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The Australian
The Australian
Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 election. Bill Shorten
Bill Shorten
has been the party's federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013. The party is a federal party with branches in each state and territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and in both the Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
and Northern Territory. The party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state (and sometimes local) levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia. Labor's constitution has long stated: " The Australian
The Australian
Labor Party is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production, distribution and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields".[4] This "socialist objective" was introduced in 1921, but was later qualified by two further objectives: "maintenance of and support for a competitive non-monopolistic private sector" and "the right to own private property". Labor governments have not attempted the "democratic socialisation" of any industry since the 1940s, when the Chifley government failed to nationalise the private banks, and in fact have privatised several industries such as aviation and banking. Labor's current National Platform describes the party as "a modern social democratic party", "the party of opportunity and security for working people" and "a party of active government".[4] The ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. Nevertheless, it is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the emerging labour movement in Australia, formally beginning in 1891. Labor is thus the country's oldest political party. Colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, and federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election. The ALP formed the world's first Labour Party government, as well as the world's first social democratic government at a national level.[5] Labor was the first party in Australia
Australia
to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, at the 1910 federal election. The Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
at both a federal and state/colony level predates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation, government, and policy implementation.[6] Internationally, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties,[7] having previously been a member of the Socialist International.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early decades at the federal level

1.1.1 Name changes

1.2 Second World War
Second World War
and beyond

2 National Platform 3 Party structure

3.1 National Executive and Secretariat 3.2 Federal Parliamentary Labor Party 3.3 State and territory branches

3.3.1 Country Labor

3.4 Australian Young Labor 3.5 Networks

4 Factions 5 ALP federal parliamentary leaders 6 Labor state and territory parliamentary leaders 7 Other past Labor politicians 8 Federal election results 9 Donors 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Australian Labor Party

Bill Shorten, Labor leader 2013–present

Chris Watson, first leader of then Federal Labour Party 1901–07 (held the balance of power) and Prime Minister in 1904

Andrew Fisher, Prime Minister 1908–09, 1910–13, 1914–15

Billy Hughes, Prime Minister 1915–16

James Scullin, Prime Minister 1929–32

John Curtin, Prime Minister 1941–45

Frank Forde, Prime Minister 1945

Ben Chifley, Prime Minister 1945–49

Gough Whitlam, Prime Minister 1972–75

Bob Hawke, Prime Minister 1983–91

Paul Keating, Prime Minister 1991–96

Kevin Rudd, Prime Minister 2007–10, 2013

Julia Gillard, Prime Minister 2010–13

The Australian
The Australian
Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland
Queensland
Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree (the "Tree of Knowledge") in Barcaldine, Queensland
Queensland
in 1891. The Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales
New South Wales
and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, and later in the other colonies. The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, when Labour candidates (then called the Labor Electoral League of New South Wales) won 35 of 141 seats. The major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power. It offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions.[8] The United Labor Party (ULP) of South Australia was founded in 1891, and three candidates were that year elected to the South Australian Legislative Council.[9] The first successful South Australian House of Assembly
South Australian House of Assembly
candidate was John McPherson
John McPherson
at the 1892 East Adelaide by-election. Richard Hooper however was elected as an Independent Labor candidate at the 1891 Wallaroo by-election, while he was the first Labor member of the House of Assembly he was not a member of the newly formed ULP. At the 1893 South Australian elections the ULP was immediately elevated to balance of power status with 10 of 54 lower house seats. The liberal government of Charles Kingston
Charles Kingston
was formed with the support of the ULP, ousting the conservative government of John Downer. So successful, less than a decade later at the 1905 election, Thomas Price would form the world's first stable Labor government. John Verran led Labor to form the state's first of many majority governments at the 1910 election. In 1899, Anderson Dawson
Anderson Dawson
formed a minority Labour government in Queensland, the first in the world, which lasted one week while the conservatives regrouped after a split. The colonial Labour parties and the trade unions were mixed in their support for the Federation of Australia. Some Labour representatives argued against the proposed constitution, claiming that the Senate as proposed was too powerful, similar to the anti-reformist colonial upper houses and the British House of Lords. They feared that federation would further entrench the power of the conservative forces. The first Labour leader and Prime Minister, Chris Watson, however, was a supporter of federation. Historian Celia Hamilton, examining New South Wales, argues for the central role of Irish Catholics. Before 1890, they opposed Henry Parkes, the main Liberal leader, and of free trade, seeing them both as the ideals of Protestant Englishmen who represented landholding and large business interests. In the strike of 1890 the leading Catholic, Sydney's Archbishop Patrick Francis Moran
Patrick Francis Moran
was sympathetic toward unions, but Catholic newspapers were negative. After 1900, says Hamilton, Irish Catholics were drawn to the Labour Party because its stress on equality and social welfare fitted with their status as manual labourers and small farmers. In the 1910 elections Labour gained in the more Catholic areas and the representation of Catholics increased in Labour's parliamentary ranks.[10] Early decades at the federal level[edit] The federal parliament in 1901 was contested by each state Labour Party. In total, they won 14 of the 75 seats in the House of Representatives, collectively holding the balance of power, and the Labour members now met as the Federal Parliamentary Labour Party (informally known as the caucus) on 8 May 1901 at Parliament House, Melbourne, the meeting place of the first federal Parliament.[11] The caucus decided to support the incumbent Protectionist Party
Protectionist Party
in minority government, while the Free Trade Party
Free Trade Party
formed the opposition. It was some years before there was any significant structure or organisation at a national level. Labour under Chris Watson
Chris Watson
doubled its vote at the 1903 federal election and continued to hold the balance of power. In April 1904, however, Watson and Alfred Deakin fell out over the issue of extending the scope of industrial relations laws concerning the Conciliation and Arbitration
Arbitration
Bill to cover state public servants, the fallout causing Deakin to resign. Free Trade leader George Reid declined to take office, which saw Watson become the first Labour Prime Minister of Australia, and the world's first Labour head of government at a national level ( Anderson Dawson
Anderson Dawson
had led a short-lived Labour government in Queensland
Queensland
in December 1899), though his was a minority government that lasted only four months. He was aged only 37, and is still the youngest Prime Minister in Australia's history.[12] George Reid of the Free Trade Party
Free Trade Party
adopted a strategy of trying to reorient the party system along Labour vs non-Labour lines – prior to the 1906 federal election, he renamed his Free Trade Party
Free Trade Party
to the Anti-Socialist Party. Reid envisaged a spectrum running from socialist to anti-socialist, with the Protectionist Party
Protectionist Party
in the middle. This attempt struck a chord with politicians who were steeped in the Westminster tradition and regarded a two-party system as very much the norm.[13] Though Watson further strengthened Labour's position in 1906, he stepped down from the leadership the following year, to be succeeded by Andrew Fisher
Andrew Fisher
who formed a minority government lasting seven months from late 1908 to mid 1909. At the 1910 election, Fisher led Labor to victory, forming Australia's first elected federal majority government, Australia's first elected Senate majority, the world's first Labour Party majority government at a national level, and after the 1904 Chris Watson
Chris Watson
minority government the world's second Labour Party government at a national level. It was the first time a Labour Party had controlled any house of a legislature, and the first time the party controlled both houses of a bicameral legislature.[14] The state branches were also successful, except in Victoria, where the strength of Deakinite liberalism inhibited the party's growth. The state branches formed their first majority governments in New South Wales and South Australia
South Australia
in 1910, Western Australia
Western Australia
in 1911, Queensland
Queensland
in 1915 and Tasmania
Tasmania
in 1925. Such success eluded equivalent social democratic and labour parties in other countries for many years. Analysis of the early NSW Labor caucus reveals "a band of unhappy amateurs", made up of blue collar workers, a squatter, a doctor, and even a mine owner, indicating that the idea that only the socialist working class formed Labor is untrue. In addition, many members from the working class supported the liberal notion of free trade between the colonies – in the first grouping of state MPs, 17 of the 35 were free-traders. In the aftermath of World War I
World War I
and the Russian Revolution of 1917, support for socialism grew in trade union ranks, and at the 1921 All-Australian Trades Union Congress a resolution was passed calling for "the socialisation of industry, production, distribution and exchange." The 1922 Labor Party National Conference adopted a similarly worded "socialist objective," which remained official policy for many years. The resolution was immediately qualified, however, by the "Blackburn amendment," which said that "socialisation" was desirable only when was necessary to "eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features."[15] In practice the socialist objective was a dead letter. Only once has a federal Labor government attempted to nationalise any industry (Ben Chifley's bank nationalisation of 1947), and that was held by the High Court to be unconstitutional. The commitment to nationalisation was dropped by Gough Whitlam, and Bob Hawke's government carried out many free market reforms including the floating of the dollar and privatisation of state enterprises such as Qantas
Qantas
airways and the Commonwealth Bank. The Labor Party is commonly described as a social democratic party, and its constitution stipulates that it is a democratic socialist party.[16] The party was created by, and has always been influenced by, the trade unions, and in practice its policy at any given time has usually been the policy of the broader labour movement. Thus at the first federal election 1901 Labor's platform called for a White Australia
Australia
Policy, a citizen army and compulsory arbitration of industrial disputes.[17] Labor has at various times supported high tariffs and low tariffs, conscription and pacifism, White Australia and multiculturalism, nationalisation and privatisation, isolationism and internationalism. Historically, Labor and its affiliated unions were strong defenders of the White Australia
Australia
Policy, which banned all non-European migration to Australia. This policy was partly motivated by 19th century theories about "racial purity" and by fears of economic competition from low-wage overseas workers which was shared by the vast majority of Australians and all major political parties. In practice the party opposed all migration, on the grounds that immigrants competed with Australian workers and drove down wages, until after World War II, when the Chifley Government
Chifley Government
launched a major immigration program. The party's opposition to non-European immigration did not change until after the retirement of Arthur Calwell
Arthur Calwell
as leader in 1967. Subsequently, Labor has become an advocate of multiculturalism, although some of its trade union base and some of its members continue to oppose high immigration levels. Name changes[edit] The ALP adopted the formal name "Australian Labour Party" in 1908, but changed the spelling to "Labor" in 1912. While it is standard practice in Australian English
Australian English
both today and at the time to spell the word "labour" with a "u", the party was influenced by the United States labor movement, and a prominent figure in the early history of the party, the American-born King O'Malley, was successful in having the spelling "modernised".[18] The change also made it easier to distinguish references to the party from the labour movement in general.[19] (See also Spelling in Australian English.) In South Australia
South Australia
the United Labor Party became the South Australian branch of the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
on 14 September 1917.[20] Second World War
Second World War
and beyond[edit] The Curtin and Chifley governments governed Australia
Australia
through the latter half of the Second World War
Second World War
and initial stages of transition to peace. Labor leader John Curtin
John Curtin
became prime minister in October 1941 when two independents crossed the floor of Parliament. Labor, led by Curtin, then led Australia
Australia
through the years of the Pacific War. In December 1941, Curtin announced that " Australia
Australia
looks to America, free of any pangs as to our traditional links or kinship with the United Kingdom", thus helping to establish the Australian-American alliance (later formalised as ANZUS
ANZUS
by the Menzies Government). Remembered as a strong war time leader and for a landslide win at the 1943 election, Curtin died in office just prior to the end of the war and was succeeded by Ben Chifley.[21] Chifley Labor won the 1946 election and oversaw Australia's initial transition to a peacetime economy. Labor was defeated at the 1949 election. At the conference of the New South Wales Labor Party in June 1949, Chifley sought to define the labour movement as having:

[A] great objective – the light on the hill – which we aim to reach by working for the betterment of mankind... [Labor would] bring something better to the people, better standards of living, greater happiness to the mass of the people.[22]

To a large extent, Chifley saw centralisation of the economy as the means to achieve such ambitions. With an increasingly uncertain economic outlook, after his attempt to nationalise the banks and a strike by the Communist-dominated Miners Federation, Chifley lost office in 1949 to Robert Menzies' Liberal-National Coalition. Labor commenced what would be a 23-year period in opposition.[23][24] Various ideological beliefs were factionalised under reforms to the ALP under Gough Whitlam, resulting in what is now known as the Socialist Left who tend to favour a more interventionist economic policy and more socially progressive ideals, and Labor Right, the now dominant faction that tends to be more economically liberal and focus to a lesser extent on social issues. The Whitlam Labor government, marking a break with Labor's socialist tradition, pursued social-democratic policies rather than democratic socialist policies. Whitlam, in contrast to earlier Labor leaders, also cut tariffs by 25 percent.[25] Whitlam led the Federal Labor Party back to office at the 1972 and 1974 elections, and passed a large amount of legislation. The Whitlam Government
Whitlam Government
lost office following the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis and dismissal by Governor-General Sir John Kerr after the Coalition blocked supply in the Senate after a series of political scandals, and was defeated at the 1975 election.[26] Whitlam remains the only Prime Minister to have his commission terminated in that manner. Bob Hawke
Bob Hawke
led Labor back to office at the 1983 election and the Hawke-Keating Government
Hawke-Keating Government
remained in power until defeated by John Howard at the 1996 election. Kim Beazley
Kim Beazley
led the party to the 1998 election, winning 51 percent of the two-party preferred vote but falling short on seats, and lost ground at the 2001 election. Mark Latham
Mark Latham
led Labor to the 2004 election but lost further ground. Beazley replaced Latham in 2005. Beazley in turn was challenged by Kevin Rudd
Kevin Rudd
who went on to defeat John Howard
John Howard
at the 2007 election with 52.7 percent of the two-party vote. The Rudd Government ended prior to the 2010 election with the replacement of Rudd as leader of the Party by deputy leader Julia Gillard. The Gillard Government
Gillard Government
was commissioned to govern in a hung parliament following the 2010 election with a one-seat parliamentary majority and 50.12 percent of the two-party vote. Between the 2007 federal election and the 2008 Western Australian state election, Labor was in government nationally, as well as in all eight state and territory legislatures. This was the first time any single party or any coalition had achieved this since the ACT and the NT gained self-government.[27] Labor narrowly lost government in Western Australia
Western Australia
at the 2008 state election and Victoria at the 2010 state election. These losses were further compounded by landslide defeats in New South Wales
New South Wales
in 2011, Queensland
Queensland
in 2012, the Northern Territory in 2012, Federally in 2013 and Tasmania
Tasmania
in 2014.[28] Labor secured a good result in the Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
in 2012 and, despite losing its majority, the party retained government in South Australia
Australia
in 2014.[29] However, most of these reversals proved only temporary with Labor returning to government in Victoria in 2014 and in Queensland
Queensland
in 2015 after spending only one term in opposition in both states.[30] Furthermore, after winning the 2014 Fisher by-election by nine votes from a 7.3 percent swing, the Labor government in South Australia
South Australia
went from minority to majority government.[31] Labor won landslide victories in the 2016 Northern Territory
Northern Territory
election and the 2017 Western Australian election. National Platform[edit]

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The policy of the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
is contained in its National Platform, which is approved by delegates to Labor's National Conference, held every three years. According to the Labor Party's website, "The Platform is the result of a rigorous and constructive process of consultation, spanning the nation and including the cooperation and input of state and territory policy committees, local branches, unions, state and territory governments, and individual Party members. The Platform provides the policy foundation from which we can continue to work towards the election of a federal Labor Government."[32] The platform gives a general indication of the policy direction which a future Labor government would follow, but does not commit the party to specific policies. It maintains that "Labor's traditional values will remain a constant on which all Australians can rely." While making it clear that Labor is fully committed to a market economy, it says that: "Labor believes in a strong role for national government – the one institution all Australians truly own and control through our right to vote." Labor "will not allow the benefits of change to be concentrated in fewer and fewer hands, or located only in privileged communities. The benefits must be shared by all Australians and all our regions." The platform and Labor "believe that all people are created equal in their entitlement to dignity and respect, and should have an equal chance to achieve their potential." For Labor, "government has a critical role in ensuring fairness by: ensuring equal opportunity; removing unjustifiable discrimination; and achieving a more equitable distribution of wealth, income and status." Further sections of the platform stress Labor's support for equality and human rights, labour rights and democracy. In practice, the platform provides only general policy guidelines to Labor's federal, state and territory parliamentary leaderships. The policy Labor takes into an election campaign is determined by the Cabinet (if the party is in office) or the Shadow Cabinet (if it is in opposition), in consultation with key interest groups within the party, and is contained in the parliamentary Leader's policy speech delivered during the election campaign. When Labor is in office, the policies it implements are determined by the Cabinet, subject to the platform. Generally, it is accepted that while the platform binds Labor governments, how and when it is implemented remains the prerogative of the parliamentary caucus. It is now rare for the platform to conflict with government policy, as the content of the platform is usually developed in close collaboration with the party's parliamentary leadership as well as the factions. However, where there is a direct contradiction with the platform, Labor governments have sought to change the platform as a prerequisite for a change in policy. For example, privatisation legislation under the Hawke government occurred only after holding a special national conference to debate changing the platform. Party structure[edit] National Executive and Secretariat[edit] The Australian Labor Party National Executive is the chief administrative authority of the Australian Labor Party, subject only to Labor's National Conference. The Executive is responsible for organising the triennial National Conference; carrying out the decisions of National Conference; interpreting the National Constitution, the National Platform and decisions of National Conference; and directing federal members.[33] The party holds a national conference every three years, which consists of delegates representing the state and territory branches (many coming from affiliated trade unions, although there is no formal requirement for unions to be represented at the national conference). The national conference decides the party's platform, elects the national executive, and appoints office-bearers such as the National Secretary, who also serves as national campaign director during elections. The current National Secretary is Noah Carroll. The most recent National Conference was the 47th conference held from 24 to 26 July 2015.[34] The head office of the ALP, the National Secretariat, is managed by the National Secretary. It plays a dual role of administration and national campaign strategy. It acts as a permanent secretariat to the National Executive by managing and assisting in all administrative affairs of the party. As the National Secretary also serves as national campaign director during elections, it is also responsible for national campaign strategy and organisation. Federal Parliamentary Labor Party[edit] The elected members of the Labor party in both houses of the national Parliament meet as the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party, also known as the Caucus.[35] Besides discussing parliamentary business and tactics, the Caucus
Caucus
also is involved in the election of the federal parliamentary leaders. Until 2013 the parliamentary leaders were elected by the Caucus
Caucus
from among its members. The leader has historically been a member of the House of Representatives. Since October 2013, a ballot of both the Caucus
Caucus
and by the Labor Party's rank-and-file members determined the party leader and the deputy leader.[36] When the Labor Party is in government, the party leader is the Prime Minister and the deputy leader is the Deputy Prime Minister. If a Labor prime minister resigns or dies in office, the deputy leader acts as prime minister and party leader until a successor is elected. Members of the Ministry are also chosen by Caucus, though the leader may allocate portfolios to the ministers. State and territory branches[edit] Main article: List of state branches of the Australian Labor Party The Australian
The Australian
Labor Party is a federal party, consisting of eight branches from each state and territory. While the National Executive is responsible for national campaign strategy, each state and territory are an autonomous branch and are responsible for campaigning in their own jurisdictions for federal, state and local elections. State and territory branches consist of both individual members and affiliated trade unions, who between them decide the party's policies, elect its governing bodies and choose its candidates for public office. Members join a state branch and pay a membership fee, which is graduated according to income. The majority of trade unions in Australia
Australia
are affiliated to the party at a state level. Union affiliation is direct and not through the Australian Council of Trade Unions. Affiliated unions pay an affiliation fee based on the size of their membership. Union affiliation fees make up a large part of the party's income. Another source of funds for the party are political donations and public funding. Members are generally expected to attend at least one meeting of their local branch each year, although there are differences in the rules from state to state. In practice only a dedicated minority regularly attend meetings. Many members are only active during election campaigns. The members and unions elect delegates to state and territory conferences (usually held annually, although more frequent conferences are often held). These conferences decide policy, and elect state or territory executives, a state or territory president (an honorary position usually held for a one-year term), and a state or territory secretary (a full-time professional position). However, ACT Labor directly elects its president. The larger branches also have full-time assistant secretaries and organisers. In the past the ratio of conference delegates coming from the branches and affiliated unions has varied from state to state, however under recent national reforms at least 50% of delegates at all state and territory conferences must be elected by branches. In some states it also contests local government elections or endorses local candidates. In others it does not, preferring to allow its members to run as non-endorsed candidates. The process of choosing candidates is called preselection. Candidates are preselected by different methods in the various states and territories. In some they are chosen by ballots of all party members, in others by panels or committees elected by the state conference, in still others by a combination of these two. Country Labor[edit] Country Labor is a subsection of the ALP, and is used as a designation by candidates contesting elections in rural areas. It functions as a sort of ginger group within the party, and is somewhat analogous to its youth wing. The Country Labor Party is registered as a separate party in New South Wales
New South Wales
and South Australia,[37][38] and is also registered with the Australian Electoral Commission
Australian Electoral Commission
(AEC) for federal elections.[39] It does not have the same status in other states, and consequently that designation cannot be used on the ballot paper. The creation of a separation designation for rural candidates was first suggested at the June 1999 ALP state conference in New South Wales. In May 2000, following Labor's success at the 2000 Benalla by-election in Victoria, Kim Beazley
Kim Beazley
announced that the ALP intended to register a separate "Country Labor Party" with the AEC;[40] this occurred in October 2000.[39] The Country Labor designation is most frequently used in New South Wales. According to the ALP's financial statements for the 2015–16 financial year, NSW Country Labor had around 2,600 members (around 17 percent of the party total), but almost no assets. It recorded a severe funding shortfall at the 2015 NSW state election, and had to rely on a $1.68-million loan from the party proper to remain solvent. It had been initially assumed that the party proper could provide the money from its own resources, but the NSW Electoral Commission ruled that this was impermissible because the parties were registered separately. Instead the party proper had to loan Country Labor the required funds at a commercial interest rate.[41] Australian Young Labor[edit] Main article: Australian Young Labor Australian Young Labor is the youth wing of the Australian Labor Party, where all members under age 26 are automatically members. It is the peak youth body within the ALP. Former Presidents of AYL have included former NSW Premier Bob Carr, Federal Manager of Opposition Business Tony Burke, former Special
Special
Minister of State Senator John Faulkner, former Australian Workers Union National Secretary and current Member for Maribyrnong and Federal Labor Leader Bill Shorten as well as dozens of State Ministers and MPs. The current national president is Jack Boyd, from the New South Wales
New South Wales
Right. Networks[edit] The Australian
The Australian
Labor Party is beginning to formally recognise single interest groups within the party. The national platform currently encourages state branches to formally establish these groups known as policy action caucuses.[42] Examples of such groups include the Labor Environment Action Network,[43] Rainbow Labor,[44] and Labor for Refugees.[45] The Tasmanian Branch of the Australian Labor Party recently[clarification needed] gave these groups voting and speaking rights at their state conference. Factions[edit]

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The Labor Party has always had a left wing and a right wing, but since the 1970s it has been organised into formal factions, to which party members may belong and often pay an additional membership fee. The two largest factions are Labor Unity (National Right) and the Socialist Left (National Left). Labor Unity generally supports free-market policies and the US alliance and tends to be conservative on some social issues. The Socialist Left, although it seldom openly espouses socialism, favours more state intervention in the economy, is generally less enthusiastic about the US alliance and is often more liberal on social issues. The national factions are themselves divided into sub-factions, primarily state-based such as Centre Unity in New South Wales and Labor Forum in Queensland. Some trade unions are affiliated with the Labor Party and are also factionally aligned. The largest unions supporting the right faction are the Australian Workers' Union
Australian Workers' Union
(AWU), the Shop, Distributive and Allied Employees' Association (SDA), the National Union of Workers (NUW) and the Transport Workers Union (TWU). Important unions supporting the left include the Australian Manufacturing Workers Union (AMWU), United Voice, the Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union (CFMEU) and the Maritime Union of Australia
Maritime Union of Australia
(MUA). These affiliations are seldom unconditional or permanent. In some cases different union branches may have different factional alignments. On other issues, such as opposition to the Howard Government's industrial relations policy, called WorkChoices, most unions were in agreement. Preselections are usually conducted along factional lines, although sometimes a non-factional candidate will be given preferential treatment (this happened with Cheryl Kernot in 1998 and again with Peter Garrett
Peter Garrett
in 2004). Deals between the factions to divide up the safe seats between them often take place. Preselections, particularly for safe Labor seats, can sometimes be strongly contested. A particularly fierce preselection sometimes gives rise to accusations of branch stacking (signing up large numbers of nominal party members to vote in preselection ballots), personation, multiple voting and, on occasions, fraudulent electoral enrolment. Trade unions were in the past accused of giving inflated membership figures to increase their influence over preselections, but party rules changes have stamped out this practice. Preselection
Preselection
results are sometimes challenged, and the National Executive is sometimes called on to arbitrate these disputes. ALP federal parliamentary leaders[edit] The current leader of the ALP is Bill Shorten
Bill Shorten
since 13 October 2013, and the deputy leader is Tanya Plibersek. In accordance with party rules, Shorten's leadership was reaffirmed by party members on 8 July 2016, following the 2016 federal election. For a list of ALP federal parliamentary leaders and deputy leaders see Leaders of the Australian Labor Party. Labor state and territory parliamentary leaders[edit]

State Lower House Seats

NSW Parliament

34 / 93

VIC Parliament

45 / 88

QLD Parliament

48 / 93

WA Parliament

40 / 59

SA Parliament

19 / 47

TAS Parliament

10 / 25

Territory Assembly Seats[46]

ACT Assembly

12 / 25

NT Assembly

18 / 25

The current leaders of state and territory Labor branches are:

ACT Labor — Andrew Barr – Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory since 11 December 2014 Northern Territory
Northern Territory
— Michael Gunner – Chief Minister of the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
since 31 August 2016 NSW Labor — Luke Foley – Leader of the Opposition of New South Wales since 5 January 2015 Queensland
Queensland
— Annastacia Palaszczuk – Premier of Queensland since 14 February 2015 SA Labor — TBC Tasmania
Tasmania
— Rebecca White – Leader of the Opposition of Tasmania
Tasmania
since 17 March 2017 Vic Labor — Daniel Andrews – Premier of Victoria
Premier of Victoria
since 4 December 2014 Western Australia
Western Australia
— Mark McGowan – Premier of Western Australia
Australia
since 17 March 2017

Other past Labor politicians[edit] See Category: Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
politicians For current ALP federal politicians, see:

List of members of the Australian House of Representatives List of members of the Australian Senate

Federal election results[edit]

Election Seats won ± Total votes % Position Leader

1901

14 / 75

14 79,736 15.76% Third party Chris Watson

1903

22 / 75

7 223,163 30.95% Third party Chris Watson

1906

26 / 75

4 348,711 36.64% Minority government Chris Watson

1910

42 / 75

16 660,864 49.9% Majority government Andrew Fisher

1913

37 / 75

5 921,099 48.47% Opposition Andrew Fisher

1914

42 / 75

5 858,451 50.89% Majority government Andrew Fisher

1917

22 / 75

20 827,541 43.94% Opposition Frank Tudor

1919

26 / 75

4 811,244 42.49% Opposition Frank Tudor

1922

29 / 75

3 665,145 42.30% Opposition Matthew Charlton

1925

23 / 75

6 1,313,627 45.04% Opposition Matthew Charlton

1928

31 / 75

8 1,158,505 44.64% Opposition James Scullin

1929

46 / 75

15 1,406,327 48.84% Majority government James Scullin

1931

14 / 75

32 859,513 27.10% Opposition James Scullin

1934

18 / 74

4 952,251 26.81% Opposition James Scullin

1937

29 / 74

11 1,555,737 43.17% Opposition John Curtin

1940

32 / 74

3 1,556,941 40.16% Opposition John Curtin

Minority government

1943

49 / 74

17 2,058,578 49.94% Majority government John Curtin

1946

43 / 75

6 2,159,953 49.71% Majority government Ben Chifley

1949

47 / 121

4 2,117,088 45.98% Opposition Ben Chifley

1951

52 / 121

5 2,174,840 47.63% Opposition Ben Chifley

1954

57 / 121

5 2,280,098 50.03% Opposition H.V. Evatt

1955

47 / 122

10 1,961,829 44.63% Opposition H.V. Evatt

1958

45 / 122

2 2,137,890 42.81% Opposition H.V. Evatt

1961

60 / 122

15 2,512,929 47.90% Opposition Arthur Calwell

1963

50 / 122

10 2,489,184 45.47% Opposition Arthur Calwell

1966

41 / 124

9 2,282,834 39.98% Opposition Arthur Calwell

1969

59 / 125

18 2,870,792 46.95% Opposition Gough Whitlam

1972

67 / 125

8 3,273,549 49.59% Majority government Gough Whitlam

1974

66 / 127

1 3,644,110 49.30% Majority government Gough Whitlam

1975

36 / 127

30 3,313,004 42.84% Opposition Gough Whitlam

1977

38 / 124

2 3,141,051 39.65% Opposition Gough Whitlam

1980

51 / 125

13 3,749,565 45.15% Opposition Bill Hayden

1983

75 / 125

24 4,297,392 49.48% Majority government Bob Hawke

1984

82 / 148

7 4,120,130 47.55% Majority government Bob Hawke

1987

86 / 148

4 4,222,431 45.76% Majority government Bob Hawke

1990

78 / 148

8 3,904,138 39.44% Majority government Bob Hawke

1993

80 / 148

2 4,751,390 44.92% Majority government Paul Keating

1996

49 / 148

31 4,217,765 38.69% Opposition Paul Keating

1998

67 / 148

18 4,454,306 40.10% Opposition Kim Beazley

2001

65 / 150

2 4,341,420 37.84% Opposition Kim Beazley

2004

60 / 150

5 4,408,820 37.63% Opposition Mark Latham

2007

83 / 150

23 5,388,184 43.38% Majority government Kevin Rudd

2010

72 / 150

11 4,711,363 37.99% Minority government Julia Gillard

2013

55 / 150

17 4,311,365 33.38% Opposition Kevin Rudd

2016

69 / 150

14 4,702,296 34.73% Opposition Bill Shorten

Donors[edit] See also: Political funding in Australia For the 2015-2016 financial year, the top ten disclosed donors to the ALP were: Health Services Union NSW ($389,000), Village Roadshow ($257,000), Electrical Trades Union of Australia
Electrical Trades Union of Australia
($171,000), National Automotive Leasing and Salary Packaging Association ($153,000), Westfield Corporation
Westfield Corporation
($150,000), Randazzo C&G Developments ($120,000), Macquarie Telecom
Macquarie Telecom
($113,000), Woodside Energy
Woodside Energy
($110,000), ANZ Bank
ANZ Bank
($100,000) and Ying Zhou ($100,000).[47][48] The Labor Party also receives undisclosed funding through several methods, such as "associated entities". John Curtin
John Curtin
House, Industry 2020, IR21 and the Happy Wanderers Club are entities which have been used to funnel donations to the Labor Party without disclosing the source.[49][50][51][52] Notes[edit]

^ " Mark Butler
Mark Butler
named national president of Australian Labor Party". ABC News. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.  ^ Bramston, Troy (13 May 2015). "Membership reforms see recruits rally to Labor cause". The Australian. Retrieved 13 May 2015.  ^ Karp, Paul (2018-01-23). "Mark Butler: factions are destroying Labor's capacity to campaign". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 January 2018.  ^ a b Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
National Platform Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 11 December 2014 ^ Rhodes, Campbell (1904-04-27). "A perfect picture of the statesman: John Christian Watson". Museum of Australian Democracy. Retrieved 2017-09-19.  ^ "Australian Labor Party". AustralianPolitics.com. 6 October 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2014.  ^ "Participants". Progressive Alliance. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ McMullen, Ross (2004). So Monstrous a Travesty: Chris Watson
Chris Watson
and the World's First National Labour Government. Carlton North, Victoria: Scribe Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-920769-13-0.  ^ Alison Painter. "9 May 1891 United Labor Party elected to Legislative Council (Celebrating South Australia)". Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ Celia Hamilton, "Irish‐Catholics of New South Wales
New South Wales
and the Labor Party, 1890–1910." Historical Studies: Australia
Australia
& New Zealand (1958) 8#31: 254-267. ^ Faulkner & Macintyre 2001, p. 3. ^ Nairn, Bede (1990). "Watson, John Christian (Chris) (1867–1941)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. 12. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 9 February 2010.  ^ Charles Richardson (2009-01-25). "Fusion: The Party System We Had To Have?" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-09-19.  ^ Murphy, D. J. (1981). "Fisher, Andrew (1862–1928)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Archived from the original on 19 June 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2007.  ^ McKinlay 1981, p. 53. ^ "National Constitution of the ALP". Official Website of the Australian Labor Party. Australian Labor Party. 2009. Archived from the original on 30 October 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2009. The Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production, distribution and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields.  ^ McKinlay 1981, p. 19. ^ "History of the Australian Labor Party". Australian Labor Party.  ^ Clarke, FG, Australia: A Concise Political and Social History (Sydney: Harcourt Brace & Company 1996), p 205 ^ "What's in a name?: Trove". Nla.gov.au. 1917-09-15. Retrieved 2017-09-19.  ^ " John Curtin
John Curtin
– Australia's PMs – Australia's Prime Ministers". Primeministers.naa.gov.au. Retrieved 5 July 2013.  ^ "In office – Ben Chifley – Australia's PMs – Australia's Prime Ministers". National Archives of Australia. 24 February 2009. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.  ^ " Ben Chifley
Ben Chifley
– Australia's PMs – Australia's Prime Ministers". Primeministers.naa.gov.au. 13 June 1951. Retrieved 5 July 2013.  ^ "Elections – Robert Menzies
Robert Menzies
– Australia's PMs – Australia's Prime Ministers". Primeministers.naa.gov.au. Retrieved 5 July 2013.  ^ " Tariff
Tariff
Reduction". The Whitlam Collection. The Whitlam Institute. Archived from the original on 20 July 2005.  ^ "The dismissal: a brief history". The Age. Melbourne. 11 November 2005.  ^ In 1969–1970, before the ACT and NT achieved self-government, the Liberal and National Coalition was in power federally and in all six states. University of WA elections database ^ Crawford, Barclay (27 March 2011). "Barry O'Farrell smashes Labor in NSW election". The Sunday Telegraph.  ^ "Weatherill pledges more regional focus amid Brock support". the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 24 March 2014.  ^ Remeikis, Amy (1 February 2015). " Queensland
Queensland
election: State wakes to new political landscape". the Brisbane Times.  ^ "Fisher by-election: Recount sees Labor's Nat Cook win by nine votes". the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 16 December 2014.  ^ "ALP National Platform and Constitution 2007". Australian Labor Party.  ^ "ALP National Platform 2011" (PDF). Australian Labor Party. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015.  ^ ALP: Welcome to the 47th Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
National Conference ^ "National Platform of the Australian Labor Party" (PDF). Australian Labor Party. p. 215. Retrieved 16 March 2016.  ^ Harrison, Bill (13 October 2013). " Bill Shorten
Bill Shorten
elected Labor leader". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 July 2014.  ^ List of Registered Parties, Electoral Commission NSW. ^ Register of political parties, Electoral Commission SA. ^ a b Current register of political parties, Australian Electoral Commission. ^ Country Labor: a new direction?, 7 June 2000, retrieved 29 September 2017 ^ Near-insolvent Country Labor ‘may never repay’ $1.68m to party, The Australian, 28 July 2017. ^ "National Platform of the Australian Labor Party" (PDF). Australian Labor Party. p. 232. Retrieved 16 March 2016.  ^ "Labor Environment Action Network". Labor Environment Action Network. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-16.  ^ "Labor for Refugees". Facebook. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ In the Norfolk Island Assembly all nine seats are held by Independents. ^ "Donor Summary by Party Group". www.periodicdisclosures.aec.gov.au. Retrieved 6 September 2017.  ^ "Donor Summary by Party". www.periodicdisclosures.aec.gov.au. Retrieved 6 September 2017.  ^ "Australian political donations: Who gave how much?". Retrieved 7 September 2017.  ^ "Slush fund royal commission: the labour movement faces its demons". Retrieved 7 September 2017.  ^ "Bill Shorten: Campaign for Labor leadership received money from allegedly dodgy, multi-million-dollar-union slush fund". Retrieved 7 September 2017.  ^ "Union set up Labor slush fund, court told". Retrieved 7 September 2017. 

References[edit]

Bramble, Tom, and Rick Kuhn. Labor's Conflict: Big Business, Workers, and the Politics of Class (Cambridge University Press; 2011) 240 pages Calwell, A.A. (1963). Labor's Role in Modern Society. Melbourne, Lansdowne Press Faulkner, John; Macintyre, Stuart (2001). True Believers – The story of the Federal Parliamentary Labor Party. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-609-6.  McKinlay, Brian (1981). The ALP: A Short History of the Australian Labor Party. Melbourne: Drummond/Heinemann. ISBN 0-85859-254-1.  McMullin, Ross (1991). The Light on the Hill: The Australian
The Australian
Labor Party 1891–1991. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press Australia. ISBN 0-19-553451-4. 

External links[edit]

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