorizia
City (Stadt Görz) * Gorizia
Gorizia
(Görz Land) * Gradisca * Monfalcone
Monfalcone
(Falkenberg) * Sežana (Sesana) * Tolmin
Tolmin
(Tolmein, Tolmino)

ISTRIA

* Koper
Koper
(Capodistria) * Krk
Krk
(Veglia) * Lošinj
Lošinj
(Lussin) * Poreč (Parenzo) * Pazin
Pazin
(Mitterburg, Pisino) * Pula
Pula
(Pola) * Volosko (Volosca)

SEE ALSO

* Austrian Riviera * London Pact
London Pact
* Battles of the Isonzo * Croatian Littoral
Croatian Littoral

REFERENCES

* Küstenland

* v * t * e

Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary

CISLEITHANIA

* Archduchy of Austria
Archduchy of Austria
* Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
* Duchy of Bukovina
Duchy of Bukovina
* Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
* Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carniola
* Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
* Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria

* Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral

* Gorizia and Gradisca * Istria
Istria
* Trieste
Trieste

* Margraviate of Moravia
Margraviate of Moravia
* Duchy of Salzburg * Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia * Duchy of Styria * County
County
of Tyrol

TRANSLEITHANIA

* Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
* Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia * Fiume and its surroundings * Military Frontier (1867–1882)

CONDOMINIUMS

* Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1878–1918) * Sanjak of Novi Pazar
Sanjak of Novi Pazar
(1878–1908) * Carpathian passes (1918) * Concession zone in Tianjin (1901–1917)

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