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The Austrian Empire
Empire
(Austrian German: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919 (losing Hungary
Hungary
in 1867) created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire
Empire
and France
France
in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the second largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire
Empire
(621,538 square kilometres [239,977 sq mi]). Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
until the latter's dissolution in 1806. The Ausgleich
Ausgleich
of 1867 re-affirmed the Kingdom of Hungary's historical status as an entirely separate entity from the Austrian Empire.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Foundation 1.2 Metternich era 1.3 Revolutions of 1848 1.4 The Bach years 1.5 After 1859

2 Foreign policy 3 Constituent lands 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit] Foundation[edit] See also: Imperial and Royal Army during the Napoleonic Wars Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
took place during conferences in Rastatt
Rastatt
(1797–1799) and Regensburg
Regensburg
(1801–1803). On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess (German: Reichsdeputationshauptschluss) was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6. This measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire. Taking this significant change into consideration, the German Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Francis II, who was also ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire
Empire
of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about three hundred years. He did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
of Napoleon, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French; Francis II eventually abandoned the title of German-Roman Emperor later in 1806. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Apart from now being included in a new "Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804. This was especially demonstrated by the status of the Kingdom of Hungary, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status that was affirmed by Article X, which was added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a Regnum Independens. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions (King and Diet) as they had been beforehand. Thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government.[1][2][3] The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire
Empire
in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General Karl Mack von Leiberich
Karl Mack von Leiberich
was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm. The French victory resulted in the capture of 20,000 Austrian soldiers and many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805. The French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire. On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg Frederick III on 11 December. Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, was given the title of Grand Duke
Grand Duke
on 12 December. Each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France
France
and Austria, signed in Pressburg (today Bratislava, Slovakia) on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805), which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived Holy Roman Empire
Empire
and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria
Austria
and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany
Germany
were passed to French allies—the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg
King of Württemberg
and the Elector of Baden. Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. On 12 July 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
was established, comprising 16 sovereigns and countries. This confederation, under French influence, put an end to the Holy Roman Empire. On 6 August 1806, even Francis recognized the new state of things and proclaimed the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, as he did not want Napoleon to succeed him. This action was unrecognized by George III of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
who was also the Elector of Hanover and had also lost his German territories around Hanover to Napoleon. His claims were later settled by the creation of the Kingdom of Hanover
Kingdom of Hanover
which was held by George's British heirs until Queen Victoria's accession, when it split into the British and Hanoverian royal families. Metternich era[edit]

Prince of Schwarzenberg and the monarchs of Russia, Austria
Austria
and Prussia
Prussia
after the battle of Leipzig, 1813

Klemens von Metternich
Klemens von Metternich
became Foreign Minister in 1809. He also held the post of Chancellor of State from 1821 until 1848, under both Francis II and his son Ferdinand I. The period of 1815-1848 is also referred to as the "Age of Metternich".[4] During this period, Metternich controlled the Habsburg Monarchy's foreign policy. He also had a major influence in European politics. He was known for his strong conservative views and approach in politics. Metternich's policies were strongly against revolution and liberalism.[5] In his opinion, liberalism was a form of legalized revolution.[6] Metternich believed that absolute monarchy was the only proper system of government.[4] This notion influenced his anti-revolutionary policy to ensure the continuation of the Habsburg monarchy in Europe. Metternich was a practitioner of balance-of-power diplomacy.[7] His foreign policy aimed to maintain international political equilibrium to preserve the Habsburgs' power and influence in international affairs. Following the Napoleonic Wars, Metternich was the chief architect of the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
in 1815.[7] The Austrian Empire
Empire
was the main beneficiary from the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
and it established an alliance with Britain, Prussia, and Russia
Russia
forming the Quadruple Alliance.[5] The Austrian Empire
Empire
also gained new territories from the Congress of Vienna, and its influence expanded to the north through the German Confederation and also into Italy.[5] Due to the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
in 1815, Austria
Austria
was the leading member of the German Confederation.[8] Following the Congress, the major European powers agreed to meet and discuss resolutions in the event of future disputes or revolutions. Because of Metternich's main role in the architecture of the Congress, these meetings are also referred to as the "Metternich congress" or "Metternich system". While Metternich was the Austrian foreign minister, other congresses would meet to resolve European foreign affairs. These included the Congresses of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), Carlsbad (1819), Troppau (1820), Laibach (1821), and Verona (1822).[4] The Metternich congresses aimed to maintain the political equilibrium among the European powers and prevent revolutionary efforts. These meetings also aimed to resolve foreign issues and disputes without resorting to violence. By means of these meetings and by allying the Austrian Empire
Empire
with other European powers whose monarchs had a similar interest in preserving conservative political direction, Metternich was able to establish the Austrian Empire's influence on European politics. Also, because Metternich used the fear of revolutions among European powers, which he also shared, he was able to establish security and predominance of the Habsburgs in Europe.[5] Under Metternich, nationalist revolts in Austrian north Italy
Italy
and the German states were forcibly crushed. At home, he pursued a similar policy to suppress revolutionary and liberal ideals. He employed the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, which used strict censorship of education, press and speech to repress revolutionary and liberal concepts.[4] Metternich also used a wide-ranging spy network to dampen down unrest. Metternich operated very freely with regard to foreign policy under Emperor Francis II's reign. Francis died in 1835. This date marks the decline of Metternich's influence in the Austrian Empire. Francis' heir was his son Ferdinand I, but he suffered from an intellectual disability.[5] Ferdinand's accession preserved the Habsburg dynastic succession, but he was not capable of ruling.[5] The leadership of the Austrian Empire
Empire
was transferred to a state council composed of Metternich, Francis II's brother Archduke Louis, and Count Franz Anton Kolowrat, who later became the first Minister-President of the Austrian Empire. The liberal Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
in the Austrian Empire
Empire
forced Metternich's resignation. Metternich is remembered for his success in maintaining the status quo and the Habsburg influence in international affairs.[4] No Habsburg foreign minister following Metternich held a similar position within the empire for such a long time nor held such a vast influence on European foreign affairs.[5] Historians often remember the Metternich era as a period of stagnation: the Austrian Empire
Empire
fought no wars nor did it undergo any radical internal reforms.[9] However, it was also thought of as period of economic growth and prosperity in the Austrian Empire.[9] The population of Austria
Austria
rose to 37.5 million by 1843. Urban expansion also occurred and the population of Vienna
Vienna
reached 400,000. During the Metternich era, the Austrian Empire
Empire
also maintained a stable economy and reached an almost balanced budget, despite having a major deficit following the Napoleonic Wars.[10] Revolutions of 1848[edit] Main article: Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
in the Austrian Empire

Battle of Komárom during the Hungarian Revolution, 1849

From March 1848 through November 1849, the Empire
Empire
was threatened by revolutionary movements, most of which were of a nationalist character. Besides that, liberal and even socialist currents resisted the empire's longstanding conservatism. Ultimately, the revolutions failed, in part because the various revolutionaries had conflicting goals. The Bach years[edit] After the death of Prince Felix of Schwarzenberg
Prince Felix of Schwarzenberg
in 1852, the Minister of the Interior Baron Alexander von Bach
Baron Alexander von Bach
largely dictated policy in Austria
Austria
and Hungary. Bach centralized administrative authority for the Austrian Empire, but he also endorsed reactionary policies that reduced freedom of the press and abandoned public trials. He later represented the Absolutist (or Klerikalabsolutist) direction, which culminated in the concordat of August 1855 that gave the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
control over education and family life. This period in the history of the Austrian Empire
Empire
would become known as the era of neo-absolutism, or Bach's absolutism.

The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph among his troops at Solferino, 1859

The pillars of the so-called Bach system (Bachsches System) were, in the words of Adolf Fischhof, four "armies": a standing army of soldiers, a sitting army of office holders, a kneeling army of priests and a fawning army of sneaks.[citation needed] Prisons were full of political prisoners: for example during his administration, Czech nationalist journalist and writer Karel Havlíček Borovský
Karel Havlíček Borovský
was forcibly expatriated (1851–1855) to Brixen. This exile undermined Borovský's health and he died soon afterwards. This affair earned Bach a very bad reputation amongst Czechs
Czechs
and subsequently led to the strengthening of the Czech national movement. However, Bach's relaxed ideological views (apart from the neo-absolutism) led to a great rise in the 1850s of economic freedom. Internal customs duties were abolished, and peasants were emancipated from their feudal obligations.[11] In her capacity as leader of the German Confederation, Austria participated with volunteers in the First War of Schleswig (1848–1850).[8] Sardinia allied itself with France
France
for the conquest of Lombardy–Venetia. Austria
Austria
was defeated in the 1859 armed conflict. The Treaties of Villafranca and Zürich removed Lombardy, except for the part east of the Mincio river, the so-called Mantovano.[12] After 1859[edit] Main article: Austria-Hungary The Constitution of 1861 created a House of Lords (Herrenhaus) and a House of Deputies (Abgeordnetenhaus). But most nationalities of the monarchy remained dissatisfied. After the second war with Denmark in 1864, Holstein
Holstein
came under Austrian, Schleswig and Lauenburg under Prussian administration. But the internal difficulties continued.[13] Diets replaced the parliament in 17 provinces, the Hungarians pressed for autonomy, and Venetia was attracted by the now unified Italy. After Austria
Austria
was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866 and the German Confederation
German Confederation
was dissolved, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted. By this act, the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and the Empire of Austria
Austria
as two separate entities joined together on an equal basis to form the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The frequent abbreviation K.u.K.
K.u.K.
(Kaiserliche und Königliche, "Imperial and Royal") does not refer to that dual monarchy but originated in 1745, when the "royal" part referred to the Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary.[citation needed] Foreign policy[edit]

Metternich alongside Wellington, Talleyrand and other European diplomats at the Congress of Vienna, 1815

The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
dominated Austrian foreign policy from 1804 to 1815. The Austrian army was one of the most formidable forces the French had to face. After Prussia
Prussia
signed a peace treaty with France
France
on 5 April 1795, Austria
Austria
was forced to carry the main burden of war with Napoleonic France
France
for almost ten years. This severely overburdened the Austrian economy, making the war greatly unpopular. Emperor Francis II therefore refused to join any further war against Napoleon
Napoleon
for a long time. On the other hand, Francis II continued to intrigue for the possibility of revenge against France, entering into a secret military agreement with the Russian Empire
Empire
in November 1804. This convention was to assure mutual cooperation in the case of a new war against France.[14] Austrian unwillingness to join the Third Coalition was overcome by British subsidies, but the Austrians
Austrians
withdrew from the war yet again after a decisive defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz. Although the Austrian budget suffered from wartime expenditures and its international position was significantly undermined, the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg provided plenty of time to strengthen the army and economy. Moreover, the ambitious Archduke Charles and Johann Philipp von Stadion never abandoned the goal of further war with France.

The Austrian Empire
Empire
in 1812.

Archduke Charles of Austria
Austria
served as the Head of the Council of War and Commander in Chief of the Austrian army. Endowed with the enlarged powers, he reformed the Austrian Army to preparedness for another war. Johann Philipp von Stadion, the foreign minister, personally hated Napoleon
Napoleon
due to an experience of confiscation of his possessions in France
France
by Napoleon. In addition, the third wife of Francis II, Marie Ludovika of Austria-Este, agreed with Stadion's efforts to begin a new war. Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, located in Paris, called for careful advance in the case of the war against France. The defeat of French army at the Battle of Bailén
Battle of Bailén
in Spain on 27 July 1808 triggered the war. On 9 April 1809, an Austrian force of 170,000 men attacked Bavaria.[15] Despite military defeats—especially the Battles of Marengo, Ulm, Austerlitz and Wagram—and consequently lost territory throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
(the Treaties of Campo Formio in 1797, Luneville in 1801, Pressburg in 1806, and Schönbrunn in 1809), Austria
Austria
played a decisive part in the overthrow of Napoleon
Napoleon
in the campaigns of 1813–14. It participated (though modestly) in a second invasion of France
France
in 1815, and put an end to Murat's regime in south Italy. The latter period of Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
featured Metternich exerting a large degree of influence over foreign policy in the Austrian Empire, a matter nominally decided by the Emperor. Metternich initially supported an alliance with France, arranging the marriage between Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Francis II's daughter, Marie-Louise; however, by the 1812 campaign, he had realised the inevitability of Napoleon's downfall and took Austria
Austria
to war against France. Metternich's influence at the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
was remarkable, and he became not only the premier statesman in Europe but virtual ruler of the Empire until 1848—the Year of Revolutions—and the rise of liberalism equated to his political downfall. The result was that the Austrian Empire
Empire
was seen as one of the great powers after 1815, but also as a reactionary force and an obstacle to national aspirations in Italy
Italy
and Germany.[16] Constituent lands[edit]

The Austrian Empire, between 1816 and 1867.

Ethnographic composition of the Austrian Empire
Empire
(1855).

Crown lands of the Austrian Empire
Empire
after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, including the local government reorganizations from the Revolutions of 1848 to the 1860 October Diploma:

Archduchy of Austria
Austria
(Erzherzogtum Österreich)

Lower Austria
Austria
(Erzherzogtum Österreich unter der Enns) Upper Austria
Austria
(Erzherzogtum Österreich ob der Enns)

Duchy of Salzburg
Duchy of Salzburg
(Herzogtum Salzburg), 1815–1850 Salzach
Salzach
District (Salzachkreis) of Upper Austria Duchy of Styria
Duchy of Styria
(Herzogtum Steiermark) Princely County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
with Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
(Gefürstete Grafschaft Tirol mit dem Lande Vorarlberg), subdivided in 1861 Kingdom of Illyria (Königreich Illyrien), subdivided in 1849/1850:

Duchy of Carinthia
Duchy of Carinthia
(Herzogtum Kärnten) Duchy of Carniola
Duchy of Carniola
(Herzogtum Krain) Littoral (Küstenland)

Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca
Gorizia and Gradisca
(Gefürstete Grafschaft Görz und Gradisca) Imperial Free City of Trieste
Imperial Free City of Trieste
(Triest) Margravate of Istria
Margravate of Istria
(Markgrafschaft Istrien)

Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
(Königreich Böhmen) Margraviate of Moravia
Margraviate of Moravia
(Markgrafschaft Mähren) Duchy of Silesia (Herzogtum Schlesien)

Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
(Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien) with

Duchy of Bukovina
Duchy of Bukovina
(Herzogtum Bukowina), split off in 1850

Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kingdom of Dalmatia
(Königreich Dalmatien) Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(Königreich Ungarn) (until 1867) with

Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(Königreich Kroatien) (until 1867) Kingdom of Slavonia
Kingdom of Slavonia
(Königreich Slawonien) (until 1867)

Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
(Lombardo-Venezianisches Königreich), lost in 1859/1866 Grand Principality of Transylvania (Großfürstentum Siebenbürgen) (until 1867) Voivodeship of Serbia
Serbia
and Banat
Banat
of Temeschwar (Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temescher Banat), from 1849, merged into Hungary
Hungary
and Slavonia in 1860

Serbian Vojvodina, de facto autonomous entity 1848/49, not officially recognized Banat

Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(Militärgrenze)

Croatian Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(Kroatische Militärgrenze) Slavonian Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(Slawonische Militärgrenze) Banat
Banat
Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(Banater Militärgrenze) Transylvanian Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(Siebenbürger Militärgrenze) merged into Transylvania in 1853

The old Habsburg possessions of Further Austria
Austria
(in today's France, Germany
Germany
and Switzerland) had already been lost in the 1805 Peace of Pressburg. From 1850 Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Slavonia
Kingdom of Slavonia
and Military Frontier
Military Frontier
constitute a single land with disaggregated provincial and military administration, and representation. [1] Gallery[edit]

'Hauskrone' of Rudolph II, later Imperial Crown of the Austrian Empire

Crown Jewels of Austria

Growth of the Habsburg Monarchy

Vereinstaler of 1866

Francis I (r. 1804–1835)

Francis Joseph I (r. 1848–1916)

See also[edit]

Former countries in Europe after 1815 Austria-Hungary Cisleithania
Cisleithania
for the Austrian Empire
Empire
after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

References[edit]

^ Laszlo, Péter (2011), Hungary's Long Nineteenth Century: Constitutional and Democratic Traditions, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, the Netherlands, p. 6, From the perspective of the Court since 1723, regnum Hungariae had been a hereditary province of the dynasty's three main branches on both lines. From the perspective of the ország, Hungary
Hungary
was regnum independens, a separate Land as Article X of 1790 stipulated …….. In 1804 Emperor Franz assumed the title of Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
for all the Erblande of the dynasty and for the other Lands, including Hungary. Thus Hungary
Hungary
formally became part of the Empire
Empire
of Austria. The Court reassured the diet, however, that the assumption of the monarch's new title did not in any sense affect the laws and the constitution of Hungary  ^ "Vor dem Jahr 1848 is[t] das Kaisertum Österreich verfassungsrechtlich als ein monarchischer Einheitsstaat auf differenziert föderalistischer Grundlage zu sehen, wobei die besondere Stel[l]ung Ungarns im Rahmen dieses Gesamtstaates stets offenkundig war. Eine weitere Differenzierung der föderalistischen Grundlage erfolgte ab 1815 durch die Zugehörigkeit eines teiles des Kaisertums zum Deutschen Bund." "Before 1848 the Austrian Empire
Empire
can be regarded in constitutional law as a unitary monarchy on a differentiated federalistic basis, whereby the special position of Hungary
Hungary
within the framework of this federal entity was always evident. A further differentiation of the federalistic position followed from 1815 through the affiliation of a part of the empire to the German federation."Zeilner, Franz (2008), Verfassung, Verfassungsrecht und Lehre des Öffentlichen Rechts in Österreich bis 1848: Eine Darstellung der materiellen und formellen Verfassungssituation und der Lehre des öffentlichen Rechts, Lang, Frankfurt am Main, p. 45  ^ József Zachar, Austerlitz, 1805. december 2. A három császár csatája – magyar szemmel[permanent dead link], In: Eszmék, forradalmak, háborúk. Vadász Sándor 80 éves, ELTE, Budapest, 2010 p. 557 ^ a b c d e Sked, Alan. The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815-1918. London: Longman, 1989. Print. ^ a b c d e f g Jelavich, Barbara. The Habsburg Empire
Empire
in European Affairs: 1814-1918. Chicago: Rand Mcnally, 1969. Print. ^ Tuncer, Huner. "Metternich and the Modern Era." ARTS-CULTURE -. Daily News, 6 Sept. 1996. Web. 24 Mar. 2015. ^ a b Sofka, James R. "Metternich's Theory of European Order: A Political Agenda for 'Perpetual Peace'." The Review of Politics 60.01 (1998): 115. Web. ^ a b Handbook of Austria
Austria
and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850–1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961. ^ a b Crankshaw, Edward. The Fall of the House of Habsburg. New York: Viking, 1963. Print. ^ "History of Austria, Austria
Austria
in the Age of Metternich." History of Austria, Austria
Austria
in the Age of Metternich. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2015. ^  Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Bach, Alexander, Baron". New International Encyclopedia
New International Encyclopedia
(1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.  ^ Mueller 1961, Historical Data, p.H5. ^ Mueller 1961, p.H6. ^ Gunther Rothenberg, Napoleon's great adversaries: the Archduke Charles and the Austrian army, 1792-1814 (Indiana UP, 1982). ^ Robert Goetz, 1805, Austerlitz: Napoleon
Napoleon
and the Destruction of the Third Coalition (2005). ^ Josephine Bunch Stearns, The Role of Metternich in Undermining Napoleon
Napoleon
(University of Illinois Press, 1948).

Further reading[edit]

Bassett, Richard. For God and Kaiser: The Imperial Austrian Army, 1619-1918 (2016). Evans, R. J. W. (2006). Austria, Hungary, and the Habsburgs: Essays on Central Europe, c. 1683–1867.  online Judson, Pieter M. The Habsburg Empire: A New History (2016) excerpt Kann, Robert A. (1980). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1526–1918 (2nd ed.).  Kissinger, Henry (1955). The World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh, and the Problems of Peace, 1812–22.  Okey, Robin (2002). The Habsburg Monarchy, C.1765-1918: From Enlightenment to Eclipse.  excerpt and text search Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1976). "Nobility and Military Careers: The Habsburg Officer Corps, 1740–1914". Military Affairs. 40 (4): 182–186. doi:10.2307/1986702. JSTOR 1986702.  Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1968). "The Austrian Army in the Age of Metternich". Journal of Modern History. 40 (2): 155–165. doi:10.1086/240187. JSTOR 1876727.  Sked, Alan (2008). Metternich and Austria: An Evaluation.  Sked, Alan (2001). The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815–1918 (2nd ed.).  Taylor, A.J.P. (1941). The Habsburg Monarchy, 1809–1918: A History of the Austrian Empire
Empire
and Austria-Hungary.  excerpt and text search

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Austrian Empire.

Austrian Army during the Napoleonic Wars The empire of Austria ; its rise and present power (Third millennium library)

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Empire

Kingdom of Bohemia Kingdom of Croatia Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom of Slavonia Archduchy of Austria Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Duchy of Styria Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Grand Principality of Transylvania Margravate of Istria Margraviate of Moravia Princely County of Tyrol County of Gorizia and Gradisca Voivodeship of Serbia
Serbia
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Kanem Khmer Latin Majapahit Malaccan Mali Mongol

Yuan Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate

Moroccan

Idrisid Almoravid Almohad Marinid

North Sea Oyo Roman Serbian Somali

Ajuran Ifatite Adalite Mogadishan Warsangali

Songhai Srivijaya Tibetan Turko-Persian

Ghaznavid Great Seljuk Khwarezmian Timurid

Vietnamese

Ly Tran Le

Wagadou

Modern

Ashanti Austrian Austro-Hungarian Brazilian Central African Chinese

Ming Qing China Manchukuo

Ethiopian French

First Second

German

First/Old Reich Second Reich Third Reich

Haitian

First Second

Indian

Maratha Sikh Mughal British Raj

Iranian

Safavid Afsharid

Japanese Johor Korean Mexican

First Second

Moroccan

Saadi Alaouite

Russian USSR Somali

Gobroon Majeerteen Hobyo Dervish

Swedish Tongan Turkish

Ottoman Karaman Ramazan

Vietnamese

Tay Son Nguyen Vietnam

Colonial

American Belgian British

English

Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Omani Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Swedish

Lists

Empires

largest

ancient great powers medieval great powers modern great powers

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 265182984 SUDOC: 031505961 BNF: cb12270768s (d

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