HOME
The Info List - Austria–Hungary


--- Advertisement ---



Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
or the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary ( Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen
or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies ( Austria
Austria
and Hungary), and one autonomous region: the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
(Nagodba) in 1868. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria- Hungary
Hungary
was a multinational state and one of the world's great powers at the time. Austria- Hungary
Hungary
was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2 (239,977 sq mi),[6] and the third-most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). The Empire
Empire
built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom.[7] Austria-Hungary also became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States
United States
and the German Empire.[8][9] After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule[10] until it was fully annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis
Bosnian crisis
among the other powers.[11] Sandžak/Raška, de jure northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar
Sanjak of Novi Pazar
(in modern-day Montenegro
Montenegro
and Serbia), was also under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia.[12] The annexation of Bosnia also led to Islam
Islam
being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim
Muslim
population.[13] Austria- Hungary
Hungary
was one of the Central Powers
Central Powers
in World War I. It was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
and the First Austrian Republic
First Austrian Republic
were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs
West Slavs
and South Slavs
South Slavs
of the Empire
Empire
as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.

Contents

1 Structure and name

1.1 Creation

2 Politics and government

2.1 Government 2.2 Judicial system

2.2.1 Empire
Empire
of Austria 2.2.2 Kingdom of Hungary

2.3 Public administration and local governments

2.3.1 Empire
Empire
of Austria 2.3.2 Kingdom of Hungary

2.3.2.1 Administrative divisions and the counties of Hungary 2.3.2.2 Municipal rights of the biggest cities in Hungary

3 Politics

3.1 Political struggles in the Empire 3.2 Ethnic relations 3.3 Foreign policy

4 Economy

4.1 Automotive industry

4.1.1 Austrian Empire 4.1.2 Kingdom of Hungary

4.2 Aeronautic industry

4.2.1 Austrian Empire 4.2.2 Kingdom of Hungary

4.3 Locomotive engine and railway vehicle manufacturers

4.3.1 Austrian Empire 4.3.2 Kingdom of Hungary

5 Infrastructure

5.1 Transport

5.1.1 Railways

5.1.1.1 Railway network of the Austrian Empire 5.1.1.2 Railway network in the Kingdom of Hungary

5.1.2 Metropolitan transit systems

5.1.2.1 Tramway lines in the cities 5.1.2.2 Electrified commuter railway lines 5.1.2.3 Underground

5.1.3 Canals and river regulations

5.1.3.1 Regulation of the lower Danube
Danube
and the Iron Gates 5.1.3.2 Regulation of the Tisza
Tisza
River

5.1.4 Shipping and ports

5.2 Telecommunication

5.2.1 Telegraph

5.2.1.1 Austrian Empire 5.2.1.2 Kingdom of Hungary

5.2.2 Telephone

5.2.2.1 Austrian Empire 5.2.2.2 Kingdom of Hungary

5.2.3 Electronic broadcasting

6 Demographics

6.1 Population and area 6.2 Languages 6.3 Religion 6.4 Largest cities 6.5 Education

6.5.1 Austrian Empire 6.5.2 Kingdom of Hungary

7 Military 8 World War I

8.1 Preludes: Bosnia and Herzegovina

8.1.1 Status of Bosnia-Herzegovina 8.1.2 Sarajevo
Sarajevo
assassination 8.1.3 Escalation of violence in Bosnia 8.1.4 Decision for war

8.2 Wartime foreign policy 8.3 Homefront 8.4 Military events

8.4.1 Serbian front 1914–1916 8.4.2 Russian front 1914–1917 8.4.3 Italian front 1915–1918 8.4.4 Romanian front 1916

8.5 Role of Hungary 8.6 Analysis of defeat

9 Dissolution

9.1 Consequences

9.1.1 Successor states 9.1.2 Territorial legacy

10 Flags and heraldry

10.1 Flags 10.2 Coat of arms

11 See also 12 References

12.1 Notes

13 Further reading

13.1 Surveys 13.2 World war 13.3 Specialty topics 13.4 Primary sources 13.5 Historiography and memory 13.6 In German

14 External links

Structure and name[edit]

Franz Joseph I. (1885)

The realm's full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria[14] over the western and northern half of the country that was the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
("Lands Represented in the Imperial Council", or Cisleithania)[6] and as King of Hungary[14] over the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
("Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen", or Transleithania).[6] Each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs (principally foreign relations and defence).[15] Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania
Cisleithania
and Croatia
Croatia
(officially the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia, even Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was in Cisleithanian part of the Dual Monarchy) within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures (see: Polish Autonomy in Galicia and Croatian–Hungarian Settlement). The division between Austria
Austria
and Hungary
Hungary
was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both.[16][17] This also meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.[18][19] However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them.[20] It is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria
Austria
and Hungary.[citation needed] The Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, even after the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
was created in 1804.[21] The administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary (until 1848–49 Hungarian revolution) remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government. The country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary
Hungary
(the Gubernium) – located in Pressburg and later in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna.[22] The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, and were reinstated after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise in 1867. Despite Austria
Austria
and Hungary
Hungary
sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities.[23] Since the beginnings of the personal union (from 1527), the government of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
could preserve its separated and independent budget. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, and it was only after the Compromise of 1867 that Hungary
Hungary
obtained a separate budget.[24] From 1527 (the creation of the monarchic personal union) to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories.[25] After 1867, the Austrian and Hungarian customs union agreement had to be renegotiated and stipulated every ten years. The agreements were renewed and signed by Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest
Budapest
at the end of every decade because both countries hoped to derive mutual economic benefit from the customs union. The Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
contracted their foreign commercial treaties independently of each other.[6] Austria- Hungary
Hungary
was a great power but it contained a large number of ethnic groups that sought their own nation. It was ruled by a coalition of two powerful minorities, the Germans and the Hungarians. Stresses regarding nationalism were building up, and the severe shock of a poorly handled war caused the system to collapse.[26][27] Vienna
Vienna
served as the Monarchy's primary capital. The Cisleithanian (Austrian) part contained about 57 percent of the total population and the larger share of its economic resources, compared to the Hungarian part. Following a decision of Franz Joseph I in 1868, the realm bore the official name Austro-Hungarian Monarchy/Realm (German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie/Reich; Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia/Birodalom) in its international relations. It was often contracted to the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in English, or simply referred to as Austria.[28] Creation[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Austria

Early history

Hallstatt culture Noricum
Noricum
- Pannonia
Pannonia
- Raetia Marcomanni
Marcomanni
- Lombards
Lombards
- Bavarians
Bavarians
- Suebi Avars Samo's Realm Carantania East Francia Duchy of Bavaria
Duchy of Bavaria
- Margraviate of Austria House of Babenberg Privilegium Minus

Habsburg era

House of Habsburg Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of Germany Archduchy of Austria Habsburg Monarchy Austrian Empire German Confederation Austria-Hungary

World War I

Assassination of Franz Ferdinand World War I

Interwar years

Republic of German-Austria First Austrian Republic Austrofascism Federal State of Austria Anschluss Ostmark (Austria)

World War II

National Socialism

Post-war Austria

Allied-occupied Austria Second Austrian Republic

Topics

Jews Jews
Jews
in Vienna Military history Music

Austria
Austria
portal

v t e

Part of a series on the

History of Hungary

Early history

Hungarian prehistory Hungary
Hungary
before the Hungarians Roman Pannonia Hungarian conquest

Medieval

Principality 895–1000

High Medieval Kingdom 1000–1301

Late Medieval Kingdom 1301–1526

Ottoman Wars 1366–1526

Early modern

Habsburg kingdom 1526–1867

Eastern kingdom 1526–1570

Ottoman Hungary 1541–1699

Principality of Transylvania 1570–1711

Late modern

Rákóczi's War 1703–1711

Revolution of 1848 1848–1849

Austria-Hungary 1867–1918

Lands of the Crown 1867–1918

World War I 1914–1918

Interwar period 1918–1941

First Hungarian Republic 1918–1920

Hungarian Soviet Republic 1919

Kingdom of Hungary 1920–1946

World War II 1941–1945

Contemporary

Second Hungarian Republic 1946–1949

Hungarian People's Republic 1949–1989

Revolution of 1956 1956

Third Hungarian Republic since 1989

By topic

Christianity Military Music Nobility

Hungarians Jews Székelys

Hungary
Hungary
portal

v t e

Main article: Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
(called the Ausgleich in German and the Kiegyezés in Hungarian), which inaugurated the empire's dual structure in place of the former unitary Austrian Empire (1804–67), originated at a time when Austria
Austria
had declined in strength and in power—both in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
(as a result of the Second Italian War of Independence
Second Italian War of Independence
of 1859) and among the states of the German Confederation
German Confederation
(it had been surpassed by Prussia
Prussia
as the dominant German-speaking power following the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866).[29] Other factors in the constitutional changes were continued Hungarian dissatisfaction with rule from Vienna
Vienna
and increasing national consciousness on the part of other nationalities (or ethnicities) of the Austrian Empire. Hungarian dissatisfaction arose partly from Austria's suppression with Russian support of the Hungarian liberal revolution of 1848–49. However, dissatisfaction with Austrian rule had grown for many years within Hungary
Hungary
and had many other causes. By the late 1850s, a large number of Hungarians
Hungarians
who had supported the 1848–49 revolution were willing to accept the Habsburg monarchy. They argued that while Hungary
Hungary
had the right to full internal independence, under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, foreign affairs and defense were "common" to both Austria
Austria
and Hungary.[30] After the Austrian defeat at Königgrätz, the government realized it needed to reconcile with Hungary
Hungary
to regain the status of a great power. The new foreign minister, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust, wanted to conclude the stalemated negotiations with the Hungarians. To secure the monarchy, Emperor Franz Joseph began negotiations for a compromise with the Hungarian nobility, led by Ferenc Deák, to ensure their support. In particular, Hungarian leaders demanded and received the Emperor's coronation as King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and the re-establishment of a separate parliament at Pest with powers to enact laws for the lands of the Holy Crown of Hungary.[30] From 1867 onwards, the abbreviations heading the names of official institutions in Austria- Hungary
Hungary
reflected their responsibility: K. u. k. (kaiserlich und königlich or Imperial and Royal) was the label for institutions common to both parts of the Monarchy, e.g. the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine (War Fleet) and, during the war, the k.u.k. Armee (Army). There were three k.u.k. or joint ministries:

The Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
Ministry of the Exterior and the Imperial House The Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
War Ministry The Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
Ministry of Finance

The last was responsible only for financing the Imperial and Royal household, the diplomatic service, the common army and the common war fleet. All other state functions were to be handled separately by each of the two states.[31] From 1867 onwards, common expenditures were allocated 70% to Austria and 30% to Hungary. This split had to be negotiated every decade. By 1907, the Hungarian share had risen to 36.4%.[32] The negotiations in 1917 ended with the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy. The common army changed its label from k.k. to k.u.k. only in 1889 at the request of the Hungarian government.

K. k. (kaiserlich-königlich) or Imperial-Royal was the term for institutions of Cisleithania
Cisleithania
(Austria); "royal" in this label referred to the Crown of Bohemia. K. u. (königlich-ungarisch) or M. k. (Magyar királyi) ("Royal Hungarian") referred to Transleithania, the lands of the Hungarian crown. In the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
and Slavonia, its autonomous institutions hold k. (kraljevski) ("Royal") as according to the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
the only official language in Croatia and Slavonia
Slavonia
was Croatian and those institutions were "only" Croatian.

Politics and government[edit]

Austrian Parliament
Parliament
building

Hungarian Parliament
Parliament
building

Government[edit] See also: Imperial Council (Austria)
Imperial Council (Austria)
and Diet of Hungary There were three parts to the rule of the Austro-Hungarian Empire:[33]

the common foreign, military and a joint financial policy (only for diplomatic, military and naval expenditures) under the monarch the "Austrian" or Cisleithanian government the Hungarian government

Hungary
Hungary
and Austria
Austria
maintained separate parliaments each with its own prime minister. Linking/co-ordinating the two parliaments fell to a government under the monarch. In this sense Austria- Hungary
Hungary
remained under an authoritarian government, as the Emperor-King appointed both Austrian and Hungarian Prime ministers along with their respective cabinets. This made both Governments responsible to the Emperor-King, as neither half could have a government with a program contrary to the views of the Monarch. The Emperor-King could appoint non-parliamentary governments, for example, or maintain in power a government which does not have a majority in Parliament
Parliament
to block the formation of another which he does not approve. The Monarch had other prerogatives such as the right of Royal Assent before any kind of Bill would be presented to the National Assembly (the common name for the Hungarian Diet), the right to Veto all legislation passed by the National Assembly, and the power to prorogue or dissolve the Assembly and call to new elections (he had the same prerogatives considering the Croatian-Slavonian Diet or Croatian Parliament, the common name for the Croatian-Slavonian Diet). In the Austrian half, however, the Monarchs's power was even greater, as the Emperor had the power to both appoint and dismiss its Prime minister
Prime minister
and cabinet members. The monarch's common government, in which its ministers were appointed by the Monarch and responsible to him, had the responsibility for the army, for the navy, for foreign policy, and for the customs union.[30] Due to the lack of common law between Austria
Austria
and Hungary, to conclude identical texts, each parliament elected 60 of its members to form a delegation that discussed motions of the Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
ministries separately and worked towards a compromise.[31] A common Ministerial Council ruled the common government: it comprised the three ministers for the joint responsibilities (joint finance, military, and foreign policy), the two prime ministers, some Archdukes and the monarch.[34] Two delegations of representatives (60–60 members), one each from the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, met separately and voted on the expenditures of the Common Ministerial Council giving the two governments influence in the common administration. However, the ministers ultimately answered only to the monarch who had the final decision on matters of foreign and military policy. Overlapping responsibilities between the joint ministries and the ministries of the two halves caused friction and inefficiencies.[31] The armed forces suffered particularly from overlap. Although the unified government determined the overall military direction, the Austrian and Hungarian governments each remained in charge of recruiting, supplies and training. Each government could have a strong influence over common governmental responsibilities. Each half of the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
proved quite prepared to disrupt common operations to advance its own interests.[34] Relations during the half-century after 1867 between the two parts of the dual monarchy featured repeated disputes over shared external tariff arrangements and over the financial contribution of each government to the common treasury. Under the terms of the "Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867", an agreement renegotiated every ten years, determined these matters. There was political turmoil during the build-up to each renewal of the agreement. The disputes culminated in the early 1900s in a prolonged constitutional crisis. It was triggered by disagreement over which language to use for command in Hungarian army units, and deepened by the advent to power in Budapest
Budapest
in April 1906 of a Hungarian nationalist coalition. Provisional renewals of the common arrangements occurred in October 1907 and in November 1917 on the basis of the status quo.[31] Judicial system[edit] Empire
Empire
of Austria[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2013)

Kingdom of Hungary[edit] The judicial power was independent of the administrative power. After 1868 (Croatian–Hungarian Settlement), Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
had its own independent judicial system (the Table of Seven was the court of last instance for Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
with final civil and criminal jurisdiction). The judicial authorities in Hungary
Hungary
were:

the district courts with single judges (458 in 1905); the county courts with collegiate judgeships (76 in number); to these were attached 15 jury courts for press offences. These were courts of first instance. In Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
these were known as the court tables after 1874; Royal Tables (12 in number), which were courts of second instance, established at Budapest, Debrecen, Győr, Kassa, Kolozsvár, Marosvásárhely, Nagyvárad, Pécs, Pressburg, Szeged, Temesvár and Ban's Table at Zagreb. The Royal Supreme Court at Budapest, and the Supreme Court of Justice, or Table of Seven, at Zagreb, which were the highest judicial authorities. There were also a special commercial court at Budapest, a naval court at Fiume, and special army courts.[24]

Public administration and local governments[edit] Empire
Empire
of Austria[edit]

Emperor Franz Joseph I visiting Prague
Prague
and opening the new Emperor Francis I. Bridge in 1901

Kraków, a historical Polish city in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
where in 1870 authorities allowed the use of the Polish language
Polish language
in the Jagiellonian University.

The organization of the administrative system in the Austrian Empire was complicated by the fact that between the State and the purely local communal administration there intruded yet a third element, grounded in history, the territories (Länder). The State administration comprised all affairs having relation to rights, duties and interests "which are common to all territories"; all other administrative tasks were left to the territories. Finally, the communes had self-government within their own sphere. To this division of the work of administration corresponded a three-fold organization of the authorities: State, territorial and communal. The State authorities were divided on geographical lines into central, intermediate and local, and side by side with this there was a division of the offices for the transaction of business according to the various branches of the administration. The central authorities, which as early as the 18th century worked together in a common mother cell of the State chancery, became differentiated so soon as the growing tasks of administration called for specialization; in 1869 there were seven departments, and in the concluding decade of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
there were set up Ministries of Labour, Food, Public Health and Social Care. Under these ministries came the Statthalter, whose administrative area had ordinarily the proportions of a Crown territory (Kronland); but the immense variations in area of the Crown territories made a uniform and consistent intermediate administrative organization practically impossible. The lowest administrative unit was the political sub-district (Bezirk) under an official (Bezirkshauptmann), who united nearly all the administrative functions which were divided among the various ministries according to their attributions. Side by side with the State administration certain Crown territory administrations also existed in the 17 Crown territories, carried on by selected honorary officials, having under them a staff of professional officials. Many branches of the territorial administration had great similarities with those of the State, so that their spheres of activity frequently overlapped and came into collision. This administrative "double track", as it was called, led, it is true, in many cases to lively emulation, but was on the whole highly extravagant. The evils of this complicated system are obvious, and easy to condemn. They can be explained, partly by the origin of the State – for the most part through a voluntary union of countries possessed by a strong sense of their own individuality – partly by the influence in Austria
Austria
of the Germanic spirit, well understood by the Slavs, which has nothing of the Latin tendency to reduce all questions of administration to clear-cut formulae as part of a logically consistent system. Like the English administrative system, the Austrian presented a rich variety, a variety indeed so rich that it clamoured for drastic reform. Bienerth's last act as premier in May 1911 was the appointment of a commission nominated by the Emperor, to draw up a scheme of administrative reform. So early as 1904 KOrber had declared a complete change in the principles of administration to be essential if the machinery of State were to continue working. After seven years of inaction, however, this imperial rescript was pitched in a far lower key. The continuous progress of society, it said, had made increased demands on the administration, that is to say, it was assumed that reform was not demanded so much by the defects of the administration but by the progress of the times, not because the administration was bad, but because life was better. It was an attempt to reform the administration without first reforming the State on equivalent lines. A reform commission without a programme naturally first occupied itself with reforms about which there was no controversy. After a year had gone by it drew up "Proposals for the training of State officials". After another two years it had indeed brought to light carefully prepared material for study, which was of great scientific value; but its proposals. though politically of importance, did not provide any basis for reform on a large scale. And so when the World War broke out the commission dispersed without practical results, leaving behind it an imposing array of folio volumes of great scientific value. It was not till March 1918 that the Seidler Government decided upon a programme of national autonomy as a basis for administrative reform, which was, however, never carried into effect.[35] Kingdom of Hungary[edit] Administrative divisions and the counties of Hungary[edit] Since 1867 the administrative and political divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown have been in great measure remodelled. In 1868 Transylvania
Transylvania
was definitely reunited to Hungary proper, and the town and district of Fiume
Fiume
declared autonomous. In 1873 part of the "Military Frontier" was united with Hungary
Hungary
proper and part with Croatia-Slavonia. Hungary
Hungary
proper, according to ancient usage, was generally divided into four great divisions or circles, and Transylvania
Transylvania
up to 1876 was regarded as the fifth. In 1876 a general system of counties was introduced. According to this division Hungary proper is divided into seven circles, of which Transylvania
Transylvania
forms one. The whole country is divided into the following counties: (a) The circle on the left bank of the Danube
Danube
contains eleven counties: (1) Árva, (2) Bars, (3) Esztergom, (4) Hont, (5) Liptó, (6) Nógrád, (7) Nyitra, (8) Pozsony
Pozsony
(9) Trencsén, (10) Túrócz and (11) Zólyom. (b) The circle on the right bank of the Danube
Danube
contains eleven counties: Baranya, Fejér, Győr, Komárom, Moson, Somogy, Sopron, Tolna, Vas, Veszprém and Zala. (c) The circle between the Danube
Danube
and Tisza
Tisza
contains five counties: Bács-Bodrog, Csongrád, Heves, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok and Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun. (d) The circle on the right bank of the Tisza
Tisza
contains eight counties: Abaúj-Torna, Bereg, Borsod, Gömör-es Kis-Hont, Sáros, Szepes, Ung, Zemplén. (e) The circle on the left bank of the Tisza
Tisza
contains eight counties: Békés, Bihar, Hajdú, Máramaros, Szabolcs, Szatmár, Szilágy and Ugocsa. (f) The circle between the Tisza
Tisza
and the Maros contains five counties: Arad, Csanád, Krassó-Szörény, Temes and Torontál. (g) Transylvania
Transylvania
contains fifteen counties: Also-Fehér, Besztercze-Naszód, Brassó, Csík, Fogaras, Háromszek, Hunyad, Kis-Küküllő, Kolozs, Maros-Torda, Nagy-Küküllő, Szeben, Szolnok-Doboka, Torda-Aranyos and Udvarhely. Fiume
Fiume
town and district forms a separate division. Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
is divided into eight counties: Bjelovar-Križevci, Lika-Krbava, Modrus-Fiume, Pozega, Srijemska, Varaždin, Virovitica and Zagreb. Municipal rights of the biggest cities in Hungary[edit] In regard to local government, the country was divided into municipalities or counties, which possessed a certain amount of self-government. Hungary
Hungary
proper was divided into sixty-three rural, and—including Fiume—twenty-six urban municipalities (see section on Administrative Divisions). These urban municipalities were towns which for their local government were independent of the counties in which they were situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns. The administration of the municipalities is carried on by an official appointed by the king, aided by a representative body. Since 1876 each municipality had a council of twenty members to exercise control over its administration. According to this division Hungary
Hungary
proper is divided into seven circles.[24] Besides these sixty-three rural counties for Hungary, and eight for Croatia-Slavonia, Hungary
Hungary
had twenty-six urban counties or towns with municipal rights. These were: Arad, Baja, Debreczen, Győr, Hódmezővásárhely, Kassa, Kecskemét, Kolozsvár, Komárom, Marosvásárhely, Nagyvárad, Pancsova, Pécs, Pozsony, Selmecz- és Bélabanya, Sopron, Szabadka, Szatmárnémeti, Szeged, Székesfehervár, Temesvár, Újvidék, Versecz, Zombor, the town of Fiume
Fiume
and Budapest, the capital of the country.[24] In Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
there are four urban counties or towns with municipal rights namely: Osijek, Varaždin and Zagreb
Zagreb
and Zemun.[24] Politics[edit] See also: Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen The first prime minister of Hungary
Hungary
after the Compromise was Count Gyula Andrássy (1867–1871). The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph was crowned as King of Hungary. Andrássy next served as the Foreign Minister of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
(1871–1879). The Empire
Empire
relied increasingly on a cosmopolitan bureaucracy—in which Czechs
Czechs
played an important role—backed by loyal elements, including a large part of the German, Hungarian, Polish and Croat aristocracy.[36] Political struggles in the Empire[edit] The traditional aristocracy and land-based gentry class gradually faced increasingly wealthy men of the cities, who achieved wealth through trade and industrialization. The urban middle and upper class tended to seek their own power and supported progressive movements in the aftermath of revolutions in Europe. They were described as "leftist liberals" and their representatives began to be elected to the parliaments of Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest. These leftist liberal parliamentary parties were backed by the big industrialists, bankers, businessmen, and the predominant majority of newspaper publishers.[37] As in the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
frequently used liberal economic policies and practices. From the 1860s, businessmen succeeded in industrializing parts of the Empire. Newly prosperous members of the bourgeoisie erected large homes, and began to take prominent roles in urban life that rivaled the aristocracy's. In the early period, they encouraged the government to seek foreign investment to build up infrastructure, such as railroads, in aid of industrialization, transportation and communications, and development. The influence of liberals in Austria, most of them ethnic Germans, weakened under the leadership of Count Eduard von Taaffe, the Austrian prime minister from 1879 to 1893. Taaffe used a coalition of clergy, conservatives and Slavic parties to weaken the liberals. In Bohemia, for example, he authorized Czech as an official language of the bureaucracy and school system, thus breaking the German speakers' monopoly on holding office. Such reforms encouraged other ethnic groups to push for greater autonomy as well. By playing nationalities off one another, the government ensured the monarchy's central role in holding together competing interest groups in an era of rapid change. During the First World War, rising national sentiments and labour movements contributed to strikes, protests and civil unrest in the Empire. After the war, republican, national parties contributed to the disintegration and collapse of the monarchy in Austria
Austria
and Hungary. Republics were established in Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest.[38] Ethnic relations[edit] See also: Trialism in Austria-Hungary, United States
United States
of Greater Austria, Magyarization, Austro-Slavism, and Panslavism

Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910

Meyers Konversations-Lexikon
Meyers Konversations-Lexikon
map of Austria-Hungary, 1885

Literacy in Austria- Hungary
Hungary
(census 1880)

Literacy in Hungary
Hungary
by counties in 1910 (excluding Croatia)

Austria- Hungary
Hungary
1914, physical

In July 1849, the Hungarian Revolutionary Parliament
Parliament
proclaimed and enacted ethnic and minority rights (the next such laws were in Switzerland), but these were overturned after the Russian and Austrian armies crushed the Hungarian Revolution. After the Kingdom of Hungary reached the Compromise with the Habsburg Dynasty in 1867, one of the first acts of its restored Parliament
Parliament
was to pass a Law on Nationalities (Act Number XLIV of 1868). It was a liberal piece of legislation, and offered extensive language and cultural rights. It did not recognize non- Hungarians
Hungarians
to have rights to form states with any territorial autonomy.[39] The "Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867" created the semi-independent states of Hungary
Hungary
and Austria
Austria
linked by personal union under a common monarch. The Hungarian majority asserted more of their identity within the Kingdom of Hungary. The nationalism of German-speakers prevalent in the Empire
Empire
of Austria
Austria
created tension between ethnic Germans and ethnic Czechs. In addition, the emergence of national identity in the newly independent Romania
Romania
and Serbia
Serbia
also contributed to ethnic issues in the empire. Article 19 of the 1867 "Basic State Act" (Staatsgrundgesetz), valid only for the Cisleithanian (Austrian) part of Austria-Hungary,[40] said:

All races of the empire have equal rights, and every race has an inviolable right to the preservation and use of its own nationality and language. The equality of all customary languages ("landesübliche Sprachen") in school, office and public life, is recognized by the state. In those territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying compulsion to learn a second country language ("Landessprache"), each of the races receives the necessary means of education in its own language.[41]

The implementation of this principle led to several disputes, as it was not clear which languages could be regarded as "customary". The Germans, the traditional bureaucratic, capitalist and cultural elite, demanded the recognition of their language as a customary language in every part of the empire. Italian was regarded as an old "culture language" (Kultursprache) by German intellectuals and had always been granted equal rights as an official language of the Empire, but the Germans had difficulty in accepting the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
as equal to their own. On one occasion Count A. Auersperg (Anastasius Grün) entered the Diet of Carniola
Carniola
carrying what he claimed to be the whole corpus of Slovene literature
Slovene literature
under his arm; this was to demonstrate that the Slovene language
Slovene language
could not be substituted for German as the language of higher education. The following years saw official recognition of several languages, at least in Austria. From 1867, laws awarded Croatian equal status with Italian in Dalmatia. From 1882, there was a Slovene majority in the Diet of Carniola
Carniola
and in the capital Laibach (Ljubljana); they ruled to replace German with Slovene as their primary official language. Galicia designated Polish instead of German in 1869 as the customary language of government. The language disputes were most fiercely fought in Bohemia, where the Czech speakers formed a majority and sought equal status for their language to German. The Czechs
Czechs
had lived primarily in Bohemia
Bohemia
since the 6th century and German immigrants had begun settling the Bohemian periphery since the 13th century. The constitution of 1627 made the German language
German language
a second official language and equal to Czech. German speakers lost their majority in the Bohemian Diet in 1880 and became a minority to Czech speakers in the cities of Prague
Prague
and Pilsen (while retaining a slight numerical majority in the city of Brno
Brno
(Brünn)). The old Charles University
Charles University
in Prague, hitherto dominated by German speakers, was divided into German and Czech-speaking faculties in 1882. At the same time, Hungarian dominance faced challenges from the local majorities of Romanians
Romanians
in Transylvania
Transylvania
and in the eastern Banat, Slovaks
Slovaks
in today's Slovakia, and Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
in the crown lands of Croatia
Croatia
and of Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(today's Croatia), in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in the provinces known as the Vojvodina
Vojvodina
(today's northern Serbia). The Romanians
Romanians
and the Serbs
Serbs
began to agitate for union with their fellow nationalists and language speakers in the newly founded states of Romania
Romania
(1859–78) and Serbia. Hungary's leaders were generally less willing than their Austrian counterparts to share power with their subject minorities, but they granted a large measure of autonomy to Croatia
Croatia
in 1868. To some extent, they modelled their relation to that kingdom on their own compromise with Austria
Austria
of the previous year. In spite of nominal autonomy, the Croatian government was an economic and administrative part of Hungary, which the Croatians resented. In the Triune Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
many advocated the idea of a trialist Austro-Hungaro-Croatian monarchy among the supporters of the idea where Archduke Leopold Salvator, Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
and emperor and king Charles I. (IV.) who during his short reign supported the trialist idea only to be vetoed by the Hungarian government and Count Istvan Tisza. The count finally signed the trialist proclamation after heavy pressure from the king on 23 October 1918. one day after the king.[42] Language was one of the most contentious issues in Austro-Hungarian politics. All governments faced difficult and divisive hurdles in deciding on the languages of government and of instruction. The minorities sought the widest opportunities for education in their own languages, as well as in the "dominant" languages—Hungarian and German. By the "Ordinance of 5 April 1897", the Austrian Prime Minister Count Kasimir Felix Badeni
Count Kasimir Felix Badeni
gave Czech equal standing with German in the internal government of Bohemia; this led to a crisis because of nationalist German agitation throughout the empire. The Crown dismissed Badeni. The Hungarian Minority Act of 1868 gave the minorities (Slovaks, Romanians, Serbs, et al.) individual (but not also communal) rights to use their language in offices, schools (although in practice often only in those founded by them and not by the state), courts and municipalities (if 20% of the deputies demanded it). From June 1907, all public and private schools in Hungary
Hungary
were obliged to ensure that after the fourth grade, the pupils could express themselves fluently in Hungarian. This led to the closing of several minority schools, devoted mostly to the Slovak and Rusyn languages. The two kingdoms sometimes divided their spheres of influence. According to Misha Glenny
Misha Glenny
in his book, The Balkans, 1804–1999, the Austrians
Austrians
responded to Hungarian support of Czechs
Czechs
by supporting the Croatian national movement in Zagreb. In recognition that he reigned in a multi-ethnic country, Emperor Franz Joseph spoke (and used) German, Hungarian and Czech fluently, and Croatian, Serbian, Polish and Italian to some degree. Around 1900, Jews
Jews
in the empire numbered about two million;[43] their position was ambiguous. Antisemitic parties and movements existed, but the governments of Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest
Budapest
did not initiate pogroms or implement official antisemitic policies.[citation needed] They feared that such ethnic violence could ignite other ethnic minorities and escalate out of control. The antisemitic parties remained on the periphery of the political sphere due to their low popularity among voters in the parliamentary elections.[citation needed] In that period, the majority of Jews
Jews
in Austria- Hungary
Hungary
lived in small towns (shtetls) in Galicia and rural areas in Hungary
Hungary
and Bohemia, although there were large communities in Vienna, Budapest, Prague
Prague
and other large cities. Of the pre-World War military forces of the major European powers, the Austro-Hungarian army was almost alone in its regular promotion of Jews
Jews
to positions of command.[44] While the Jewish
Jewish
population of the lands of the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
was about five percent, Jews
Jews
made up nearly eighteen percent of the reserve officer corps.[45] Thanks to the constitution's modern laws and to the benevolence of emperor Franz Joseph, the Austrian Jews
Jews
came to regard the era of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
as a golden era of their history.[46] By 1910 about 900,000 Jews
Jews
made up approximately 5 percent of the population of Hungary
Hungary
and about 23 percent of Budapest's citizenry. Jews
Jews
accounted for 54 percent of commercial business owners, 85 percent of financial institution directors and owners, and 62 percent of all employees in commerce[47] Foreign policy[edit] See also: International relations (1814–1919)
International relations (1814–1919)
and Foreign Ministry of Austria-Hungary

Muslim
Muslim
Bosniak resistance during the battle of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in 1878 against the Austro-Hungarian occupation.

The minister of foreign affairs conducted the foreign relations of the Dual Monarchy, and negotiated treaties.[48] The Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
was created in the wake of a losing war in 1866 with Prussia
Prussia
and Italy. To rebuild Habsburg prestige and gain revenge against Prussia, Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust
Count Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust
became foreign secretary. He hated Prussia's diplomat, Otto von Bismarck, who had repeatedly outmaneuvered him. Beust looked to France
France
and negotiated with Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
and Italy
Italy
for an anti-Prussian alliance. No terms could be reached. The decisive victory of Prusso-German armies in the war of 1870 with France
France
and the founding of the German Empire ended all hope of revenge and Beust retired.[49] After being forced out of Germany and Italy, the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
turned to the Balkans, which were in tumult as nationalistic efforts were trying to end the rule of the Ottomans. Both Russia and Austria- Hungary
Hungary
saw an opportunity to expand in this region. Russia in particular took on the role of protector of the Slavs and the orthodox Christians. Austria
Austria
envisioned a multi-ethnic, religiously diverse empire under Vienna's control. Count Gyula Andrássy, a Hungarian who was Foreign Minister (1871 to 1879), made the centerpiece of his policy one of opposition to Russian expansion in the Balkans and blocking Serbian ambitions to dominate a new South Slav federation. He wanted Germany to ally with Austria, not Russia.[50] When Russia defeated Turkey in a war the resulting Treaty of San Stefano was seen in Austria
Austria
as much too favourable for Russia and its Orthodox-Slavic goals. The Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
in 1878 let Austria occupy (but not annex) the province of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a predominantly Slavic area. In 1914, Slavic militants in Bosnia rejected Austria's plan to fully absorb the area; they assassinated the Austrian heir and precipitated World War I.[51] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Austria-Hungary

A 20-crown banknote of the Dual Monarchy, using all official and recognized languages

The Austro-Hungarian economy changed dramatically during the Dual Monarchy. The capitalist way of production spread throughout the Empire
Empire
during its 50-year existence, replacing medieval[citation needed] institutions. Technological change
Technological change
accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The first Austrian stock exchange (the Wiener Börse) was opened in 1771 in Vienna, the first stock exchange of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(the Budapest
Budapest
Stock Exchange) was opened in Budapest
Budapest
in 1864. The central bank (Bank of issue) was founded as Austrian National Bank in 1816. In 1878, it transformed into Austro- Hungarian National Bank
Hungarian National Bank
with principal offices in both Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest.[52] The central bank was governed by alternating Austrian or Hungarian governors and vice-governors.[53] The gross national product per capita grew roughly 1.76% per year from 1870 to 1913. That level of growth compared very favorably to that of other European nations such as Britain (1%), France
France
(1.06%), and Germany (1.51%).[54] However, in a comparison with Germany and Britain, the Austro-Hungarian economy as a whole still lagged considerably, as sustained modernization had begun much later. Like the German Empire, that of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
frequently employed liberal economic policies and practices. In 1873, the old Hungarian capital Buda
Buda
and Óbuda (Ancient Buda) were officially merged with the third city, Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. The dynamic Pest grew into Hungary's administrative, political, economic, trade and cultural hub. Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary
Hungary
were established during this period. Economic growth centered on Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest, the Austrian lands (areas of modern Austria), the Alpine region and the Bohemian lands. In the later years of the 19th century, rapid economic growth spread to the central Hungarian plain and to the Carpathian lands. As a result, wide disparities of development existed within the empire. In general, the western areas became more developed than the eastern. The Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
became the world's second largest flour exporter after the United States.[55] The large Hungarian food exports were not limited to neighbouring Germany and Italy: Hungary
Hungary
became the most important foreign food supplier of the large cities and industrial centres of the United Kingdom.[56] However, by the end of the 19th century, economic differences gradually began to even out as economic growth in the eastern parts of the monarchy consistently surpassed that in the western. The strong agriculture and food industry of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
with the centre of Budapest
Budapest
became predominant within the empire and made up a large proportion of the export to the rest of Europe. Meanwhile, western areas, concentrated mainly around Prague
Prague
and Vienna, excelled in various manufacturing industries. This division of labour between the east and west, besides the existing economic and monetary union, led to an even more rapid economic growth throughout Austria-Hungary by the early 20th century. However, since the turn of the twentieth century, the Austrian half of the Monarchy could preserve its dominance within the empire in the sectors of the first industrial revolution, but Hungary
Hungary
had a better position in the industries of the second industrial revolution, in these modern sectors of the second industrial revolution the Austrian competition could not become dominant.[57] The empire's heavy industry had mostly focused on machine building, especially for the electric power industry, locomotive industry and automotive industry, while in light industry the precision mechanics industry was the most dominant. Through the years leading up to World War I the country became the 4th biggest machine manufacturer in the world.[58] The two most important trading partners were traditionally Germany (1910: 48% of all exports, 39% of all imports), and Great Britain (1910: almost 10% of all exports, 8% of all imports), the third most important partner was the United States, it followed by Russia, France, Switzerland, Romania, the Balkan states and South America.[6] Trade with the geographically neighbouring Russia, however, had a relatively low weight (1910: 3% of all exports /mainly machinery for Russia, 7% of all imports /mainly raw materials from Russia). Automotive industry[edit] Austrian Empire[edit] Prior to World War I, the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
had five car manufacturer companies. These were: Austro-Daimler
Austro-Daimler
in Wiener-Neustadt (cars trucks, buses),[59] Gräf & Stift in Vienna
Vienna
(cars),[60] Laurin & Klement in Mladá Boleslav
Mladá Boleslav
(motorcycles, cars),[61] Nesselsdorfer in Nesselsdorf (Kopřivnice), Moravia
Moravia
(automobiles), and Lohner-Werke
Lohner-Werke
in Vienna
Vienna
(cars).[62] Austrian car production started in 1897. Kingdom of Hungary[edit] Prior to World War I, the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
had four car manufacturer companies. These were: the Ganz company[63][64] in Budapest, RÁBA Automobile[65] in Győr, MÁG (later Magomobil)[66][67] in Budapest, and MARTA (Hungarian Automobile Joint-stock Company Arad)[68] in Arad. Hungarian car production started in 1900. Automotive factories in the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
manufactured motorcycles, cars, taxicabs, trucks and buses.[citation needed] Aeronautic industry[edit] Austrian Empire[edit] The first airplane in Austria
Austria
was Edvard Rusjan's design, the Eda I, which had its maiden flight in the vicinity of Gorizia
Gorizia
on 25 November 1909.[69]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2014)

Kingdom of Hungary[edit] The first Hungarian hydrogen filled experimental ballons were built by István Szabik and József Domin in 1784. The first Hungarian designed and produced airplane (powered by Hungarian built inline engine) was flown at Rákosmező on 4 November[70] 1909.[71] The earliest Hungarian radial engine powered airplane was built in 1913. Between 1913 and 1918, the Hungarian aircraft industry began developing. The three greatest: UFAG Hungarian Aircraft Factory (1914), Hungarian General Aircraft Factory (1916), Hungarian Lloyd Aircraft, Engine Factory at Aszód
Aszód
(1916),[72] and Marta in Arad (1914).[73] During the First World War, fighter planes, bombers and reconnaissance planes were produced in these factories. The most important aeroengine factories were Weiss Manfred Works, GANZ Works, and Hungarian Automobile Joint-stock Company Arad. Locomotive engine and railway vehicle manufacturers[edit] Austrian Empire[edit] The locomotive (steam engines and wagons, bridge and iron structures) factories were installed in Vienna
Vienna
(Locomotive Factory of the State Railway Company, founded in 1839), in Wiener Neustadt
Wiener Neustadt
(New Vienna Locomotive Factory, founded in 1841), and in Floridsdorf (Floridsdorf Locomotive Factory, founded in 1869).[citation needed][74][75] Kingdom of Hungary[edit] The Hungarian Locomotive (engines and wagons bridge and iron structures) factories were the MÁVAG company in Budapest
Budapest
(steam engines and wagons) and the Ganz company
Ganz company
in Budapest
Budapest
(steam engines, wagons, the production of electric locomotives and electric trams started from 1894).[76] and the RÁBA Company in Győr. Infrastructure[edit]

Detailed railway and canal map of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
in 1910.

Railway network of Kingdom of Hungary

Hydrography of the Pannonian basin
Pannonian basin
before the Hungarian river and lake regulations in the 19th century.

Plan (1900) to link the Danube
Danube
and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by a canal.

The start of construction of the underground in Budapest
Budapest
(1894–1896)

The SS Kaiser Franz Joseph I (12.567 t) of the Austro-Americana company was the largest passenger ship ever built in Austria. Because of its control over the Littorals and much of the Balkans, Austria- Hungary
Hungary
had access to several seaports.

A stentor reading the day's news in the Telefonhírmondó of Budapest

An Austrian public telephone in a rural post office, 1890

Transport[edit] Railways[edit] Main articles: Imperial Austrian State Railways
Imperial Austrian State Railways
and Hungarian State Railways By 1913, the combined length of the railway tracks of the Austrian Empire
Empire
and Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
reached 43,280 kilometres (26,890 miles). In Western Europe only Germany had more extended railway network (63,378 km, 39,381 mi); the Austro-Hungarian Empire was followed by France
France
(40,770 km, 25,330 mi), the United Kingdom (32,623 km, 20,271 mi), Italy
Italy
(18,873 km, 11,727 mi) and Spain (15,088 km, 9,375 mi).[77] Railway network of the Austrian Empire[edit] Rail transport
Rail transport
expanded rapidly in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its predecessor state, the Habsburg Empire, had built a substantial core of railways in the west, originating from Vienna, by 1841. Austria's first steam railway from Vienna
Vienna
to Moravia
Moravia
with its terminus in Galicia (Bochnie) was opened in 1839. The first train travelled from Vienna
Vienna
to Lundenburg (Břeclav) on 6 June 1839 and one month later between the imperial capital in Vienna
Vienna
and the capital of Moravia Brünn (Brno) on 7 July. At that point, the government realized the military possibilities of rail and began to invest heavily in construction. Pozsony
Pozsony
(Bratislava), Budapest, Prague, Kraków, Graz, Laibach (Ljubljana) and Venedig (Venice) became linked to the main network. By 1854, the empire had almost 2,000 km (1,200 mi) of track, about 60–70% of it in state hands. The government then began to sell off large portions of track to private investors to recoup some of its investments and because of the financial strains of the 1848 Revolution and of the Crimean War. From 1854 to 1879, private interests conducted almost all rail construction. What would become Cisleithania
Cisleithania
gained 7,952 km (4,941 mi) of track, and Hungary
Hungary
built 5,839 km (3,628 mi) of track. During this time, many new areas joined the railway system and the existing rail networks gained connections and interconnections. This period marked the beginning of widespread rail transportation in Austria-Hungary, and also the integration of transportation systems in the area. Railways allowed the empire to integrate its economy far more than previously possible, when transportation depended on rivers. After 1879, the Austrian and the Hungarian governments slowly began to renationalize their rail networks, largely because of the sluggish pace of development during the worldwide depression of the 1870s. Between 1879 and 1900, more than 25,000 km (16,000 mi) of railways were built in Cisleithania
Cisleithania
and Hungary. Most of this constituted "filling in" of the existing network, although some areas, primarily in the far east, gained rail connections for the first time. The railway reduced transportation costs throughout the empire, opening new markets for products from other lands of the Dual Monarchy. In 1914, of a total of 22,981 km (14,279.73 mi) of railway tracks in Austria, 18,859 km (11,718 mi) (82%) were state owned. Railway network in the Kingdom of Hungary[edit] The first Hungarian steam locomotive railway line was opened on 15 July 1846 between Pest and Vác.[78] In 1890 most large Hungarian private railway companies were nationalized as a consequence of the poor management of private companies, except the strong Austrian-owned Kaschau-Oderberg Railway (KsOd) and the Austrian-Hungarian Southern Railway (SB/DV). They also joined the zone tariff system of the MÁV (Hungarian State Railways). By 1910, the total length of the rail networks of Hungarian Kingdom reached 22,869 kilometres (14,210 miles), the Hungarian network linked more than 1,490 settlements. Nearly half (52%) of the empire's railways were built in Hungary, thus the railroad density there became higher than that of Cisleithania. This has ranked Hungarian railways the 6th most dense in the world (ahead of countries as Germany or France).[79] Metropolitan transit systems[edit] Tramway lines in the cities[edit] Horse-drawn tramways appeared in the first half of the 19th century. Between the 1850s and 1880s many were built. Vienna
Vienna
(1865), Budapest (1866), Brno
Brno
(1869). Steam trams appeared in the late 1860s. The electrification of tramways started from the late 1880s. The first electrified tramway in Austria- Hungary
Hungary
was built in Budapest
Budapest
in 1887. Electric tramway lines in the Austrian Empire:

Austria: Gmunden (1894); Linz, Vienna
Vienna
(1897); Graz
Graz
(1898); Ljubljana (1901); Innsbruck
Innsbruck
(1905); Unterlach, Ybbs an der Donau (1907); Salzburg (1909); Klagenfurt, Sankt Pölten (1911); Piran (1912) Austrian Littoral: Fiume
Fiume
(1899); Opatija
Opatija
Lovran
Lovran
(1908); Pula (1904). Bohemia: Prague
Prague
(1891); Teplice (1895); Liberec (1897); Ústí nad Labem, Plzeň, Olomouc (1899); Moravia, Brno, Jablonec nad Nisou (1900); Ostrava
Ostrava
(1901); Mariánské Lázně
Mariánské Lázně
(1902); Opava (1905); Budějovice, České Budějovice, Jihlava (1909); Český Těšín/Cieszyn (1911) Dalmatia: Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
(1910) Galicia: Lviv
Lviv
(1894), Bielsko-Biała
Bielsko-Biała
(1895); Kraków
Kraków
(1901); Tarnów, Cieszyn (1911)[80][81][82]

Electric tramway lines in the Kingdom of Hungary:

Hungary: Budapest
Budapest
(1887); Pressburg/Pozsony/ Bratislava
Bratislava
(1895); Szabadka/Subotica, Szombathely
Szombathely
(1897), Miskolc
Miskolc
(1897); Temesvár/ Timișoara
Timișoara
(1899); Sopron
Sopron
(1900); Szatmárnémeti/Satu Mare (1900); Nyíregyháza
Nyíregyháza
(1905); Nagyszeben/ Sibiu
Sibiu
(1905); Nagyvárad/ Oradea
Oradea
(1906); Szeged
Szeged
(1908); Debrecen
Debrecen
(1911); Újvidék/ Novi Sad
Novi Sad
(1911); Kassa/ Košice
Košice
(1913); Pécs
Pécs
(1913) Croatia: Zagreb
Zagreb
(1910).[83][84][85][86]

Electrified commuter railway lines[edit] Budapest
Budapest
(See: BHÉV):

Ráckeve
Ráckeve
line (1887), Szentendre
Szentendre
line (1888), Gödöllő
Gödöllő
line (1888), Csepel
Csepel
line (1912)[87]

Underground[edit] The Budapest
Budapest
metro Line 1 (originally the "Franz Joseph Underground Electric Railway Company") is the second oldest underground railway in the world[88] (the first being the London Underground's Metropolitan Line & the third being Glasgow), and the first on the European mainland. It was built from 1894 to 1896 and opened on 2 May 1896.[89] In 2002, it was listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[90] Canals and river regulations[edit] In 1900 the engineer C. Wagenführer drew up plans to link the Danube and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by a canal from Vienna
Vienna
to Trieste. It was born from the desire of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
to have a direct link to the Adriatic Sea[91] but was never constructed. Regulation of the lower Danube
Danube
and the Iron Gates[edit] In 1831 a plan had already been drafted to make the passage navigable, at the initiative of the Hungarian politician István Széchenyi. Finally Gábor Baross, Hungary's "Iron Minister", succeeded in financing this project. The riverbed rocks and the associated rapids made the gorge valley an infamous passage for shipping. In German, the passage is still known as the Kataraktenstrecke, even though the cataracts are gone. Near the actual "Iron Gates" strait the Prigrada rock was the most important obstacle until 1896: the river widened considerably here and the water level was consequently low. Upstream, the Greben rock near the "Kazan" gorge was notorious. Regulation of the Tisza
Tisza
River[edit] The length of the Tisza
Tisza
in Hungary
Hungary
used to be 1,419 kilometres (882 miles). It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain, which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza
Tisza
used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area. After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi
István Széchenyi
organised the "regulation of the Tisza" (Hungarian: a Tisza
Tisza
szabályozása) which started on 27 August 1846, and substantially ended in 1880. The new length of the river in Hungary
Hungary
was 966 km (600 mi) (1,358 km (844 mi) total), with 589 km (366 mi) of "dead channels" and 136 km (85 mi) of new riverbed. The resultant length of the flood-protected river comprises 2,940 km (1,830 mi) (out of 4,220 km (2,620 mi) of all Hungarian protected rivers). Shipping and ports[edit] The first Hungarian steamship was built by Antal Bernhard in 1817, called S.S. Carolina. It was also the first steamship in Habsburg ruled states.[92] However it was Count István Széchenyi
István Széchenyi
(with the help of Austrian ship's company Erste Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaft (DDSG)), who established the Óbuda Shipyard on the Hungarian Hajógyári Island
Hajógyári Island
in 1835, which was the first industrial scale steamship building company in the Habsburg Empire.[93] The most significant seaport was Trieste
Trieste
(today part of Italy), where the Austrian merchant marine was based. In addition, the two major shipping companies (Austrian Lloyd and Austro-Americana) and several shipyards were located there. The k.u.k. navy used the port's shipyards to construct new naval ships. This port grew as Venice declined. From 1815 to 1866, Venice
Venice
was included within the monarchy and was prevented from competing with Austrian-ruled ports. The merchant marine did not develop until Venice's shipping interest declined. The navy became significant during the time of the k.u.k. monarchy, as industrialization and development provided sufficient revenues to develop it. The most important seaport for the Hungarian part of the k.u.k. was Fiume
Fiume
(Rijeka, today part of Croatia), where the Hungarian shipping companies, such as the Adria, operated. The largest Hungarian shipbuilding company was the Ganz-Danubius. Another significant seaport was Pola (Pula, today part of Croatia) – especially for the navy. In 1889, the Austrian merchant marine consisted of 10,022 ships, with 7,992 fishing vessels. The coast and sea trade had a total of 1,859 sailboats with crews of 6,489 men and a load capacity of 140,838 tons; and 171 steamers with a load capacity of 96,323 tons and a crew of 3,199 men. The first Danubian steamer company, Donau-Dampfschiffahrt-Gesellschaft (DDSG), was the largest inland shipping company in the world until the collapse of the k.u.k. The Austrian Lloyd was one of the biggest ocean shipping companies of the time. Prior to the beginning of World War I, the company owned 65 middle-sized and large steamers. The Austro-Americana owned one third of them, including the biggest Austrian passenger ship, the SS Kaiser Franz Joseph I. In comparison to the Austrian Lloyd, the Austro-American concentrated on destinations in North and South America.[94][95][96][97][98][99] Telecommunication[edit] Telegraph[edit] In 1847, the first telegraph connection ( Vienna
Vienna
Brno
Brno
– Prague) started operation.[100] The first telegraph station on Hungarian territory was opened in December 1847 in Pressburg/ Pozsony /Bratislava/. In 1848, during the Hungarian Revolution, another telegraph centre was built in Buda
Buda
to connect the most important governmental centres. The first telegraph connection between Vienna and Pest– Buda
Buda
(later Budapest) was constructed in 1850,[101] and Vienna– Zagreb
Zagreb
(capital of the Triune Kingdom
Triune Kingdom
of Croatia) in 1850.[102] Austria
Austria
joined a telegraph union with German states.[103] Austrian Empire[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2013)

Kingdom of Hungary[edit] In 1884, 2,406 telegraph post offices operated in the Kingdom of Hungary.[104] By 1914 the number of telegraph offices reached 3,000 in post offices and further 2,400 were installed in the railway stations of the Kingdom of Hungary.[105] Telephone[edit] The first telephone exchange was opened in Zagreb
Zagreb
(8 January 1881),[106][107][108] the second was in Budapest
Budapest
(1 May 1881),[109] and the third was opened in Vienna
Vienna
(3 June 1881).[110] Initially telephony was available in the homes of individual subscribers, companies and offices. Public telephone stations appeared in the 1890s, and they quickly became widespread in post offices and railway stations. Austria- Hungary
Hungary
had 568 million telephone calls in 1913; only two Western European countries had more phone calls: the German Empire
Empire
and the United Kingdom. The Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
was followed by France
France
with 396 million telephone calls and Italy
Italy
with 230 million phone calls.[111] Austrian Empire[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2013)

In 1916, there were 366 million telephone calls in the Austrian half of the monarchy, among them 8.4 million long distant calls.[112] Kingdom of Hungary[edit] All telephone exchanges of the cities, towns and larger villages in Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
were linked until 1893.[101] By 1914, more than 2000 settlements had telephone exchange in Kingdom of Hungary.[105] Electronic broadcasting[edit] The Telefon Hírmondó
Telefon Hírmondó
(Telephone Herald) news and entertainment service was introduced in Budapest
Budapest
in 1893. Two decades before the introduction of radio broadcasting, people could listen to political, economic and sport news, cabaret, music and opera in Budapest
Budapest
daily. It operated over a special type of telephone exchange system. Demographics[edit] Main article: Ethnic and religious composition of Austria-Hungary The following data is based on the official Austro-Hungarian census conducted in 1910. Population and area[edit]

Area Territory (km2) Population

Empire
Empire
of Austria 300,005 (≈48% of Austria-Hungary) 28,571,934 (≈57.8% of Austria-Hungary)

Kingdom of Hungary 325,411 (≈52% of Austria-Hungary) 20,886,487 (≈42.2% of Austria-Hungary)

Bosnia & Herzegovina 51,027 1,931,802

Sandžak
Sandžak
(occupied until 1909)[113] 8,403 135,000

Languages[edit] The census of 1910 recorded Umgangssprache, everyday language. Jews and those using German in offices often stated German as their Umgangssprache, even when having a different Muttersprache. In " Hungary
Hungary
proper", 5% of the population were Jews, who were included in speakers of the Hungarian language.[114]

Language Number %

German 12,006,521 23.36

Hungarian 10,056,315 19.57

Czech 6,442,133 12.54

Serbo-Croatian 5,621,797 10.94

Polish 4,976,804 9.68

Ruthenian (Ukrainian) 3,997,831 7.78

Romanian 3,224,147 6.27

Slovak 1,967,970 3.83

Slovene 1,255,620 2.44

Italian 768,422 1.50

Other 1,072,663 2.09

Total 51,390,223 100.00

In the Austrian Empire, 36.8% of the total population spoke German as their native language, and more than 71% of the inhabitants spoke some German. In the Kingdom of Hungary, 54.4% of the total population spoke Hungarian as their native language. Not counting autonomous Croatia, more than 64% of the inhabitants of the Hungarian Kingdom spoke Hungarian.

Linguistic distribution of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
as a whole

German 24%

Hungarian 20%

Czech 13%

Polish 10%

Ruthenian 8%

Romanian 6%

Croat 5%

Slovak 4%

Serbian 4%

Slovene 3%

Italian 3%

Mother tongues in Cisleithania
Cisleithania
(Austria) (1910 census)[115]

Land Most common language Other languages (more than 2%)

Bohemia 63.2% Czech 36.45% (2,467,724) German

Dalmatia 96.2% Croatian  2.8% Italian

Galicia 58.6% Polish 40.2% Ukrainian

Lower Austria 95.9% German  3.8% Czech

Upper Austria 99.7% German

Bukovina 38.4% Ukrainian 34.4% Romanian 21.2% German  4.6% Polish

Carinthia 78.6% German 21.2% Slovene

Carniola 94.4% Slovene  5.4% German

Salzburg 99.7% German

Silesia 43.9% German 31.7% Polish 24.3% Czech

Styria 70.5% German 29.4% Slovene

Moravia 71.8% Czech 27.6% German

Tyrol 57.3% German 42.1% Italian

Littoral 37.3% Slovene 34.5% Italian 24.4% Croatian  2.5% German

Vorarlberg 95.4% German  4.4% Italian

Mother tongues in Transleithania
Transleithania
(Hungary) (1910 census)[116]

Language Hungary
Hungary
proper Croatia-Slavonia

speakers % of population speakers % of population

Hungarian 9,944,627 54.5% 105,948 4.1%

Romanian 2,948,186 16.0% 846 <0.1%

Slovak 1,946,357 10.7% 21,613 0.8%

German 1,903,657 10.4% 134, 078 5.1%

Serbian 461,516 2.5% 644,955 24.6%

Ruthenian 464,270 2.3% 8,317 0.3%

Croatian 194,808 1.1% 1,638,354 62.5%

Others and unspecified 401,412 2.2% 65,843 2.6%

Total 18,264,533 100% 2,621,954 100%

Note that some languages are considered dialects of more widely spoken languages. For example, Rusyn and Ukrainian were both counted as "Ruthenian" in the census, and Rhaeto-Romance languages
Rhaeto-Romance languages
were counted as "Italian". Historical regions:

Region

Main spoken language

Hungarian language

Other languages

Transylvania Romanian – 2,819,467 (54%) 1,658,045 (31.7%) German – 550,964 (10.5%)

Upper Hungary Slovak – 1,688,413 (55.6%) 881,320 (32.3%) German – 198,405 (6.8%)

Vojvodina Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
– 601,770 (39.8%) 425,672 (28.1%) German – 324,017 (21.4%)

Transcarpathia Ruthenian – 330,010 (54.5%) 185,433 (30.6%) German – 64,257 (10.6%)

Fiume Italian – 24,212 (48.6%) 6,493 (13%) Croatian and Serbian – 13,351 (26.8%) Slovene – 2,336 (4.7%) German – 2,315 (4.6%)

Burgenland German – 217,072 (74.4%) 26,225 (9%) Croatian – 43,633 (15%)

Prekmurje Slovene – 74,199 (80.4%) – in 1921 14,065 (15.2%) – in 1921 German – 2,540 (2.8%) – in 1921

Religion[edit]

Religions in Austria-Hungary, from the 1881 edition of Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas. Catholics
Catholics
(both Roman and Uniate) are blue, Protestants
Protestants
purple, Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
yellow, and Muslims
Muslims
green.

Funeral in Galicia by Teodor Axentowicz, 1882

Religion in Austria- Hungary
Hungary
1910[117]

Religion Austria-Hungary Austria/Cisleithania Hungary/Transleithania Bosnia and Herzegovina

Catholics
Catholics
(both Roman and Eastern) 76.6 % 90.9 % 61.8 % 22.9 %

Protestants 8.9 % 2.1 % 19.0 % 0 %

Serbian Orthodox 8.7 % 2.3 % 14.3 % 43.5 %

Jews 4.4 % 4.7 % 4.9 % 0.6 %

Muslims 1.3 % 0 % 0 % 32.7 %

Solely in the Empire
Empire
of Austria:[118]

Religion Austria

Latin Catholic 79.1% (20,661,000)

Eastern Catholic 12% (3,134,000)

Jewish 4.7% (1,225,000)

Eastern Orthodox 2.3% (607,000)

Lutheran 1.9% (491,000)

Other or no religion 14,000

Solely in the Kingdom of Hungary:[119]

Religion Hungary
Hungary
proper & Fiume Croatia
Croatia
& Slavonia

Latin Catholic 49.3% (9,010,305) 71.6% (1,877,833)

Calvinist 14.3% (2,603,381) 0.7% (17,948)

Eastern Orthodox 12.8% (2,333,979) 24.9% (653,184)

Eastern Catholic 11.0% (2,007,916) 0.7% (17,592)

Lutheran 7.1% (1,306,384) 1.3% (33,759)

Jewish 5.0% (911,227) 0.8% (21,231)

Unitarian 0.4% (74,275) 0.0% (21)

Other or no religion 0.1% (17,066) 0.0 (386)

Largest cities[edit] Data: census in 1910[120]

Austrian Empire

Rank Current English name Contemporary official name[121] Other Present-day country Population in 1910 Present-day population

1. Vienna Wien Bécs, Beč, Dunaj  Austria 2,083,630 (city without the suburb 1,481,970) 1,840,573 (Metro: 2,600,000)

2. Prague Prag, Praha Prága  Czech Republic 668,000 (city without the suburb 223,741) 1,267,449 (Metro: 2,156,097)

3. Trieste Triest Trieszt, Trst  Italy 229,510 204,420

4. Lviv Lemberg, Lwów Ilyvó, Львів, Lvov, Львов  Ukraine 206,113 728,545

5. Kraków Krakau, Kraków Krakkó, Krakov  Poland 151,886 762,508

6. Graz

Grác, Gradec  Austria 151,781 280,020

7. Brno Brünn, Brno Berén, Börön, Börénvásár  Czech Republic 125,737 377,028

8. Chernivtsi Czernowitz Csernyivci, Cernăuți, Чернівці  Ukraine 87,100 242,300

9. Plzeň Pilsen, Plzeň Pilzen  Czech Republic 80,343 169,858

10. Linz

Linec  Austria 67,817 200,841

Kingdom of Hungary

Rank Current English name Contemporary official name[121] Other Present-day country Population in 1910 Present-day population

1. Budapest

Budimpešta  Hungary 1,232,026 (city without the suburb 880,371) 1,735,711 (Metro: 3,303,786)

2. Szeged

Szegedin, Segedin  Hungary 118,328 170,285

3. Subotica Szabadka Суботица  Serbia 94,610 105,681

4. Debrecen

 Hungary 92,729 208,016

5. Zagreb

Zágráb, Agram  Croatia 79,038 790,017

6. Bratislava Pozsony Pressburg, Prešporok  Slovakia 78,223 425,167

7. Timișoara Temesvár Temeswar  Romania 72,555 319,279

8. Oradea Nagyvárad Großwardein  Romania 64,169 196,367

9. Arad Arad

 Romania 63,166 159,074

10. Cluj-Napoca Kolozsvár Klausenburg  Romania 60,808 324,576

Education[edit] Austrian Empire[edit] Primary and secondary schools The organization of the Austrian elementary schools was based on the principle of compulsory school attendance, free education, and the imparting of public instruction in the child's own language. Side by side with these existed private schools. The proportion of children attending private schools to those attending the public elementary schools in 1912 was 144,000 to 4.5 millions, i.e. a thirtieth part. Hence the accusation of denationalizing children through the Schulvereine must be accepted with caution. The expenses of education were distributed as follows: the communes built the schoolhouses, the political sub-districts (Bezirke) paid the teachers, the Crown territory gave a grant, and the State appointed the inspectors. Since the State supervised the schools without maintaining them, it was able to increase its demands without being hampered by financial considerations. It is remarkable that the difference between the State educational estimates in Austria
Austria
and in Hungary
Hungary
was one of 9.3 millions in the former as opposed to 67.6 in the latter. Under Austria, since everywhere that 40 scholars of one nationality were to be found within a radius of 5 km. a school had to be set up in which their language was used, national schools were assured even to linguistic minorities. It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language. The number of elementary schools increased from 19,016 in two to 24,713 in 1913; the number of scholars from 3,49 0, 000 in 1900 to 4,630,000 in 1913.[122] Universities in Austrian Empire The first University in the Austrian half of the Empire
Empire
(Charles University) was founded by H.R. Emperor Charles IV in Prague
Prague
in 1347. The second oldest university (University of Vienna) was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365. The higher educational establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones. Thus Germans, Czechs
Czechs
and Poles were provided for. But now the smaller nations also made their voices heard: the Ruthenians, Slovenes and Italians. The Ruthenians demanded at first, in view of the predominantly Ruthenian character of East Galicia, a national partition of the Polish university existing there. Since the Poles were at first unyielding, Ruthenian demonstrations and strikes of students arose, and the Ruthenians were no longer content with the reversion of a few separate professorial chairs, and with parallel courses of lectures. By a pact concluded on 28 January 1914 the Poles promised a Ruthenian university; but owing to the war the question lapsed. The Italians could hardly claim a university of their own on grounds of population (in 19to they numbered 783,000), but they claimed it all the more on grounds of their ancient culture. All parties were agreed that an Italian faculty of laws should be created; the difficulty lay in the choice of the place. The Italians demanded Trieste; but the Government was afraid to let this Adriatic port become the centre of an irredenta; moreover the Southern Sla y s of the city wished it kept free from an Italian educational establishment. Bienerth in 1910 brought about a compromise; namely, that it should be founded at once, the situation to be provisionally in Vienna, and to be transferred within four years to Italian national territory. The German National Union (Nationalverband) agreed to extend temporary hospitality to the Italian university in Vienna, but the Southern Slav Hochschule Club demanded a guarantee that a later transfer to the coast provinces should not be contemplated, together with the simultaneous foundation of Slovene professorial chairs in Prague
Prague
and Cracow, and preliminary steps towards the foundation of a Southern Slav university in Laibach. But in spite of the constant renewal of negotiations for a compromise it was impossible to arrive at any agreement, until the outbreak of war left all the projects for a Ruthenian university at Lemberg, a Slovene one in Laibach, and a second Czech one in Moravia, unrealized. Kingdom of Hungary[edit] Primary and secondary schools One of the first measures of newly established Hungarian government was to provide supplementary schools of a non-denominational character. By a law passed in 1868 attendance at school is obligatory on all children between the ages of 6 and 12 years. The communes or parishes are bound to maintain elementary schools, and they are entitled to levy an additional tax of 5% on the state taxes for their maintenance. But the number of state-aided elementary schools is continually increasing, as the spread of the Magyar language to the other races through the medium of the elementary schools is one of the principal concerns of the Hungarian government, and is vigorously pursued.' In 1902 there were in Hungary
Hungary
18,729 elementary schools with 32,020 teachers, attended by 2,573,377 pupils, figures which compare favourably with those of 1877, when there were 15,486 schools with 20,717 teachers, attended by 1,559,636 pupils. In about 61% of these schools the language used was exclusively Magyar, in about 6 20% it was mixed, and in the remainder some non-Magyar language was used. In 1902, 80.56% of the children of school age actually attended school. Since 1891 infant schools, for children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, have been maintained either by the communes or by the state. The public instruction of Hungary
Hungary
contains three other groups of educational institutions: middle or secondary schools, " high schools " and technical schools. The middle schools comprise classical schools (gymnasia) which are preparatory for the universities and other " high schools," and modern schools (Realschulen) preparatory for the technical schools. Their course of study is generally eight years, and they are maintained mostly by the state. The state-maintained gymnasia are mostly of recent foundation, but some schools maintained by the various churches have been in existence for three, or sometimes four, centuries. The number of middle schools in 1902 was 243 with 4705 teachers, attended by 71,788 pupils; in 1880 their number was 185, attended by 40,747 pupils. Universities in Kingdom of Hungary In the year 1276, the university of Veszprém was destroyed by the troops of Péter Csák and it was never rebuilt. A university was established by Louis I of Hungary
Hungary
in Pécs
Pécs
in 1367. Sigismund established a university at Óbuda in 1395. Another, Universitas Istropolitana, was established 1465 in Pozsony
Pozsony
(now Bratislava
Bratislava
in Slovakia) by Mattias Corvinus. None of these medieval universities survived the Ottoman wars. Nagyszombat University was founded in 1635 and moved to Buda
Buda
in 1777 and it is called Eötvös Loránd University today. The world's first institute of technology was founded in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(since 1920 Banská Štiavnica, now Slovakia) in 1735. Its legal successor is the University of Miskolc
Miskolc
in Hungary. The Budapest
Budapest
University of Technology and Economics (BME) is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure. Its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II. The high schools include the universities, of which Hungary
Hungary
possesses Five, all maintained by the state: at Budapest
Budapest
(founded in 1635), at Kolozsvár (founded in 1872), and at Zagreb
Zagreb
(founded in 1874). Newer universities were established in Debrecen
Debrecen
in 1912, and Pozsony university was reestablished after a half millennium in 1912. They have four faculties: of theology, law, philosophy and medicine (the university at Zagreb
Zagreb
was without a faculty of medicine). There are besides ten high schools of law, called academies, which in 1900 were attended by 1569 pupils. The Polytechnicum in Budapest, founded in 1844, which contains four faculties and was attended in 1900 by 1772 pupils, is also considered a high school. There were in Hungary
Hungary
in 1900 forty-nine high theological colleges, twenty-nine Roman Catholic; five Greek Uniat, four Greek Orthodox, ten Protestant and one Jewish. Among special schools the principal mining schools are at Selmeczbánya, Nagyág and Felsőbánya; the principal agricultural colleges at Debreczen and Kolozsvár; and there are a school of forestry at Selmeczbánya, military colleges at Budapest, Kassa, Déva and Zagreb, and a naval school at Fiume. There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools – for design, painting, sculpture, music. Military[edit] Main articles: Austro-Hungarian Army, Austro-Hungarian Navy, Austro-Hungarian Air Force, and Military Frontier

k.u.k. Infantry
Infantry
1898

The military system of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was similar in both states, and rested since 1868 upon the principle of the universal and personal obligation of the citizen to bear arms. Its military force was composed of the common army; the special armies, namely the Austrian Landwehr, and the Hungarian Honved, which were separate national institutions, and the Landsturm
Landsturm
or levy-en masse. As stated above, the common army stood under the administration of the joint minister of war, while the special armies were under the administration of the respective ministries of national defence. The yearly contingent of recruits for the army was fixed by the military bills voted on by the Austrian and Hungarian parliaments, and was generally determined on the basis of the population, according to the last census returns. It amounted in 1905 to 103,100 men, of which Austria
Austria
furnished 59,211 men, and Hungary
Hungary
43,889. Besides 10,000 men were annually allotted to the Austrian Landwehr, and 12,500 to the Hungarian Honved. The term of service was two years (three years in the cavalry) with the colours, seven or eight in the reserve and two in the Landwehr; in the case of men not drafted to the active army the same total period of service was spent in various special reserves.[123] The common minister of war was the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr
Austrian Landwehr
and of the Hungarian Honved, which were committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states. But the supreme command of the army was vested in the monarch, who had the power to take all measures regarding the whole army.[123] The Austro-Hungarian navy was mainly a coast defence force, and also included a flotilla of monitors for the Danube. It was administered by the naval department of the ministry of war.[124] World War I[edit] Further information: Causes of World War I, Croatia
Croatia
during World War I, and Hungary
Hungary
in World War I Preludes: Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit] Main article: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in Austria-Hungary Russian Pan-Slavic
Pan-Slavic
organizations sent aid to the Balkan rebels and so pressured the tsar's government to declare war on the Ottoman Empire in 1877 in the name of protecting Orthodox Christians.[30] Unable to mediate between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Russia over the control of Serbia, Austria- Hungary
Hungary
declared neutrality when the conflict between the two powers escalated into a war. With help from Romania
Romania
and Greece, Russia defeated the Ottomans and with the Treaty of San Stefano tried to create a large pro-Russian Bulgaria. This treaty sparked an international uproar that almost resulted in a general European war. Austria- Hungary
Hungary
and Britain feared that a large Bulgaria would become a Russian satellite that would enable the tsar to dominate the Balkans. British prime minister Benjamin Disraeli moved warships into position against Russia to halt the advance of Russian influence in the eastern Mediterranean so close to Britain's route through the Suez Canal.[125]

Recruits from Bosnia-Herzegovina, including Muslim
Muslim
Bosniaks
Bosniaks
(31%), were drafted into special units of the Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
as early as 1879 and were commended for their bravery in service of the Austrian emperor, winning more medals than any other unit. The jaunty military march Die Bosniaken Kommen was composed in their honor by Eduard Wagnes.[126]

The Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
rolled back the Russian victory by partitioning the large Bulgarian state that Russia had carved out of Ottoman territory and denying any part of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
full independence from the Ottomans. Austria
Austria
occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
as a way of gaining clout in the Balkans. Serbia, Montenegro
Montenegro
and Romania
Romania
became fully independent. Nonetheless the Balkans remained a site of political unrest with teeming ambition for independence and great power rivalries. At the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
in 1878 Gyula Andrássy (Minister of Foreign Affairs) managed to force Russia to retreat from further demands in the Balkans. As a result, Greater Bulgaria
Greater Bulgaria
was broken up and Serbian independence was guaranteed.[127] In that year, with Britain's support, Austria- Hungary
Hungary
stationed troops in Bosnia to prevent the Russians from expanding into nearby Serbia. In another measure to keep the Russians out of the Balkans Austria- Hungary
Hungary
formed an alliance, the Mediterranean Entente, with Britain and Italy
Italy
in 1887 and concluded mutual defence pacts with Germany in 1879 and Romania
Romania
in 1883 against a possible Russian attack.[128] Following the Congress of Berlin the European powers attempted to guarantee stability through a complex series of alliances and treaties.

Excerpt from a 1913 Austro-Hungarian order, that banned numerous social-democratic and ethnic Serb cultural societies in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Anxious about Balkan instability and Russian aggression, and to counter French interests in Europe, Austria- Hungary
Hungary
forged a defensive alliance with Germany in October 1879 and in May 1882. In October 1882 Italy
Italy
joined this partnership in the Triple Alliance largely because of Italy's imperial rivalries with France. Tensions between Russia and Austria- Hungary
Hungary
remained high, so Bismarck replaced the League of the Three Emperors with the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia to keep the Habsburgs from recklessly starting a war over Pan-Slavism.[129] The Sandžak-Raška / Novibazar region was under Austro-Hungarian occupation between 1878 and 1909, when it was returned to the Ottoman Empire, before being ultimately divided between kingdoms of Montenegro and Serbia.[130] On the heels of the Great Balkan Crisis, Austro-Hungarian forces occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in August 1878 and the monarchy eventually annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in October 1908 as a common holding of Cisleithania
Cisleithania
and Transleithania
Transleithania
under the control of the Imperial & Royal finance ministry rather than attaching it to either territorial government. The annexation in 1908 led some in Vienna
Vienna
to contemplate combining Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
with Croatia
Croatia
to form a third Slavic component of the monarchy. The deaths of Franz Joseph's brother, Maximilian (1867), and his only son, Rudolf made the Emperor's nephew, Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne. The Archduke was rumoured to have been an advocate for this trialism as a means to limit the power of the Hungarian aristocracy.[131] Status of Bosnia-Herzegovina[edit] A proclamation issued on the occasion of its annexation to the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
in 1908 promised these lands constitutional institutions, which should secure to their inhabitants full civil rights and a share in the management of their own affairs by means of a local representative assembly. In performance of this promise a constitution was promulgated in 1910. This included a Territorial Statute (Landesstatut) with the setting up of a Territorial Diet, regulations for the election and procedure of the Diet, a law of associations, a law of public meetings, and a law dealing with the district councils. According to this statute Bosnia-Herzegovina formed a single administrative territory under the responsible direction and supervision of the Ministry of Finance of the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
in Vienna. The administration of the country, together with the carrying out of the laws, devolved upon the Territorial Government in Sarajevo, which was subordinate and responsible to the Common Ministry of Finance. The existing judicial and administrative authorities of the Territory retained their previous organization and functions. That statute introduced the modern rights and laws in Bosnia – Herzegovina, and it guaranteed generally the civil rights of the inhabitants of the Territory, namely citizenship, personal liberty, protection by the competent judicial authorities, liberty of creed and conscience, preservation of the national individuality and language, freedom of speech, freedom of learning and education, inviolability of the domicile, secrecy of posts and telegraphs, inviolability of property, the right of petition, and finally the right of holding meetings.[132] The Diet (Sabor) of Bosnia-Herzegovina set up consisted of a single Chamber, elected on the principle of the representation of interests. It numbered 92 members. Of these 20 consisted of representatives of all the religious confessions, the president of the Supreme Court, the president of the Chamber of Advocates, the president of the Chamber of Commerce, and the mayor of Sarajevo. In addition to these were 72 deputies, elected by three curiae or electoral groups. The first curia included the large landowners, the highest taxpayers, and people who had reached a certain standard of education without regard to the amount they paid in taxes. To the second curia belonged inhabitants of the towns not qualified to vote in the first; to the third, country dwellers disqualified in the same way. With this curial system was combined the grouping of the mandates and of the electors according to the three dominant creeds (Catholic, Serbian Orthodox, Muslim). To the adherents of other creeds the right was conceded of voting with one or other of the religious electoral bodies within the curia to which they belonged.[11]

This picture is usually associated with the arrest of Gavrilo Princip, although some[133][134] believe it depicts Ferdinand Behr, a bystander.

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
assassination[edit] Main article: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
visited the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. A group of six assassins (Cvjetko Popović, Gavrilo Princip, Muhamed Mehmedbašić, Nedeljko Čabrinović, Trifko Grabež, Vaso Čubrilović) from the nationalist group Mlada Bosna, supplied by the Black Hand, had gathered on the street where the Archduke's motorcade would pass. Čabrinović threw a grenade at the car, but missed. It injured some people nearby, and Franz Ferdinand's convoy could carry on. The other assassins failed to act as the cars drove past them quickly. About an hour later, when Franz Ferdinand was returning from a visit at the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Hospital, the convoy took a wrong turn into a street where Gavrilo Princip
Gavrilo Princip
by coincidence stood. With a pistol, Princip shot and killed Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. The reaction among the Austrian people was mild, almost indifferent. As historian Z.A.B. Zeman later wrote, "the event almost failed to make any impression whatsoever. On Sunday and Monday [June 28 and 29], the crowds in Vienna
Vienna
listened to music and drank wine, as if nothing had happened."[135]

Crowds on the streets in the aftermath of the Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, 29 June 1914.

Escalation of violence in Bosnia[edit] Main articles: Anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and Schutzkorps The assassination excessively intensified the existing traditional religion-based ethnic hostilities in Bosnia. However, in Sarajevo itself, Austrian authorities encouraged[136][137] violence against the Serb residents, which resulted in the Anti-Serb riots of Sarajevo, in which Catholic Croats
Croats
and Bosnian Muslims
Muslims
killed two and damaged numerous Serb-owned buildings. Writer Ivo Andrić
Ivo Andrić
referred to the violence as the " Sarajevo
Sarajevo
frenzy of hate."[138] Violent actions against ethnic Serbs
Serbs
were organized not only in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
but also in many other larger Austro-Hungarian cities in modern-day Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[139] Austro-Hungarian authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina imprisoned and extradited approximately 5,500 prominent Serbs, 700 to 2,200 of whom died in prison. 460 Serbs
Serbs
were sentenced to death and a predominantly Muslim[140][141][142] special militia known as the Schutzkorps
Schutzkorps
was established and carried out the persecution of Serbs.[143] Decision for war[edit]

MÁVAG armoured train in 1914

Main article: Causes of World War I While the empire's military spending had not even doubled since the 1878 Congress of Berlin, Germany's spending had risen fivefold, and the British, Russian, and French expenditures threefold. The empire had lost ethnic Italian areas to Piedmont
Piedmont
because of nationalist movements that had swept through Italy, and many Austro-Hungarians perceived as imminent the threat of losing to Serbia
Serbia
the southern territories inhabited by Slavs. Serbia
Serbia
had recently gained considerable territory in the Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
of 1913, causing much distress in government circles in Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest. Former ambassador and foreign minister Count Alois Aehrenthal
Alois Aehrenthal
had assumed that any future war would be in the Balkan region. Hungarian prime minister and political scientist István Tisza
Tisza
opposed the expansion of the monarchy on the Balkan (see Bosnian crisis
Bosnian crisis
in 1908), because "the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
already had too many Slavs", which would further threaten the integrity of the Dual Monarchy.[144] In March 1914, Tisza
Tisza
wrote a memorandum to Emperor Franz Joseph. His letter had strongly apocalyptic predictive and embittered tone. He used exactly the hitherto unknown word "Weltkrieg" (means World War) phrase in his letter. "It is my firm conviction that Germany's two neighbors [Russia and France] are carefully proceeding with military preparations, but will not start the war so long as they have not attained a grouping of the Balkan states against us that confronts the monarchy with an attack from three sides and pins down the majority of our forces on our eastern and southern front." [145] On the day of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Tisza immediately traveled to Vienna
Vienna
where he met Minister of Foreign Affairs Count Leopold Berchtold
Count Leopold Berchtold
and Army Commander Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. They proposed to solve the dispute with arms, attacking Serbia. Tisza
Tisza
proposed to give the government of Serbia
Serbia
time to take a stand as to whether it was involved in the organisation of the murder and proposed a peaceful resolution, arguing that the international situation would settle soon. Returning to Budapest, he wrote to Emperor Franz Joseph saying he would not take any responsibility for the armed conflict because there was no proof that Serbia
Serbia
had plotted the assassination. Tisza
Tisza
opposed a war with Serbia, stating (correctly, as it turned out) that any war with the Serbs
Serbs
was bound to trigger a war with Russia and hence a general European war.[146] He did not trust in the Italian alliance, due to the political aftermath of the Second Italian War of Independence. He thought that even a successful Austro-Hungarian war would be disastrous for the integrity of Kingdom of Hungary, where Hungary would be the next victim of Austrian politics. After a successful war against Serbia, Tisza
Tisza
foresaw a possible Austrian military attack against the Kingdom of Hungary, where the Austrians
Austrians
want to break up the territory of Hungary.[147] Some members of the government, such as Count Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, had wanted to confront the resurgent Serbian nation for some years in a preventive war, but the Emperor, 84 years old and an enemy of all adventures, disapproved. The foreign ministry of Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
sent ambassador László Szőgyény to Potsdam, where he inquired about the standpoint of the German Emperor on 5 July. Szőgyény described what happened in a secret report to Vienna
Vienna
later that day:

"I presented His Majesty [Wilhelm] with [Franz Joseph’s] letter and the attached memorandum. The Kaiser read both papers quite carefully in my presence. First, His Majesty assured me that he had expected us to take firm action against Serbia, but he had to concede that, as a result of the conflicts facing [Franz Joseph], he needed to take into account a serious complication in Europe, which is why he did not wish to give any definite answer prior to consultations with the chancellor.... When, after our déjeuner, I once again emphasized the gravity of the situation, His Majesty authorized me to report to [Franz Joseph] that in this case, too, we could count on Germany’s full support. As mentioned, he first had to consult with the Chancellor, but he did not have the slightest doubt that Herr von Bethmann Hollweg would fully agree with him, particularly with regard to action on our part against Serbia. In his [Wilhelm’s] opinion, though, there was no need to wait patiently before taking action. The Kaiser said that Russia’s stance would always be a hostile one, but he had been prepared for this for many years, and even if war broke out between Austria-Hungary and Russia, we could rest assured that Germany would take our side, in line with its customary loyalty. According to the Kaiser, as things stood now, Russia was not at all ready for war. It would certainly have to think hard before making a call to arms."[148]

But now the leaders of Austria-Hungary, especially General Count Leopold von Berchtold, backed by its ally Germany, decided to confront Serbia
Serbia
militarily before it could incite a revolt; using the assassination as an excuse, they presented a list of ten demands called the July Ultimatum,[149] expecting Serbia
Serbia
would never accept. When Serbia
Serbia
accepted nine of the ten demands but only partially accepted the remaining one, Austria- Hungary
Hungary
declared war. Franz Joseph I finally followed the urgent counsel of his top advisers. Over the course of July and August 1914, these events caused the start of World War I, as Russia mobilized in support of Serbia, setting off a series of counter-mobilizations. In support of his German ally, on Thursday, 6 August 1914, the Emperor Franz Joseph signed the declaration of war on Russia. Italy
Italy
initially remained neutral, although it had an alliance with Austria-Hungary. In 1915, it switched to the side of the Entente powers, hoping to gain territory from its former ally.[150] Wartime foreign policy[edit] Further information: Diplomatic history of World War I The Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
played a relatively passive diplomatic role in the war, as it was increasingly dominated and controlled by Germany.[151][152] The only goal was to punish Serbia
Serbia
and try to stop the ethnic breakup of the Empire, and it completely failed. Instead as the war went on the ethnic unity declined; the Allies encouraged breakaway demands from minorities and the Empire
Empire
faced disintegration. Starting in late 1916 the new Emperor Karl removed the pro-German officials and opened peace overtures to the Allies, whereby the entire war could be ended by compromise, or perhaps Austria
Austria
would make a separate peace from Germany.[153] The main effort was vetoed by Italy, which had been promised large slices of Austria
Austria
for joining the Allies in 1915. Austria
Austria
was only willing to turn over the Trentino
Trentino
region but nothing more.[154] Karl was seen as a defeatist, which weakened his standing at home and with both the Allies and Germany.[155] As the Imperial economy collapsed into severe hardship and even starvation, its multi-ethnic army lost its morale and was increasingly hard pressed to hold its line. In the capital cities of Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest, the leftist and liberal movements and opposition parties strengthened and supported the separatism of ethnic minorities. As it became apparent that the Allies would win the war, nationalist movements, which had previously been calling for a greater degree of autonomy for their majority areas, started demanding full independence. The Emperor had lost much of his power to rule, as his realm disintegrated.[156] Homefront[edit] See also: Hungary
Hungary
in World War I The heavily rural Empire
Empire
did have a small industrial base, but its major contribution was manpower and food.[157][158] Nevertheless, Austria- Hungary
Hungary
was more urbanized (25%)[159] than its actual opponents in the First World War, like the Russian Empire (13.4%),[160] Serbia
Serbia
(13.2%)[161] or Romania
Romania
(18.8%).[162] Furthermore, the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
had also more industrialized economy[163] and higher GDP per capita[164] than the Kingdom of Italy, which was the economically the far most developed actual opponent of the Empire. On the home front, food grew scarcer and scarcer, as did heating fuel. The hog population fell 90 percent, as the dwindling supplies of ham and bacon percent of the Army. Hungary, with its heavy agricultural base, was somewhat better fed. The Army conquered productive agricultural areas in Romania
Romania
and elsewhere, but refused to allow food shipments to civilians back home. Morale fell every year, and the diverse nationalities gave up on the Empire
Empire
and looked for ways to establish their own nation states.[165] Inflation soared, from an index of 129 in 1914 to 1589 in 1918, wiping out the cash savings of the middle-class. In terms of war damage to the economy, the war used up about 20 percent of the GDP. The dead soldiers amounted to about four percent of the 1914 labor force, and the wounded ones to another six percent. Compared all the major countries in the war, Austria's death and casualty rate was toward the high-end.[166] By summer 1918, "Green Cadres" of army deserters formed armed bands in the hills of Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
and civil authority disintegrated. By late October violence and massive looting erupted and there were efforts to form peasant republics. However The Croatian political leadership was focused on creating a new state (Yugoslavia) and worked with the advancing Serbian army to impose control and end the uprisings.[167] Military events[edit] The Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
conscripted 7.8 million soldiers during the WW1.[168] General von Hötzendorf was the Chief of the Austro-Hungarian General Staff. Franz Joseph I, who was much too old to command the army, appointed Archduke Friedrich von Österreich-Teschen as Supreme Army Commander (Armeeoberkommandant), but asked him to give Von Hötzendorf freedom to take any decisions. Von Hötzendorf remained in effective command of the military forces until Emperor Karl I took the supreme command himself in late 1916 and dismissed Conrad von Hötzendorf in 1917. Meanwhile, economic conditions on the homefront deteriorated rapidly. The Empire
Empire
depended on agriculture, and agriculture depended on the heavy labor of millions of men who are now in the Army. Food production fell, the transportation system became overcrowded, and industrial production could not successfully handle the overwhelming need for munitions. Germany provided a great deal of help, but it was not enough. Furthermore, the political instability of the multiple ethnic groups of Empire
Empire
now ripped apart any hope for national consensus in support of the war. Increasingly there was a demand for breaking up the Empire and setting up autonomous national states based on historic language-based cultures. The new Emperor sought peace terms from the Allies, but his initiatives were vetoed by Italy.[169] Serbian front 1914–1916[edit] Main article: Serbian Campaign (World War I) At the start of the war, the army was divided in two: the smaller part attacked Serbia
Serbia
while the larger part fought against the formidable Imperial Russian Army. The invasion of Serbia
Serbia
in 1914 was a disaster: by the end of the year, the Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
had taken no territory, but had lost 227,000 out of a total force of 450,000 men. However, in the autumn of 1915, the Serbian Army was defeated by the Central Powers, which led to the occupation of Serbia. Near the end of 1915, in a massive rescue operation involving more than 1,000 trips made by Italian, French and British steamers, 260,000 Serb soldiers were transported to Corfu, where they waited for the chance of the victory of Allied Powers to reclaim their country. Corfu
Corfu
hosted the Serbian government in exile after the collapse of Serbia, and served as a supply base to the Greek front. In April 1916 a large number of Serbian troops were transported in British and French naval vessels from Corfu
Corfu
to mainland Greece. The contingent numbering over 120,000 relieved a much smaller army at the Macedonian Front
Macedonian Front
and fought alongside British and French troops.[170] Russian front 1914–1917[edit] Main article: Eastern Front (World War I)

Siege of Przemyśl
Siege of Przemyśl
in 1915

On the Eastern front, the war started out equally poorly. The Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
was defeated at the Battle of Lemberg and the great fortress city of Przemyśl was besieged and fell in March 1915. The Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive
Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive
started as a minor German offensive to relieve the pressure of the Russian numerical superiority on the Austro-Hungarians, but the cooperation of the Central Powers
Central Powers
resulted in huge Russian losses and the total collapse of the Russian lines, and their 100 km (62 mi) long retreat into Russia. The Russian Third Army perished. In summer 1915, the Austro-Hungarian Army, under a unified command with the Germans, participated in the successful Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive. From June 1916, the Russians focused their attacks on the Austro-Hungarian army in the Brusilov Offensive, recognizing the numerical inferiority of the Austro-Hungarian army. By the end of September 1916, Austria-Hungary mobilized and concentrated new divisions, and the successful Russian advance was halted and slowly repelled; but the Austrian armies took heavy losses (about 1 million men) and never recovered. The Battle of Zborov (1917) was the first significant action of the Czechoslovak Legions, who fought for the independence of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
against the Austro-Hungarian army. However the huge losses in men and material inflicted on the Russians during the offensive contributed greatly to the revolutions of 1917, and it caused an economic crash in the Russian Empire. Italian front 1915–1918[edit] Main article: Italian Front (World War I)

The military cemetery of Redipuglia (Italy), the resting place of approximately 100,000 Italian soldiers dead in battles of the First World War.

In May 1915, Italy
Italy
attacked Austria-Hungary. Italy
Italy
was the only military opponent of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
which had a similar degree of industrialization and economic level; moreover, her army was numerous (~1,000,000 men were immediately fielded), but suffered poor leadership, training and organization. Chief of Staff Luigi Cadorna marched his army towards the Isonzo
Isonzo
river, hoping to seize Ljubljana, and to eventually threaten Vienna. However, the Royal Italian Army were halted on the river, where four battles took place over five months (23 June – 2 December 1915). The fight was extremely bloody and exhausting for both the contenders.[171] On 15 May 1916, the Austrian Chief of Staff Conrad von Hötzendorf launched the Strafexpedition ("punitive expedition"): the Austrians
Austrians
broke through the opposing front and occupied the Asiago plateau. The Italians managed to resist and in a counteroffensive, seized Gorizia
Gorizia
on 9 August. Nonetheless, they had to stop on the Carso, a few kilometres away from the border. At this point, several months of indecisive trench warfare (analogous to the Western front one) ensued. As the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
collapsed as a result of the Bolshevik Revolution
Bolshevik Revolution
and Russians ended their involvement in the war, Germans and Austrians were able to move on the Western and Southern fronts much manpower from the erstwhile Eastern fighting. On 24 October 1917, Austrians (now enjoying decisive German support) attacked at Caporetto using new infiltration tactics; although they advanced more than 100 km (62.14 mi) in the direction of Venice
Venice
and gained considerable supplies, they were halted and could not cross the Piave river. Italy, although suffering massive casualties, recovered from the blow: a coalition government under Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
was formed. Italy also enjoyed support by the Entente powers: by 1918, large amounts of war materials and a few auxiliary American, British, and French divisions arrived in the Italian battle zone.[172] Cadorna was replaced by General Armando Diaz; under his command, the Italians retook the initiative and won the decisive Battle of the Piave river (15–23 June 1918), in which some 60,000 Austrian and 43,000 Italian soldiers were killed. The multiethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
started to disintegrate, leaving its army alone on the battlefields. The final battle was at Vittorio Veneto; after 4 days of stiff resistance, Italian troops crossed the Piave River, and after losing 90,000 men the defeated Austrian troops retreated in disarray pursued by the Italians. The Italians captured 428,000 Austrian-Hungarian soldiers,[citation needed] 24 of whom were generals,[173] 5,600 cannons and mortars, 4,000 machine guns.[174] The military breakdown also marked the start of the rebellion for the numerous ethnicities who made up the multiethnic Empire, as they refused to keep on fighting for a cause which now appeared senseless. These events marked the end of Austria-Hungary, which collapsed on 31 October 1918. The armistice was signed at Villa Giusti on 3 November. Romanian front 1916[edit] Main article: Romania
Romania
during World War I On 27 August 1916, Romania
Romania
declared war against Austria-Hungary. The Romanian Army crossed the borders of Eastern Hungary
Hungary
(Transylvania). By November 1916, the Central Powers
Central Powers
had defeated the Romanian Army and occupied the southern and eastern parts of Romania. On 6 December the Central Powers
Central Powers
captured Bucharest, the Romanian capital city.[175] Whereas the German army realized it needed close cooperation from the homefront, Habsburg officers saw themselves as entirely separate from the civilian world, and superior to it. When they occupied productive areas, such as Romania[citation needed], they seized food stocks and other supplies for their own purposes, and blocked any shipments intended for civilians back in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The result was that the officers lived well, as the civilians began to starve. Vienna
Vienna
even transferred training units to Serbia
Serbia
and Poland
Poland
for the sole purpose of feeding them. In all, the Army obtained about 15 percent of its cereal needs from occupied territories.[176] Role of Hungary[edit]

War memorial in Păuleni-Ciuc, Romania.

Despite of Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
consisted only 42% of the Austro-Hungarian population,[177] the thin majority – more than 3.8 million soldiers – of the Austro-Hungarian armed forces were conscripted from Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
during the WW1. Roughly 600,000 soldiers were killed in action, and 700,000 soldiers were wounded in the war.[178] Austria- Hungary
Hungary
held on for years, as the Hungarian half provided sufficient supplies for the military to continue to wage war.[127] This was shown in a transition of power after which the Hungarian prime minister, Count István Tisza, and foreign minister, Count István Burián, had decisive influence over the internal and external affairs of the monarchy.[127] By late 1916, food supply from Hungary became intermittent and the government sought an armistice with the Entente powers. However, this failed as Britain and France
France
no longer had any regard for the integrity of the monarchy because of Austro-Hungarian support for Germany.[127] Analysis of defeat[edit] The setbacks that the Austrian army suffered in 1914 and 1915 can be attributed to a large extent to Austria- Hungary
Hungary
becoming a military satellite of Imperial Germany
Imperial Germany
from the first day of the war. They were made worse by the incompetence of the Austrian high command.[127] After attacking Serbia, its forces soon had to be withdrawn to protect its eastern frontier against Russia's invasion, while German units were engaged in fighting on the Western Front. This resulted in a greater than expected loss of men in the invasion of Serbia.[127] Furthermore, it became evident that the Austrian high command had had no plans for a possible continental war and that the army and navy were also ill-equipped to handle such a conflict.[127] From 1916, the Austro-Hungarian war effort became more and more subordinated to the direction of German planners. The Austrians
Austrians
viewed the German army favorably, on the other hand by 1916 the general belief in Germany was that Germany, in its alliance with Austria-Hungary, was "shackled to a corpse". The operational capability of the Austro-Hungarian army was seriously affected by supply shortages, low morale and a high casualty rate, and by the army's composition of multiple ethnicities with different languages and customs. The last two successes for the Austrians, the Romanian Offensive and the Caporetto Offensive, were German-assisted operations. As the Dual Monarchy became more politically unstable, it became more and more dependent on German assistance. The majority of its people, other than Hungarians
Hungarians
and German Austrians, became increasingly restless. In 1917, the Eastern front of the Entente Powers completely collapsed. The Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
then withdrew from all defeated countries. By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated. Leftist and pacifist political movements organized strikes in factories, and uprisings in the army had become commonplace. During the Italian battles, the Czechoslovaks and Southern Slavs declared their independence. On 31 October Hungary
Hungary
ended the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Monarchy. At the last Italian offensive, the Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
took to the field without any food and munition supply, and fought without any political supports for a de facto non-existent empire. On the end of the decisive joint Italian, British and French offensive at Vittorio Veneto, the disintegrated Austria- Hungary
Hungary
signed the Armistice of Villa Giusti
Armistice of Villa Giusti
on 3 November 1918. The government had failed badly on the homefront. Historian Alexander Watson reports:

across central Europe... The majority lived in a state of advanced misery by the spring of 1918, and conditions later worsened, for the summer of 1918 saw both the drop in food supplied to the levels of the 'turnip winter', and the onset of the 1918 flu pandemic
1918 flu pandemic
that killed at least 20 million worldwide. Society was relieved, exhausted and yearned for peace.[179]

Dissolution[edit] The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
collapsed with dramatic speed in the autumn of 1918. In the capital cities of Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest, the leftist and liberal movements and politicians (the opposition parties) strengthened and supported the separatism of ethnic minorities. These leftist or left-liberal pro-Entente maverick parties opposed the monarchy as a form of government and considered themselves internationalist rather than patriotic. Eventually, the German defeat and the minor revolutions in Vienna
Vienna
and Budapest
Budapest
gave political power to the left/liberal political parties. As it became apparent that the Allied powers would win World War I, nationalist movements, which had previously been calling for a greater degree of autonomy for various areas, started pressing for full independence. The Emperor had lost much of his power to rule, as his realm disintegrated.[180] Alexander Watson argues that, "The Habsburg regime's doom was sealed when Wilson's response to the note, sent two and a half weeks earlier, arrived on 20 October." Wilson rejected the continuation of the dual monarchy as a negotiable possibility.[181] As one of his Fourteen Points, President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
demanded that the nationalities of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
have the "freest opportunity to autonomous development". In response, Emperor Karl I agreed to reconvene the Imperial Parliament
Parliament
in 1917 and allow the creation of a confederation with each national group exercising self-governance. However, the leaders of these national groups rejected the idea; they deeply distrusted Vienna
Vienna
and were now determined to get independence.

The revolt of ethnic Czech units in Austria
Austria
in May 1918 was brutally suppressed. It was considered as mutiny by the code of military justice

On 14 October 1918, Foreign Minister Baron
Baron
István Burián
István Burián
von Rajecz[182] asked for an armistice based on the Fourteen Points. In an apparent attempt to demonstrate good faith, Emperor Karl issued a proclamation ("Imperial Manifesto of 16 October 1918") two days later which would have significantly altered the structure of the Austrian half of the monarchy. The Polish majority regions of Galicia and Lodomeria
Lodomeria
were to be granted the option of seceding from the empire, and it was understood that they would join their ethnic brethren in Russia and Germany in resurrecting a Polish state. The rest of Cisleithania
Cisleithania
was transformed into a federal union composed of four parts—German, Czech, South Slav and Ukrainian. Each of these was to be governed by a national council that would negotiate the future of the empire with Vienna. Trieste
Trieste
was to receive a special status. No such proclamation could be issued in Hungary, where Hungarian aristocrats still believed they could subdue other nationalities and maintain the "Holy Kingdom of St. Stephen". It was a dead letter. Four days later, on 18 October United States Secretary of State Robert Lansing
Robert Lansing
replied that the Allies were now committed to the causes of the Czechs, Slovaks
Slovaks
and South Slavs. Therefore, Lansing said, autonomy for the nationalities – the tenth of the Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
– was no longer enough and Washington could not deal on the basis of the Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points
anymore. In fact, a Czechoslovak provisional government had joined the Allies on 14 October. The South Slavs
South Slavs
in both halves of the monarchy had already declared in favor of uniting with Serbia
Serbia
in a large South Slav state by way of the 1917 Corfu
Corfu
Declaration signed by members of the Yugoslav Committee. Indeed, the Croatians had begun disregarding orders from Budapest
Budapest
earlier in October. The Lansing note was, in effect, the death certificate of Austria-Hungary. The national councils had already begun acting more or less as provisional governments of independent countries. With defeat in the war imminent after the Italian offensive in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto
Veneto
on 24 October, Czech politicians peacefully took over command in Prague
Prague
on 28 October (later declared the birthday of Czechoslovakia) and followed up in other major cities in the next few days. On 30 October, the Slovaks
Slovaks
followed in Martin. On 29 October, the Slavs in both portions of what remained of Austria-Hungary proclaimed the State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs. They also declared their ultimate intention was to unite with Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
in a large South Slav state. On the same day, the Czechs
Czechs
and Slovaks formally proclaimed the establishment of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
as an independent state. In Hungary, the most prominent opponent of continued union with Austria, Count Mihály Károlyi, seized power in the Aster Revolution on 31 October. Charles was all but forced to appoint Károlyi as his Hungarian prime minister. One of Károlyi's first acts was to cancel the compromise agreement, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. By the end of October, there was nothing left of the Habsburg realm but its majority-German Danubian and Alpine provinces, and Karl's authority was being challenged even there by the German-Austrian state council.[183] Karl's last Austrian prime minister, Heinrich Lammasch, concluded that Karl was in an impossible situation, and persuaded Karl that the best course was to relinquish, at least temporarily, his right to exercise sovereign authority. Consequences[edit] On 11 November, Karl issued a carefully worded proclamation in which he recognized the Austrian people's right to determine the form of the state. He also renounced the right to participate in Austrian affairs of state. He also dismissed Lammasch and his government from office and released the officials in the Austrian half of the empire from their oath of loyalty to him. Two days later, he issued a similar proclamation for Hungary. However, he did not abdicate, remaining available in the event the people of either state should recall him. For all intents and purposes, this was the end of Habsburg rule. Karl's refusal to abdicate was ultimately irrelevant. On the day after he announced his withdrawal from Austria's politics, the German-Austrian National Council proclaimed the Republic of German Austria. Károlyi followed suit on 16 November, proclaiming the Hungarian Democratic Republic. The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (between the victors of World War I and Austria) and the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
(between the victors and Hungary) regulated the new borders of Austria
Austria
and Hungary, leaving both as small landlocked states. The Allies assumed without question that the minority nationalities wanted to leave Austria
Austria
and Hungary, and also allowed them to annex significant blocks of German- and Hungarian-speaking territory. As a result, the Republic of Austria lost roughly 60% of the old Austrian Empire's territory. It also had to drop its plans for union with Germany, as it was not allowed to unite with Germany without League approval. The restored Kingdom of Hungary, which had replaced the republican government in 1920, lost roughly 72% of the pre-war territory of the Kingdom of Hungary. The decisions of the nations of the former Austria- Hungary
Hungary
and of the victors of the Great War, contained in the heavily one-sided treaties, had devastating political and economic effects. The previously rapid economic growth of the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
ground to a halt because the new borders became major economic barriers. All the formerly well-established industries, as well as the infrastructure supporting them, were designed to satisfy the needs of an extensive realm. As a result, the emerging countries were forced to make considerable sacrifices to transform their economies. The treaties created major political unease. As a result of these economic difficulties, extremist movements gained strength; and there was no regional superpower in central Europe. The new Austrian state was, at least on paper, on shakier ground than Hungary. While what was left of Austria
Austria
had been a single unit for over 700 years, it was united only by loyalty to the Habsburgs. With the loss of 60% of the Austrian Empire's prewar territory, Vienna
Vienna
was now an imperial capital without an empire to support it. By comparison, Hungary
Hungary
had been a nation and a state for over 900 years. However, after a brief period of upheaval and the Allies' foreclosure of union with Germany, Austria
Austria
established itself as a federal republic. Despite the temporary Anschluss
Anschluss
with Nazi Germany, it still survives today. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
cited that all "Germans" - such as he and the others from Austria, etc. - should be united with Germany. Hungary, however, was severely disrupted by the loss of 72% of its territory, 64% of its population and most of its natural resources. The Hungarian Democratic Republic
Hungarian Democratic Republic
was short-lived and was temporarily replaced by the communist Hungarian Soviet Republic. Romanian troops ousted Béla Kun
Béla Kun
and his communist government during the Hungarian–Romanian War of 1919. In the summer of 1919, a Habsburg, Archduke Joseph August, became regent, but was forced to stand down after only two weeks when it became apparent the Allies would not recognise him.[184] Finally, in March 1920, royal powers were entrusted to a regent, Miklós Horthy, who had been the last commanding admiral of the Austro-Hungarian Navy and had helped organize the counter-revolutionary forces. It was this government that signed the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
under protest on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon
Grand Trianon
Palace in Versailles, France.[185][186] In March and again in October 1921, ill-prepared attempts by Karl to regain the throne in Budapest
Budapest
collapsed. The initially wavering Horthy, after receiving threats of intervention from the Allied Powers and neighboring countries, refused his cooperation. Soon afterward, the Hungarian government nullified the Pragmatic Sanction, effectively dethroning the Habsburgs. Two years later, Austria
Austria
had passed the "Habsburg Law," which not only dethroned the Habsburgs, but banned Karl from ever returning to Austria
Austria
again. Subsequently, the British took custody of Karl and removed him and his family to the Portuguese island of Madeira, where he died the following year. Successor states[edit] Main articles: Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
and Treaty of Saint Germain The following successor states were formed (entirely or in part) on the territory of the former Austria-Hungary:

German Austria
Austria
and First Austrian Republic Hungarian Democratic Republic, Hungarian Soviet Republic, and Kingdom of Hungary Czecho- Slovakia
Slovakia
("Czechoslovakia" from 1920 to 1938) State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
(joined on 1 December 1918 with the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes, later Kingdom of Yugoslavia) Second Polish Republic West Ukrainian People's Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic
(united with the Ukrainian People's Republic through Act Zluky, while its territory was fully overran by the Second Polish Republic) Duchy of Bukovina
Bukovina
and Transylvania
Transylvania
were joined to the Kingdom of Romania

Austro-Hungarian lands were also ceded to the Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
and the Kingdom of Italy. The Principality of Liechtenstein, which had formerly looked to Vienna
Vienna
for protection, formed a customs and defense union with Switzerland, and adopted the Swiss currency instead of the Austrian. In April 1919, Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
– the westernmost province of Austria
Austria
– voted by a large majority to join Switzerland; however, both the Swiss and the Allies disregarded this result.

New hand-drawn borders of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
in the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
and Saint Germain. (1919–1920)

New borders of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
after the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
and Saint Germain.   Border of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
in 1914   Borders in 1914   Borders in 1920    Empire
Empire
of Austria
Austria
in 1914   Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
in 1914    Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in 1914

After-WWI borders on an ethnic map)

Territorial legacy[edit]

Austria-Hungary

Kingdoms and countries of Austria-Hungary: Cisleithania
Cisleithania
( Empire
Empire
of Austria[6]): 1. Bohemia, 2. Bukovina, 3. Carinthia, 4. Carniola, 5. Dalmatia, 6. Galicia, 7. Küstenland, 8. Lower Austria, 9. Moravia, 10. Salzburg, 11. Silesia, 12. Styria, 13. Tyrol, 14. Upper Austria, 15. Vorarlberg; Transleithania
Transleithania
(Kingdom of Hungary[6]): 16. Hungary
Hungary
proper 17. Croatia-Slavonia; 18. Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(Austro-Hungarian condominium)

The following present-day countries and parts of countries were within the boundaries of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
when the empire was dissolved: Empire
Empire
of Austria
Austria
(Cisleithania):

Austria
Austria
(except Burgenland) Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(except the Hlučínsko area) Slovenia
Slovenia
(except Prekmurje) Italy
Italy
(Trentino, South Tyrol, parts of the province of Belluno and small portions of Friuli-Venezia Giulia) Croatia
Croatia
(Dalmatia, Istria) Poland
Poland
(voivodeships of Lesser Poland, Subcarpathia, southernmost part of Silesia
Silesia
(Bielsko and Cieszyn)) Ukraine
Ukraine
(oblasts of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ternopil (except its northern corner) and most of the oblast of Chernivtsi) Romania
Romania
(county of Suceava) Montenegro
Montenegro
(bay of Boka Kotorska, the coast and the immediate hinterland around the cities of Budva, Petrovac and Sutomore)

Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
(Transleithania):

Hungary; Slovakia Austria
Austria
(Burgenland) Slovenia
Slovenia
(Prekmurje) Croatia
Croatia
(Slavonia, Central Croatia, southern parts of the pre-1918 Baranya and Zala counties – today's Croatian part of Baranja
Baranja
and Međimurje county) Ukraine
Ukraine
(oblast of Zakarpattia) Romania
Romania
(region of Transylvania
Transylvania
and Partium) Serbia
Serbia
(autonomous province of Vojvodina
Vojvodina
and northern Belgrade
Belgrade
region) Poland
Poland
(Polish parts of Orava and Spiš) Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(the villages of Zavalje, Mali Skočaj
Mali Skočaj
and Veliki Skočaj
Veliki Skočaj
including the immediate surrounding area west of the city of Bihać)

Austro-Hungarian Condominium

Bosnia and Herzegovina Montenegro
Montenegro
( Sutorina
Sutorina
– western part of the Municipality of Herceg Novi between present borders with Croatia
Croatia
(SW) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (NW), Adriatic coast (E) and the township of Igalo (NE)) Sandžak-Raška region, Austro-Hungarian occupied 1878 until withdrawal in 1908 whilst formally part of the Ottoman Empire

Possessions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy

The empire was unable to gain and maintain large colonies owing to its geographical position. Its only possession outside of Europe was its concession in Tianjin, China, which it was granted in return for supporting the Eight- Nation Alliance in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion. However although the city was only an Austro-Hungarian possession for 16 years, the Austro- Hungarians
Hungarians
left their mark on that area of the city, in the form of architecture that still stands in the city.[187]

Other parts of Europe had been part of the Habsburg monarchy once but had left it before its dissolution in 1918. Prominent examples are the regions of Lombardy
Lombardy
and Veneto
Veneto
in Italy, Silesia
Silesia
in Poland, most of Belgium
Belgium
and Serbia, and parts of northern Switzerland
Switzerland
and southwestern Germany. They persuaded the government to search out foreign investment to build up infrastructure such as railroads. Despite these measures, Austria- Hungary
Hungary
remained resolutely monarchist and authoritarian. Flags and heraldry[edit] Flags[edit] See also: List of Austrian flags
List of Austrian flags
and Flag of Hungary Although Austria- Hungary
Hungary
did not have a common flag (a "national flag" could not exist since both halves of the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
consisted of inhabitants of various nationalities), a common civil ensign (introduced in 1869) did exist. Until 1918, the k.u.k. War Fleet continued to carry the Austrian ensign it had used since 1786; and the regiments of the k.u.k. Army carried the double-eagle flags they had used before 1867, as they had a long history in many cases. New ensigns created in 1915 had not been implemented until 1918 due to the war. At state functions, the Austrian black-yellow and the Hungarian red-white-green tricolor were used.

Naval ensign 1786–1918 and civil ensign 1786–1869

Civil ensign
Civil ensign
1869–1918

Naval ensign of 1915 (not implemented)

War ensign (not implemented)

Royal Hungarian maritime ensign

Austria
Austria
was represented by the black-yellow flag. The Hungarian half of the state, on the other hand, legally had no flag of its own.[188] According to the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
(art. 62 and 63), in all joint Croatian and Hungarian affairs symbols of both Croatia
Croatia
and Hungary
Hungary
respectively had to be used. For instance, whenever the joint Hungarian-Croatian Parliament
Parliament
held its session in Budapest, both the Croatian and Hungarian flags were hoisted on the parliament building in Budapest.[189][190][191] In Vienna, in front of Schönbrunn Palace, the black and yellow flag was flown for Cisleithania, while both Croatian and Hungarian flags were flown for Transleithania.[191] Hungary
Hungary
proper used a red-white-green tricolor defaced with the Hungarian coat of arms, sometimes used to represent the entirety of the Lands of the Hungarian Crown.

Flag of Imperial Austria
Austria
(Cisleithania) and of the House of Habsburg

Flag of Royal Hungary

Flag of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia

Coat of arms[edit] See also: Coat of arms of Austria-Hungary The double-headed eagle of the House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
was used as the coat of arms of the common institutions of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
between 1867 and 1915. In 1915, a new one was introduced, which combined the coat of arms of the two halves of the Dual Monarchy
Dual Monarchy
and that of the dynasty.

Common small coat of arms (until 1915)

Common small coat of arms (1915–1918)

Common medium coat of arms (until 1915)

Common medium coat of arms (1915–1918)

Additionally, each of the two parts of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
had its own coat of arms.

Small coat of arms of the Austrian part (1915–1918)

Medium coat of arms of the Austrian part (1915–1918)

Small coat of arms of the Hungarian part (1915–1918)

Medium coat of arms of the Hungarian part (1915–1918)

See also[edit]

Austria- Hungary
Hungary
portal

Aftermath of World War I Austrian nobility Corporative federalism, a form of administration adopted by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Diplomatic history of World War I Czech lands: 1867–1918 Ethnic composition of Austria-Hungary Former countries in Europe after 1815 Habsburg Monarchy Hungarian nobility United States
United States
of Greater Austria

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Citype – Internet – Portal
Portal
Betriebsges.m.b.H. "Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
k.u.k. Monarchy dual-monarchic Habsburg Emperors of Austria". Wien-vienna.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ Fisher, Gilman. The Essentials of Geography for School Year 1888–1889, p. 47. New England Publishing Company (Boston), 1888. Retrieved 20 August 2014. ^ From the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(1878), although note that this "Romani" refers to the language of those described by the EB as "Gypsies"; the EB's "Romani or Wallachian" refers to what is today known as Romanian; Rosyn and Ukrainian correspond to dialects of what the EB refers to as "Ruthenian"; and Yiddish was the common language of the Austrian Jews, although Hebrew was also known by many. ^ Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde, 1911, Tabelle 3. ^ see Concessions_in_Tianjin#Austro-Hungarian_concession_(1901–1917) ^ a b c d e f g  Headlam, James Wycliffe (1911). "Austria-Hungary". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 2–39.  ^ Schulze, Max-Stephan. Engineering and Economic Growth: The Development of Austria-Hungary's Machine-Building Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century, p. 295. Peter Lang (Frankfurt), 1996. ^ Publishers' Association, Booksellers Association of Great Britain and Ireland (1930). The Publisher, Volume 133. p. 355.  ^ Contributors: Austria. Österreichische konsularische Vertretungsbehörden im Ausland; Austrian Information Service, New York (1965). Austrian information. p. 17.  ^ Minahan, James. Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States, p. 48. ^ a b " Jayne, Kingsley Garland (1911). "Bosnia and Herzegovina". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 279–286.  ^ Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, Handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870–1914.- The Austrian occupation of Novibazar, 1878–1909 ^ "Imperial Gazette −1912". IGGIO Islamische Glaubensgemeinschaft in Osterreich. 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2014.  ^ a b "Who's Who – Emperor Franz Josef I". First World War.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "The kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
desired equal status with the Austrian empire, which was weakened by its defeat in the German (Austro-Prussian) War of 1866. The Austrian emperor Francis Joseph gave Hungary
Hungary
full internal autonomy, together with a responsible ministry, and in return it agreed that the empire should still be a single great state for purposes of war and foreign affairs, thus maintaining its dynastic prestige abroad." – Compromise of 1867, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007 ^ Roman, Eric (2009). Austria- Hungary
Hungary
and the Successor States: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. Infobase Publishing. p. 401. ISBN 9780816074693. Retrieved 1 January 2013.  ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica. 2003. ISBN 9780852299616. Retrieved 1 January 2013.  ^ Szávai, Ferenc Tibor. "Könyvszemle ( Book
Book
review): Kozári Monika: A dualista rendszer (1867–1918): Modern magyar politikai rendszerek". Magyar Tudomány (in Hungarian). p. 1542. Retrieved 20 July 2012.  ^ Szávai, Ferenc (2010). Osztrák–magyar külügyi ingatlanok hovatartozása a Monarchia felbomlása után (PDF) (in Hungarian). p. 598. [dead link] ^ Antun Radić, "Hrvatski pašuši (putnice)" Dom, 15 January 1903, page 11) ^ "In 1804 Emperor Franz assumed the title of Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
for all the Erblande of the dynasty and for the other Lands, including Hungary. Thus Hungary
Hungary
formally became part of the Empire
Empire
of Austria. The Court reassured the diet, however, that the assumption of the monarch’s new title did not in any sense affect the laws and the constitution of Hungary." Laszlo, Péter (2011), Hungary's Long Nineteenth Century: Constitutional and Democratic Traditions, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, the Netherlands, p. 6  ^ Éva H. Balázs: Hungary
Hungary
and the Habsburgs, 1765–1800: An Experiment in Enlightened Absolutism. p. 320. ^ Flandreau, Marc (April 2006). European Review of Economic History. 10. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–33. ASIN B00440PZZC. 1361–4916.  ^ a b c d e  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Briliant, Oscar (1911). "Hungary". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 900.  ^ Richard L. Rudolph: Banking and Industrialization
Industrialization
in Austria-Hungary: The Role of Banks in the Industrialization
Industrialization
of the Czech Crownlands, 1873–1914, Cambridge University Press, 2008 (page 17) ^ Cavallaro, Gaetano (2010). Disaster Ending in Final Victory: The Dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Gaetano Cavallaro. p. 201.  ^ Higham, Robin D. S.; Showalter, Dennis E. (2003). Researching World War I: A Handbook. Greenwood. p. 130.  ^  Kay, David (1878). "Austria". In Baynes, T.S. Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 116–141.  ^ Kann (1974); Sked (1989); Taylor (1964) ^ a b c d Kann 1974 ^ a b c d Taylor 1964 ^ Günther Kronenbitter: "Krieg im Frieden". Die Führung der k.u.k. Armee und die Großmachtpolitik Österreich-Ungarns 1906–1914. Verlag Oldenbourg, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-486-56700-4, p. 150 ^ Kann, A History of the Habsburg Empire: 1526–1918 (1974) ^ a b Sked 1989 ^ "Austrian Empire" article of Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 ^ "Analysis: Austria's troubled history". BBC News. 3 February 2000.  ^ Gary B. Cohen (2006). The Politics of Ethnic Survival: Germans in Prague, 1861–1914. Purdue University Press. p. 53.  ^ Aviel Roshwald (2002). Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914–23. Taylor & Francis. p. 116.  ^ " Slovakia
Slovakia
Hungary
Hungary
Relations in the European Union" (PDF). Suedosteuropa-gesellschaft.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  ^ "Staatsgrundgesetz über die allgemeinen Rechte und Staatsbürger für die im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreiche und Länder (1867)". Verfassungen.de. Retrieved 24 March 2012.  ^ Headlam 1911, p. 39. ^ Budisavljević, Srđan, Stvaranje-Države-SHS, Creation of the state of SHS, Zagreb, 1958, p. 132.-133. ^ Vital, David (1999). A People Apart: A Political History of the Jews in Europe 1789-1939. Oxford University Press. p. 299. ISBN 0198219806.  ^ Rothenberg 1976, p. 118. ^ Rothenberg 1976, p. 128. ^ David S. Wyman, Charles H. Rosenzveig: The World Reacts to the Holocaust. (page: 474) ^ " Hungary
Hungary
– Social Changes". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  ^ F.R. Bridge, From Sadowa to Sarajevo: The Foreign Policy of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
1866–1914 (1972) ^ Hans A. Schmitt, "Count Beust and Germany, 1866–1870: Reconquest, Realignment, or Resignation?" Central European History (1968) 1#1 p. 20–34 in JSTOR ^ William L. Langer, European Alliances and Alignments: 1871–1890 (2nd ed. 1950) p. 20 ^ Langer, European Alliances and Alignments: 1871–1890 pp. 138, 155–6, 163 ^ Barcsay, Thomas (1991). "Banking in Hungarian Economic Development, 1867–1919" (PDF). Ryeson Polytechnical Institute. p. 216. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2016.  ^ Peter F. Sugar, Péter Hanák: A History of Hungary
Hungary
(Publisher: Indiana University Press) Page: 262 ^ Good, David. The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire ^ Max-Stephan Schulze (1996). Engineering and Economic Growth: The Development of Austria-Hungary's Machine-Building Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. p. 80.  ^ Commercial Relations of the United States: Reports from the Consuls of the United States
United States
on the Commerce, Manufactures, Etc., of Their Consular Districts. Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1881 (page: 371) ^ Berend, Iván T. (2013). Case Studies on Modern European Economy: Entrepreneurship, Inventions, and Institutions. Routledge. p. 151.  ^ Max-Stephan Schulze (1996). Engineering and Economic Growth: The Development of Austria-Hungary's Machine-Building Industry in the Late Nineteenth Century. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. p. 295.  ^ Erik Eckermann: World History of the Automobile – Page 325 ^ Hans Seper: Die Brüder Gräf: Geschichte der Gräf & Stift-Automobile ^ "Václav Laurin a Václav Klement" (in Czech). Archived from the original on 1 June 2004.  ^ Kurt Bauer (2003), Faszination des Fahrens: unterwegs mit Fahrrad, Motorrad und Automobil (in German), Böhlau Verlag Wien, Kleine Enzyklopädie des Fahrens, "Lohner", pp. 250–1 ^ Iván Boldizsár: NHQ; the New Hungarian Quarterly – Volume 16, Issue 2; Volume 16, Issues 59–60 – Page 128 ^ Hungarian Technical Abstracts: Magyar Műszaki Lapszemle – Volumes 10–13 – Page 41 ^ Joseph H. Wherry: Automobiles of the World: The Story of the Development of the Automobile, with Many Rare Illustrations from a Score of Nations (Page:443) ^ "The history of the biggest pre-War Hungarian car maker".  ^ Commerce Reports Volume 4, page 223 (printed in 1927) ^ G.N. Georgano: The New Encyclopedia of Motorcars, 1885 to the Present. S. 59. ^ "Edvard Rusjan, Pioneer of Slovene Aviation". Republic of Slovenia – Government Communication Office. Retrieved 13 April 2015.  ^ http://mek.oszk.hu/02100/02185/html/812.html ^ The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA): History of Flight from Around the World: Hungary
Hungary
article. ^ Mária Kovács: Short History Of Hungarian Aviation ^ Puskel Péter. "Az aradi autógyártás sikertörténetéből". NyugatiJelen.com. Retrieved 2016-04-09.  ^ Czechoslovak Foreign Trade, Volume 29. Rapid, Czechoslovak Advertising Agency. 1989. p. 6.  ^ Iron Age, Volume 85, Issue 1. Chilton Company. 1910. pp. 724–725.  ^ "Hipo Hipo – Kálmán Kandó(1869–1931)". Sztnh.gov.hu. 29 January 2004. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ Stephen Broadberry; Kevin H. O'Rourke (2010). The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 80. ISBN 9781139489515.  ^ Mikulas Teich, Roy Porter: The Industrial Revolution in National Context: Europe and the USA (page: 266.) ^ Iván T. Berend (2003). History Derailed: Central and Eastern Europe in the Long Nineteenth Century (in Hungarian). University of California Press. p. 152. ISBN 9780520232990.  ^ Tramways in Austria: Book: Buckley, Richard (2000). Tramways and Light Railways of Switzerland
Switzerland
and Austria
Austria
(2nd edition), pp. 129–135 ISBN 0948106271. ^ Tramways in Czech Republic: Book: Jan Vinař : Historické krovy (page 351) ^ Tramways in Poland
Poland
(including Galicia), Book: Arkadiusz Kołoś, Uniwersytet Jagielloński. Instytut Geografii i Gospodarki Przestrzennej: Rozwój przestrzenny a współczesne funkcjonowanie miejskiego transportu szynowego w Polsce (page: 19) ^ History of Public Transport in Hungary. Book: Zsuzsa Frisnyák: A magyarországi közlekedés krónikája, 1750–2000 ^ Tramways in Croatia: Book: Vlado Puljiz, Gojko Bežovan, Teo Matković, dr. Zoran Šućur, Siniša Zrinščak: Socijalna politika Hrvatske ^ "Trams and Tramways in Romania
Romania
– Timișoara, Arad, Bucharest". beyondtheforest.com.  ^ Tramways in Slovakia: Book: Július Bartl: Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon – p. 112 ^ István Tisza
Tisza
and László Kovács: A magyar állami, magán- és helyiérdekű vasúttársaságok fejlődése 1876–1900 között, Magyar Vasúttörténet 2. kötet. Budapest: Közlekedési Dokumentációs Kft., 58–59, 83–84. o. ISBN 9635523130 (1996)(English: The development of Hungarian private and state owned commuter railway companies between 1876 – 1900, Hungarian railway History Volume II. ^ Kogan Page: Europe Review 2003/2004, fifth edition, Wolden Publishing Ltd, 2003, page 174 ^ "The History of BKV, Part 1". Bkv.hu. 22 November 1918. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. " UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre – World Heritage Committee Inscribes 9 New Sites on the World Heritage List". whc.unesco.org.  ^ Žmuc, Irena (2010). "Sustained Interest". In Županek, Bernarda. Emona: Myth and Reality (PDF). Museum and Galleries of Ljubljana; City Museum of Ljubljana. p. 63. ISBN 9789616509206.  ^ Iván Wisnovszky, Study trip to the Danube
Danube
Bend, Hydraulic Documentation and Information Centre, 1971, p. 13 ^ Victor-L. Tapie, The Rise and Fall of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
p. 267 ^ "Deutschlandfunk – Essay und Diskurs". Dradio.de. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ Sue Swiggum (3 May 2008). "Unione Austriaca (Austro-Americana) / Cosulich Line". Theshipslist.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ " Baron
Baron
Gautsch". Members.dame.at. 16 June 1908. Archived from the original on 30 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ "Österreichischer Lloyd". Aeiou.at. 31 July 2001. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ "Wörthersee Schifffahrt". Archived from the original on 28 March 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2016.  ^ "DDSG Blue Danube
Danube
GmbH". Ddsg-blue-danube.at. 13 November 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ Paula Sutter Fichtner: Historical Dictionary of Austria
Austria
(p. 69) ^ a b "Google Drive – Megtekintő". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 25 March 2013. [dead link] ^ "Telegraph Vienna-Zagreb" (in Croatian). Retrieved 11 March 2016.  ^ Kiesewetter, Herbert: Industrielle Revolution in Deutschland. Regionen als Wachstumsmotoren. Stuttgart, Franz Steiner 2004, ISBN 3515086137, p. 246. ^ "Telegráf – Lexikon ::". Kislexikon.hu. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ a b Dániel Szabó, Zoltán Fónagy, István Szathmári, Tünde Császtvay: Kettős kötődés : Az Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia (1867–1918)[1] ^ Museum of Moslavina Kutina, Jasmina Uroda Kutlić: 'Telefon – čudo Novoga vijeka' (Telephone the miracle of Modern era) ^ "125 godina telefonije u Hrvatskoj (125 years of Telephony in Croatia)" (in Croatian). Retrieved 11 March 2016.  ^ HT Muzej (Croatian Telecom Museum): '125 godina telefonije u Hrvatskoj' (125 years of Telephony in Croatia), Zagreb
Zagreb
2006., P.-2, ^ Telephone History Institute: Telecom History – Issue 1 – Page 14 ^ Thomas Derdak, Adéle Hast: International Directory of Company Histories – Volume 5 – Page 315 ^ See the above cited book: Stephen Broadberry and Kevin H. O'Rourke: The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present, page: 80 ^ Brousek; Karl M.: Die Großindustrie Böhmens 1848–1918, München: Oldenbourg 1987, ISBN 9783486518719, p. 31. ^ "The Austrian Occupation of Novibazar, 1878–1909". Mtholyoke.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-09.  ^ A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
1809–1918, 1948. ^ Anstalt G. Freytag & Berndt (1911). Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an der österreichischen Mittelschulen. Vienna: K. u. k. Hof-Kartographische. Census December 31st 1910  ^ A magyar szent korona országainak 1910. évi népszámlálása. Első rész. A népesség főbb adatai (in Hungarian). Budapest: Magyar Kir. Központi Statisztikai Hivatal (KSH). 1912.  ^ Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde, 1911, Tabelle 3. ^  Wolfsgruber, Cölestin (1907). "Austro-Hungarian Monarchy". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ 1910. évi népszámlálás adatai. (Magyar Statisztikai Közlemények, Budapest, 1912. pp 30–33) ^ Kogutowicz Károly, Hermann Győző: Zsebatlasz: Naptárral és statisztikai adatokkal az 1914. évre. Magyar Földrajzi Intézet R. T., Budapest
Budapest
1913, S. 69, 105. ^ a b "Donaumonarchie Österreich-Ungarn". Donaumonarchie.com. Retrieved 19 November 2013.  ^ Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
article of E. Britannica 1911 ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Headlam, James Wycliffe (1911b). "Austria-Hungary". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 3.  ^ Headlam 1911b, p. 4. ^ Rene Albrecht-Carrie, A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(1973) CH 6 ^ Wheatcroft, Andrew. The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe, p. 264.  ^ a b c d e f g "Britannica". Britannica. Retrieved 24 March 2012.  ^ WebCite query result ^ Rene Albrecht-Carrie, A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(1973) pp 201–14 ^ "The Austrian Occupation of Novibazar, 1878–1909". Mount HolyOak. Retrieved 24 March 2012.  ^ Rene Albrecht-Carrie, A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(1973) ch 8 ^ Rene Albrecht-Carrie, A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
(1973) pp 259–72 ^ Jeffrey Finestone; Robert K. Massie (1981). The last courts of Europe. Dent. p. 247.  ^ David James Smith (2010). One Morning In Sarajevo. Hachette UK. He was photographed on the way to the station and the photograph has been reproduced many times in books and articles, claiming to depict the arrest of Gavrilo Princip. But there is no photograph of Gavro's arrest – this photograph shows the arrest of Behr.  ^ "European powers maintain focus despite killings in Sarajevo — History.com This Day in History — 6/30/1914". History.com. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ Dimitrije Djordjević; Richard B. Spence (1992). Scholar, patriot, mentor: historical essays in honor of Dimitrije Djordjević. East European Monographs. p. 313. ISBN 9780880332170. Following the assassination of Franz Ferdinand in June 1914, Catholic Croats
Croats
and Muslims
Muslims
in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
joined forces in an anti-Serb pogrom.  ^ Reports Service: Southeast Europe series. American Universities Field Staff. 1964. p. 44. Retrieved 7 December 2013. ... the assassination was followed by officially encouraged anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo ...  ^ Daniela Gioseffi (1993). On Prejudice: A Global Perspective. Anchor Books. p. 246. ISBN 9780385469388. Retrieved 2 September 2013. ... Andric describes the " Sarajevo
Sarajevo
frenzy of hate" that erupted among Muslims, Roman Catholics, and Orthodox believers following the assassination on June 28, 1914, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo ...  ^ Andrej Mitrović (2007). Serbia's Great War, 1914–1918. Purdue University Press. p. 19. ISBN 9781557534774. Retrieved 7 December 2013.  ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 485

The Bosnian wartime militia (Schutzkorps), which became known for its persecution of Serbs, was overwhelmingly Muslim.

^ John R. Schindler (2007). Unholy Terror: Bosnia, Al-Qa'ida, and the Rise of Global Jihad. Zenith Imprint. p. 29. ISBN 9781616739645.  ^ Velikonja 2003, p. 141 ^ Herbert Kröll (28 February 2008). Austrian-Greek encounters over the centuries: history, diplomacy, politics, arts, economics. Studienverlag. p. 55. ISBN 9783706545266. Retrieved 1 September 2013. ... arrested and interned some 5.500 prominent Serbs
Serbs
and sentenced to death some 460 persons, a new Schutzkorps, an auxiliary militia, widened the anti-Serb repression.  ^ William Jannen: Lions of July: Prelude to War, 1914 – PAGE:456 ^ David G. Herrmann: The Arming of Europe and the Making of the First World War, p. 211, Princeton University Press, (1997) ISBN 9780691015958 ^ Fischer, Fritz: Germany’s Aims in the First World War, New York, W.W. Norton, 1967, ISBN 9780393097986, p. 52 ^ "First World War.com – Who's Who – Count Istvan Tisza
Istvan Tisza
de Boros-Jeno". firstworldwar.com.  ^ Source: Ladislaus Count von Szögyény-Marich (Berlin) to Leopold Count von Berchtold (July 5, 1914), in Ludwig Bittner, et. al., eds., Österreich-Ungarns Aussenpolitik von der Bosnischen Krise 1908 bis zum Kriegsausbruch 1914 [Austria-Hungary’s Foreign Policy prior to the Bosnian Crisis of 1908 up to the Outbreak of War in 1914]. 8 vols, Vienna, 1930, vol. 8, no. 10,058. ^ Primary Documents: Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia, 23 July 1914 Updated on 24 May 2003 ^ Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 pp. 420–30 (2013) ^ A. F. Pribram, Austrian Foreign Policy, 1908–18 (1923) pp 68–128. ^ Z.A.B. Zeman, A diplomatic history of the First World War (1971) pp 121–61. ^ Stevenson, The First World War and International Politics (1988) pp 139–48. ^ David Stevenson, "The failure of peace by negotiation in 1917." Historical Journal 34#1 (1991): 65–86. ^ Edward P. Keleher, "Emperor Karl and the Sixtus Affair: Politico-Nationalist Repercussions in the Reich German and Austro-German Camps, and the Disintegration of Habsburg Austria, 1916–1918." East European Quarterly 26.2 (1992): 163+. ^ Alexander Watson, Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria- Hungary
Hungary
at War, 1914–1918 (2014). pp 536–40. ^ Max-Stephan Schulze, "Austria-Hungary's economy in World War I," in Stephen Broadberry and Mark Harrison, eds. The Economics of World War I (2005) ch 3 online[permanent dead link] ^ Robert A. Kann, et al. eds. The Habsburg Empire
Empire
in World War I: Essays on the Intellectual, Military, Political and Economic Aspects of the Habsburg War Effort (1977) ^ Mowat, C.L. (1968). The new cambridge modern history. volume xii. (CUP Archive)London: Cambridge University Press. p. 479. ISBN 0521045517.  ^ Andreas Kappeler (2014). The Russian Empire: A Multi-ethnic History. Routledge. p. 287. ISBN 9781317568100.  ^ Sima M. Cirkovic (2008). The Serbs
Serbs
Volume 10 of The Peoples of Europe. John Wiley & Sons. p. 235. ISBN 9781405142915.  ^ Marius Rotar (2013). History of Modern Cremation in Romania. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 9781443845427.  ^ Stephen Broadberry; Kevin H. O'Rourke (2010). The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Europe: Volume 2, 1870 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 70. ISBN 9781139489515.  ^ David Stevenson (2011). With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918. Harvard University Press. p. 399. ISBN 9780674063198.  ^ Maureen Healy, Vienna
Vienna
and the Fall of the Habsburg Empire: Total War and Everyday Life in World War I
World War I
(2007) ^ Schulze, "Austria-Hungary's economy in World War I," ^ Ivo Banac, "'Emperor Karl Has Become a Comitadji': The Croatian Disturbances of Autumn 1918." Slavonic and East European Review 70#2 (1992): 284–305. ^ Spencer Tucker (1996). "The European Powers in the First World War". p. 173.  ^ Alexander Watson, Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria- Hungary
Hungary
in World War I
World War I
(2014), excerpt ^ "French forces occupy Corfu — History.com This Day in History — 1/11/1916". History.com. Retrieved 11 September 2011.  ^ John R. Schindler, Isonzo: The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War (2001) ^ Gaetano V. Cavallaro (2010). The Beginning of Futility: Diplomatic, Political, Military and Naval Events on the Austro-Italian Front in the First World War 1914–1917 I. p. 339. ISBN 9781401084264. ^ Pier Paolo Cervone, Vittorio Veneto, l'ultima battaglia, Milano, Mursia, 1993. ^ Indro Montanelli; Mario Cervi, Due secoli di guerre, VII, Novara, Editoriale Nuova, 1981. ^ Glenn E. Torrey, Romania
Romania
and World War I
World War I
(Histria Books, 1998) ^ Watson, Ring of Steel p 396-97 ^ See: 1910 census ^ Buranbaeva, Oksana; Mladineo, Vanja (2011). Culture and Customs of Hungary, Cultures and Customs of the World. Bonn, Germany: ABC-CLIO. p. 32. ISBN 9780313383700.  ^ Alexander Watson, Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria- Hungary
Hungary
in World War I
World War I
(2014), p 536 ^ Watson, Ring of Steel pp 536–40 ^ Watson, Ring of Steel pp 541–2 ^ "Hungarian foreign ministers from 1848 to our days". Mfa.gov.hu. Archived from the original on 21 June 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2016.  ^ Watson, Ring of Steel pp 542–56 ^ "Die amtliche Meldung über den Rücktritt" (in German). Neue Freie Presse, Morgenblatt. 1919-08-24. p. 2.  ^ "Trianon, Treaty of". The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2012. Archived from the original on 28 December 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2016.  ^ Tucker, Spencer; Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). Encyclopedia of World War I
World War I
(1 ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 1183. ISBN 9781851094202. Virtually the entire population of what remained of Hungary
Hungary
regarded the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
as manifestly unfair, and agitation for revision began immediately.  ^ For more information about the Austro-Hungarian concession, see: Concessions in Tianjin#Austro-Hungarian concession (1901–1917). ^ Croatian-Hungarian Settlement

62. The emblem of the Joint Affairs of the territories of the Hungarian Crown is formed by the combined arms of Hungary
Hungary
and of Croatia, Slavonia
Slavonia
and Dalmatia.

^ Croatian-Hungarian Settlement

63. At times when Joint Affairs are being debated, the combined Croatian-Slavonia-Dalmatian flag is to be hoisted beside the Hungarian flag, upon the building in which the Joint Parliament
Parliament
of the territories of the Hungarian Crown is being held.

^ Austria. Reichsrat. Abgeordnetenhaus (1903). Stenographische protokolle über die sitzungen ...: 1. (eröffnungs-) bis [485.] sitzung ... Aus der K.-k. Hof -und staatsdruckerei. p. 20714. :

Der § 63 spricht auch von einer kroatisch-slavonisch-dalmatinischen vereinigten Fahne auf Reichstagsgebäude. Diese Fahne war bis anno domini 1902 allen Dimensionen nach gleich ungarische Fahne.

^ a b Pliverić, Josip (1907). Spomenica o državnopravnih pitanjih hrvatsko-ugarskih. Zagreb: Hartman (Stjepan Kugli). , p. 50

Further reading[edit] Surveys[edit]

Cornwall, Mark, ed. The Last Years of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
University of Exeter Press, 2002. ISBN 0-85989-563-7 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(12th ed. 1922) comprises the 11th edition plus three new volumes 30–31–32 that cover events since 1911 with very thorough coverage of the war as well as every country and colony. partly online

Full text of vol 30 ABBE to ENGLISH HISTORY online free; the article "Austrian Empire" is vol 30 pp 313–343

Evans, R.J.W. Austria, Hungary, and the Habsburgs: Central Europe c.1683–1867 (2008) doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199541621.001.0001 online Herman, Arthur. What Life Was Like: At Empire's End : Austro-Hungarian Empire
Empire
1848–1918 (Time Life, 2000); heavily illustrated Judson, Pieter M. The Habsburg Empire: A New History (2016) excerpt Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire: 1526–1918 (U of California Press, 1974); highly detailed history; emphasis on ethnicity Macartney, Carlile Aylmer The Habsburg Empire, 1790–1918, New York, Macmillan 1969. Oakes, Elizabeth and Eric Roman. Austria- Hungary
Hungary
and the Successor States: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present (2003) Palmer, Alan. Twilight of the Habsburgs: The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1995. ISBN 0871136651 Redlich, Joseph. Emperor Francis Joseph Of Austria. New York: Macmillan, 1929. online free Sked Alan The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815–1918, London: Longman, 1989. Steed, Henry Wickham; et al. (1914). A short history of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
and Poland.  Sugar, Peter F. et al. eds. A History of Hungary
Hungary
(1990), coverage by experts Taylor, A.J.P. The Habsburg monarchy, 1809–1918: a history of the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and Austria-Hungary, (London: Penguin Books. 2nd ed. 1964); politics and diplomacy

World war[edit]

Boyer, John W. "Silent war and bitter peace: the revolution of 1918 in Austria." Austrian History Yearbook 34 (2003): 1–56. Cornwall, Mark. "News, Rumour and the Control of Information in Austria‐Hungary, 1914–1918." History 77#249 (1992): 50–64. Cornwall, Mark. The undermining of Austria-Hungary: the battle for hearts and minds (London: Macmillan, 2000) Craig, Gordon A. "The World War I
World War I
alliance of the Central Powers
Central Powers
in retrospect: the military cohesion of the alliance." Journal of Modern History (1965): 336–344. in JSTOR Healy, Maureen. Vienna
Vienna
and the Fall of the Habsburg Empire: Total War and Everyday Life in World War I
World War I
(2007) Herweg, Holger H. The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914–1918 (2009) Jászi, Oszkár The Dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy, (University of Chicago Press, 1966) Kann, Robert A. et al., eds. The Habsburg Empire
Empire
in World War I: Essays on the Intellectual, Military, Political and Economic Aspects of the Habsburg War Effort (1977) online borrowing copy Kapp, Richard W. "Divided Loyalties: The German Reich and Austria- Hungary
Hungary
in Austro-German Discussions of War Aims, 1914–1916." Central European History 17#2–3 (1984): 120–139. Schulze, Max-Stephan. "Austria-Hungary's economy in World War I," in Stephen Broadberry and Mark Harrison, eds. The Economics of World War I (2005) ch 3 online[permanent dead link] Watson, Alexander. Ring of Steel: Germany and Austria- Hungary
Hungary
in World War I (2014) Wawro, Geoffrey. A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I
World War I
and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire
Empire
(2014) Williamson, Samuel R. Austria- Hungary
Hungary
and the Origins of the First World War (1991)

Specialty topics[edit]

Agnew, Hugh LeCaine. Origins of the Czech National Renascence (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993) Bassett, Richard. For God and Kaiser: The Imperial Austrian Army, 1619–1918 (2016). Boyer, John W. Culture and political crisis in Vienna: Christian socialism in power, 1897–1918 (1995) Bridge, F.R. From Sadowa to Sarajevo: The Foreign Policy of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
1866–1914 (1972; reprint 2016) online review; excerpt Good, David. The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire: 1750–1914 (1984) Kieval, Hillel. The Making of Czech Jewry: National Conflict and Jewish
Jewish
Society in Bohemia, 1870–1918 (Oxford University Press, 1988) King, Jeremy. Budweisers into Czechs
Czechs
and Germans: A Local History of Bohemian Politics, 1848–1948 (Princeton University Press, 2002) Langer, William L. (1956). European Alliances and Alignments (2nd ed.).  detailed coverage of major diplomatic moves McCagg, Jr., William O. A History of the Habsburg Jews, 1670–1918 (Indiana University Press, 1989) Milward, Alan S. and S. B. Saul. The Development of the Economies of Continental Europe: 1850–1914 (1977) pp 271–331 Milward, Alan S. and S. B. Saul. The Economic Development of Continental Europe 1780–1870 (2nd ed. 1979), 552pp Phelps, Nicole M. U.S.-Habsburg Relations from 1815 to the Paris Peace Conference (2013) online review Rothenberg, Gunther E. (1976), The Army of Francis Joseph, Purdue University Press  Rothenberg, E. Gunther. "Nobility and Military Careers: The Habsburg Officer Corps, 1740–1914," Military Affairs (1976) 40#4 pp. 182–186 in JSTOR Rothenberg, E. Gunther. "The Austrian Army in the Age of Metternich," Journal of Modern History (1968) 40#2 pp. 155–165 in JSTOR Rothenberg, E. Gunther. "Toward a National Hungarian Army: The Military Compromise of 1868 and Its Consequences," Slavic Review, (1972) 31#4 pp. 805–816 in JSTOR Stauter-Halsted, Keely. The Nation in the Village: The Genesis of Peasant National Identity in Austrian Poland, 1848–1914 (Cornell University Press, 2001) Sugar, Peter F. (1994). A History of Hungary. et al. (2nd ed.). Indiana University Press. 

Primary sources[edit]

Baedeker, Karl. Austria-Hungary: Including Dalmatia
Dalmatia
and Bosnia; Handbook for Travellers (1905) online Gooch, G. P. Recent Revelations Of European Diplomacy
Diplomacy
(1940), pp 103–59 summarizes memoirs of major participants

Historiography and memory[edit]

Boyd, Kelly, ed. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writers (Rutledge, 1999) 1:60–63, historiography Kozuchowski, Adam. The Afterlife of Austria-Hungary: The Image of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
in Interwar Europe (University of Pittsburgh Press; 2013) 208 pages; Translation of a Polish study of cultural memories of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
as seen in histories, journalism, and literature. Kwan, Jonathan. "Review Article: Nationalism and all that: Reassessing the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and its legacy." European History Quarterly 41#1 (2011): 88–108.

In German[edit]

Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an der österreichischen Mittelschulen. (ed.: Rudolf Rothaug), K. u. k. Hof-Kartographische Anstalt G. Freytag & Berndt, Vienna, 1911.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Austria-Hungary.

Articles relating to Austria- Hungary
Hungary
at the International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Habsburg Empire
Empire
Austrian line Microsoft Encarta: The height of the dual monarchy (Archived 31 October 2009) The Austro-Hungarian Military Heraldry of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria- Hungary
Hungary
at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 12 January 2008) – extensive list of heads of state, ministers, and ambassadors History of Austro-Hungarian currency Austria-Hungary, Dual Monarchy The Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
in the Italian Dolomites (in Italian) Map of Europe and the collapse of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
at omniatlas.com Mangham, Arthur Neal. The Social Bases of Austrian Politics: The German Electoral Districts of Cisleithania, 1900–1914. Ph.D. thesis 1974 Austro-Hungarian Land Forces 1848–1918 HABSBURG is a email discussion list dealing with the culture and history of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and its successor states in central Europe since 1500, with discussions, syllabi, book reviews, queries, conferences; edited daily by scholars since 1994

v t e

Subdivisions of Austria-Hungary

Cisleithania

Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of Bohemia Duchy of Bukovina Duchy of Carinthia Duchy of Carniola Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Austrian Littoral

Gorizia
Gorizia
and Gradisca Istria Trieste

Margraviate of Moravia Duchy of Salzburg Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia Duchy of Styria County of Tyrol

Transleithania

Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Fiume
Fiume
and its surroundings Military Frontier
Military Frontier
(1867–1882)

Condominiums

Province of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1878–1918) Sanjak of Novi Pazar
Sanjak of Novi Pazar
(1878–1908) Carpathian passes (1918) Concession zone in Tianjin (1901–1917)

v t e

Elections in the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and in Austria-Hungary

Cisleithania

1848 1867 1871–72 1873 1879 1885 1891 1897 1900–01 1907 1911

Transleithania

1848 1861 1865 1869 1872 1875 1878 1881 1884 1887 1892 1896 1901 1905 1906 1910

Croatia-Slavonia

1865 1867 1871 1872 1878 1881 1883 1884 1887 1892 1897 1901 1906 1908 1910 1911 1913

Dalmatia

1861 1864 1867 1870 1876 1883 1889 1895 1901 1908

Bosnia and Herzegovina

1910

v t e

Military of Austria-Hungary

Army

Austro-Hungarian Army Common Army Imperial Austrian Landwehr Privilegiertes uniformiertes Grazer Bürgerkorps Royal Hungarian Honvéd Royal Croatian Home Guard

42nd Inf. Division

First Army Rank insignia Military Intelligence Weaponry Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
Infantry Alpine companies Kaiserjäger Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
Mountain Troops Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
Dragoons Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
Hussars Imperial and Royal
Imperial and Royal
Uhlans Standschützen

Navy

K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Ranks Battleships Cruisers U-Boats

Air Force

K.u.K. Luftfahrtruppen

Aircraft

Ministers for War

Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Freiherr von John Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Kuhn Freiherr Kuhn von Kuhnenfeld General der Kavallerie Alexander Freiherr von Koller Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Arthur Maximilian Graf
Graf
Bylandt-Rheydt (der Ältere) Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Ferdinand Freiherr Bauer Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Rudolf Freiherr Merkl General der Kavallerie Edmund Freiherr von Krieghammer Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Heinrich Ritter
Ritter
von Pitreich General der Infanterie Franz Freiherr Schönaich General der Infanterie Moritz Ritter
Ritter
Auffenberg von Komarów Feldmarschall
Feldmarschall
Alexander Freiherr von Krobatin Generaloberst
Generaloberst
Rudolf Stöger-Steiner von Steinstätten

Commanders

Archduke Eugen of Austria Franz Rohr von Denta Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli Svetozar Boroević Archduke Joseph August of Austria Franz Böhme Josip Jelačić Günther Burstyn Georg Dragičević Karol Durski-Trzaska Gheorghe Flondor Tadeusz Jordan-Rozwadowski Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria Rudolf Maister Artur Phleps Oskar Potiorek Alfred Redl Maximilian Ronge Viktor Dankl von Krasnik Viktor Graf
Graf
von Scheuchenstuel Stjepan Sarkotić Gottfried Freiherr von Banfield Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria Miklós Horthy Franz von Keil Giovanni Luppis Georg von Trapp Janko Vuković

Commanders-in-Chief of the Navy

VAdm. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff VAdm. Friedrich Freiherr von Pöck VAdm. Maximilian Daublebsky Freiherr von Sterneck VAdm. Hermann Freiherr von Spaun VAdm. Rudolf Graf/Conte Montecuccoli Grand Adm. Anton Haus Adm. Maximilian Njegovan Adm. Miklós Horthy

Heads of the Naval Section

VAdm. Wilhelm von Tegetthoff VAdm. Friedrich Freiherr von Pöck VAdm. Maximilian Daublebsky Freiherr von Sterneck VAdm. Hermann Freiherr von Spaun VAdm. Rudolf Graf/Conte Montecuccoli Grand Adm. Anton Haus Adm. Karl Kailer von Kaltenfels Adm. Maximilian Njegovan RAdm Franz von Holub

Chiefs of the General Staff

Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Josef Wilhelm Freiher von Gallina Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Franz Freiherr von John Feldmarschalleutnant
Feldmarschalleutnant
Anton Freiherr von Schönfeld Feldzeugmeister
Feldzeugmeister
Friedrich Graf
Graf
von Beck-Rzikowsky Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf Generalmajor Blasius Schemua General der Infanterie Arthur Arz von Straußenburg

Commanders-in-Chief of the Army

Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen Francis Joseph I Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen Charles I Hermann Kövess von Kövessháza

Supreme Commanders

Francis Joseph I Charles I

v t e

Historical development of Hungary

← Kingdom of Hungary (1686–1867)

← Austrian Empire

Hungary
Hungary
→ (1918–)

Austria
Austria
→ (1918–)

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
→ (1918–1993)

State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs→ (1918)

Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
as part of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
(Transleithania)

v t e

Empires

Ancient

Akkadian Egyptian Assyrian Babylonian Carthaginian Chinese

Qin Han Jin Northern Wei Tang

Hellenistic

Macedonian Seleucid

Hittite Indian

Nanda Maurya Satavahana Shunga Gupta Harsha

Iranian

Elamite Median Achaemenid Parthian Sasanian

Kushan Mongol

Xianbei Xiongnu

Roman

Western Eastern

Teotihuacan

Post-classical

Arab

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Fatimid Córdoba

Aragonese Angevin Aztec Benin Bornu Bruneian Bulgarian

First Second

Byzantine

Nicaea Trebizond

Carolingian Chinese

Sui Tang Song Yuan

Ethiopian

Zagwe Solomonic

Georgian Hunnic Inca Indian

Chola Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Eastern Ganga dynasty Delhi Vijayanagara

Iranian

Samanid

Kanem Khmer Latin Majapahit Malaccan Mali Mongol

Yuan Golden Horde Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate

Moroccan

Idrisid Almoravid Almohad Marinid

North Sea Oyo Roman Serbian Somali

Ajuran Ifatite Adalite Mogadishan Warsangali

Songhai Srivijaya Tibetan Turko-Persian

Ghaznavid Great Seljuk Khwarezmian Timurid

Vietnamese

Ly Tran Le

Wagadou

Modern

Ashanti Austrian Austro-Hungarian Brazilian Central African Chinese

Ming Qing China Manchukuo

Ethiopian French

First Second

German

First/Old Reich Second Reich Third Reich

Haitian

First Second

Indian

Maratha Sikh Mughal British Raj

Iranian

Safavid Afsharid

Japanese Johor Korean Mexican

First Second

Moroccan

Saadi Alaouite

Russian USSR Somali

Gobroon Majeerteen Hobyo Dervish

Swedish Tongan Turkish

Ottoman Karaman Ramazan

Vietnamese

Tay Son Nguyen Vietnam

Colonial

American Belgian British

English

Danish Dutch French German Italian Japanese Omani Norwegian Portuguese Spanish Swedish

Lists

Empires

largest

ancient great powers medieval great powers modern great powers

v t e

Austria articles

History

Margraviate of Austria Duchy of Austria Archduchy of Austria Habsburg Monarchy Siege of Vienna Austrian Empire March Constitution of Austria Congress of Vienna Austria-Hungary German Austria First Austrian Republic Austrian Civil War Federal State of Austria Austrofascism Anschluss Ostmark Allied-administered Austria History of Vienna Military history of Austria

Geography

Administrative divisions Cities Districts Lakes Mountains Rivers States

Politics

Constitution Elections Foreign relations Government Human rights Law

enforcement

LGBT rights Legal system Military Parliament Political parties

Economy

Agriculture Banking Companies Energy Mining Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transport

Society

Austrian people Crime Demographics Education Ethnic groups Health care Languages Religion

Culture

Architecture Cinema Coat of arms Cuisine Flag Literature Media Museums Music National anthem Public holidays Sport

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

v t e

Former monarchies

List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 20th and 21st centuries List of monarchs who lost their thrones in the 19th century

Africa

Ethiopia Libya Tunisia Egypt Madagascar South Africa Burundi Central Africa Zanzibar Ghana Nigeria Sierra Leone Tanganyika Uganda Kenya Rhodesia The Gambia Mauritius Wituland

Asia

China Korea Vietnam Georgia India Manchukuo Iran Iraq Syria Yemen Afghanistan Turkey Pakistan Sri Lanka Tibet Nepal Mongolia

Europe

Germany

Bavaria Prussia Saxony Württemberg

Austria-Hungary Russia France Portugal Italy Two Sicilies Hungary Bulgaria Romania Yugoslavia Serbia Montenegro Greece Albania Lithuania Hanover Iceland Tuscany Polish-Lithuania Malta Papal States Finland

Oceania

Bora Bora Fiji Hawaii Rarotonga Tahiti

Americas

Brazil Mexico Haiti Trinidad and Tobago Guyana Suriname

v t e

Hungary articles

History

Christianity Economic Military Monarchs Nobility

Prehistory Pannonia Principality High Medieval Kingdom Late Medieval Kingdom Ottoman–Hungarian wars Habsburg Kingdom Rákóczi's War Revolution of 1848 Austria-Hungary World War I First Republic Treaty of Trianon Interwar period (Interbellum) World War II Second Republic People's Republic Revolution of 1956 Third Republic

Geography

Administrative divisions Counties Cities and towns Climate Extreme points Geology Islands Lakes Mountains National parks Regions Rivers

Politics

Cabinet Constitution Elections Foreign relations Human rights Intelligence Law Law enforcement Military Nationality Parliament Political parties President

List

Prime Minister

List

Economy

Agriculture Banks

Hungarian National Bank

Companies Energy Forint (currency) Industry Science and technology Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Trade unions Transport Unemployment

Society

Anti-Hungarian sentiment Crime Demographics Education

Universities and colleges

Health Healthcare Hungarians Hungarian diaspora Irredentism International rankings Languages LGBT Public holidays Religion Women

Culture

Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine

Wine

Dance Fashion Festivals Folklore Inventions Hungarian language Literature Media Music Names Spa culture Sport Symbols Television Theatre World Heritage

Outline Index

Category Portal

Coordinates: 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350

Authority control

WorldCat Identities LCCN: n50057161 GND: 4075613-0 SUDOC: 02635991X BNF:

.