Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English
language, used throughout Australia. Although English has no official
status in the Constitution,
Australian English is the country's
national and de facto official language as it is the first language of
the majority of the population.
Australian English began to diverge from
British English after the
founding of the
Colony of New South Wales
Colony of New South Wales in 1788 and was recognised
as being different from
British English by 1820. It arose from the
intermingling of early settlers from a great variety of mutually
intelligible dialectal regions of the
British Isles and quickly
developed into a distinct variety of English, which differs
considerably from other varieties of English in vocabulary, accent,
pronunciation, register, grammar and spelling.
Phonology and pronunciation
3.2 Regional variation
4.1 Intrinsic traits
4.2 Comparison with other varieties
6 Spelling and style
7 Computer keyboards
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
The earliest form of
Australian English was spoken by the children of
the colonists born into the colony of New South Wales. This first
generation of children created a new dialect that was to become the
language of the nation. The Australian-born children in the new colony
were exposed to a wide range of dialects from all over the British
Isles, in particular from
Ireland and South East England.
The native-born children of the colony created the new dialect from
the speech they heard around them, and with it expressed peer
solidarity. Even when new settlers arrived, this new dialect was
strong enough to blunt other patterns of speech.
A quarter of the convicts were Irish. Many had been arrested in
Ireland, and some in Great Britain. Many, if not most, of the Irish
spoke Irish and either no English at all, or spoke it poorly and
rarely. There were other significant populations of convicts from
non-English speaking part of Britain, such as the Scottish Highlands,
Wales and parts of Cornwall.
Records from the early 19th century show the distinct dialect that had
surfaced in the colonies since first settlement in 1788, with Peter
Miller Cunningham's 1827 book Two Years in New South Wales, describing
the distinctive accent and vocabulary of the native-born colonists,
different from that of their parents and with a strong London
Anthony Burgess writes that "
Australian English may be
thought of as a kind of fossilised
Cockney of the Dickensian era."
Australian gold rushes
Australian gold rushes saw many external influences on the
The first of the Australian gold rushes, in the 1850s, began a large
wave of immigration, during which about two per cent of the population
United Kingdom emigrated to the colonies of
New South Wales
New South Wales and
Victoria. According to linguist Bruce Moore, "the major input of
the various sounds that went into constructing the Australian accent
was from south-east England".
Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been adopted by Australian
English—mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (for example
dingo) and local culture. Many such are localised, and do not form
part of general Australian use, while others, such as kangaroo,
boomerang, budgerigar, wallaby and so on have become international.
Other examples are cooee and hard yakka. The former is used as a
high-pitched call, for attracting attention, (pronounced
/kʉːiː/)[stress?] which travels long distances.
Cooee is also a
notional distance: if he's within cooee, we'll spot him. Hard yakka
means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Jagera/Yagara
language once spoken in the Brisbane region.
Also of Aboriginal origin is the word bung, from the Sydney pidgin
English (and ultimately from the Sydney Aboriginal language), meaning
"dead", with some extension to "broken" or "useless". Many towns or
Australia have also been influenced or named after
Aboriginal words. The best-known example is the capital, Canberra,
named after a local language word meaning "meeting place".
Among the changes starting in the 19th century were the introduction
of words, spellings, terms and usages from North American English. The
words imported included some later considered to be typically
Australian, such as bushwhacker and squatter.
This American influence continued with the popularity of American
films and the influx of American military personnel in World War II;
seen in the enduring persistence of such terms as okay, you guys and
Phonology and pronunciation
Australian English phonology
The primary way in which
Australian English is distinctive from other
varieties of English is through its unique pronunciation. It shares
most similarity with other
Southern Hemisphere accents, in particular
New Zealand English. Like most dialects of English it is
distinguished primarily by its vowel phonology.
Australian English monophthongs
Australian English diphthongs
The vowels of
Australian English can be divided according to length.
The long vowels, which include monophthongs and diphthongs, mostly
correspond to the tense vowels used in analyses of Received
Pronunciation (RP) as well as its centring diphthongs. The short
vowels, consisting only of monophthongs, correspond to the RP lax
vowels. There exist pairs of long and short vowels with overlapping
vowel quality giving
Australian English phonemic length distinction,
which is unusual amongst the various dialects of English, though not
unknown elsewhere, such as in regional south-eastern dialects of the
UK and eastern seaboard dialects in the US. As with New Zealand
English, the weak-vowel merger is complete in Australian English:
unstressed /ɪ/ is merged into /ə/ (schwa), unless it is followed by
a velar consonant.
foot, hood, chook
kit, bid, hid,
dress, led, head
comma, about, winter
trap, lad, had
strut, bud, hud
lot, cloth, hot
goose, boo, who’d
fleece, bead, heat
square, bared, haired
nurse, bird, heard
start, palm, bath[nb 1]
thought, north, force
near, beard, hear[nb 2]
mouth, bowed, how’d
goat, bode, hoed
face, bait, hade
price, bite, hide
choice, boy, oil
^ Many words historically containing /æ/ have /ɐː/ instead, however
the extent to which this development has taken hold varies regionally.
^ The boundary between monophthongs and diphthongs is somewhat fluid,
/ɪə/, for example, is commonly realised as [ɪː], particularly in
closed syllables, though also found in open syllables such as we're,
here, and so on. In open syllables particularly the pronunciation
varies from the bisyllabic [ɪːa] though the diphthong [ɪə] to the
long vowel [ɪː].
There is little variation with respect to the sets of consonants used
in various English dialects. There are, however, variations in how
these consonants are used.
Australian English is no exception.
Consonant phonemes of Australian English
Australian English is non-rhotic; in other words, the /r/ sound does
not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant.
However, a linking /r/ can occur when a word that has a final
<r> in the spelling comes before another word that starts with a
vowel. An intrusive /r/ may similarly be inserted before a vowel in
words that do not have <r> in the spelling in certain
environments, namely after the long vowel /oː/ and after word final
There is some degree of allophonic variation in the alveolar stops. As
with North American English,
Intervocalic alveolar flapping is a
feature of Australian English: prevocalic /t/ and /d/ surface as the
alveolar tap [ɾ] after sonorants other than /m, ŋ/ as well as at the
end of a word or morpheme before any vowel in the same breath group.
For many speakers, /t/ and /d/ in the combinations /tr/ and /dr/-are
also palatalised, thus /tʃr/ and /dʒr/, as Australian /r/ is only
very slightly retroflex, the tip remaining below the level of the
bottom teeth in the same position as for /w/; it is
also somewhat rounded ("to say 'r' the way Australians do you need to
say 'w' at the same time"), where older English /wr/ and /r/ have
fallen together as [rʷ]. The wine–whine merger is complete in
Yod-dropping occurs after /s/, /z/ and, /θ/. Other cases of /sj/ and
/zj/, along with /tj/ and /dj/, have coalesced to /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/
and /dʒ/ respectively for many speakers. /j/ is generally retained in
other consonant clusters.
In common with most varieties of
Scottish English and American
English, the phoneme /l/ is pronounced as a "dark" (velarised) L
([ɫ]) in all positions, unlike other dialects such as Received
Pronunciation and Hiberno (Irish) English, where a light L (i.e., a
non-velarised L) is used in many positions.
Differences in stress, weak forms and standard pronunciation of
isolated words occur between
Australian English and other forms of
English, which while noticeable do not impair intelligibility.
The affixes -ary, -ery, -ory, -bury, -berry and -mony (seen in words
such as necessary, mulberry and matrimony) can be pronounced either
with a full vowel or a schwa. Although some words like necessary are
almost universally pronounced with the full vowel, older generations
of Australians are relatively likely to pronounce these affixes with a
schwa while younger generations are relatively likely to use a full
Words ending in unstressed -ile derived from Latin adjectives ending
in -ilis are pronounced with a full vowel (/ɑel/), so that fertile
rhymes with fur tile rather than turtle.
In addition, miscellaneous pronunciation differences exist when
compared with other varieties of English in relation to seemingly
random words. For example, as with American English, the vowel in
yoghurt is pronounced as /əʉ/ ("long 'O'") rather than /ɔ/ ("short
o"); vitamin, migraine and privacy are pronounced with /ɑe/ (as in
mine) rather than /ɪ/, /iː/ and /ɪ/ respectively; paedophile is
pronounced with /e/ (as in red) rather than /iː/; and urinal is
pronounced with schwa /ə/ rather than /ɑe/ ("long i"). As with
British English, advertisement is pronounced with /ɪ/; tomato and
vase are pronounced with /ɐː/ (as in father) instead of /æɪ/;
zebra is pronounced with /e/ (as in red) rather than /iː/; and buoy
is pronounced as /boɪ/ (as in boy) rather than /ˈbʉːiː/. Two
examples of miscellaneous pronunciations which contrast with both
standard American and British usages are data, which is pronounced
with /ɐː/ ("dah") as opposed to /æɪ/ ("day"); and maroon,
pronounced with /əʉ/ ("own") as opposed to /ʉː/ ("oon").
Variation in Australian closing diphthongs
Main article: Variation in Australian English
Academic research has shown that the most notable variation within
Australian English is largely sociocultural. This is mostly evident in
phonology, which is divided into three sociocultural varieties: broad,
general and cultivated.
A limited range of word choices is strongly regional in nature.
Consequently, the geographical background of individuals can be
inferred, if they use words that are peculiar to particular Australian
states or territories and, in some cases, even smaller regions.
In addition, some Australians speak creole languages derived from
Australian English, such as Australian Kriol,
Torres Strait Creole and
The broad, general and cultivated accents form a continuum that
reflects minute variations in the Australian accent. They can reflect
the social class, education and urban or rural background of speakers,
though such indicators are not always reliable. According to
linguists, the general Australian variant emerged some time before
1900. Recent generations have seen a comparatively smaller
proportion of the population speaking with the broad variant, along
with the near extinction of the cultivated Australian accent.
The growth and dominance of general Australian accents perhaps
reflects its prominence on radio and television during the late 20th
Australian Aboriginal English is made up of a range of forms which
developed differently in different parts of Australia, and are said to
vary along a continuum, from forms close to Standard Australian
English to more non-standard forms. There are distinctive features of
accent, grammar, words and meanings, as well as language use.
The ethnocultural dialects are diverse accents in Australian English
that are spoken by the minority groups, which are of non-English
speaking background. A massive immigration from Asia has made a
large increase in diversity and the will for people to show their
cultural identity within the Australian context. These
ethnocultural varieties contain features of General Australian English
as adopted by the children of immigrants blended with some non-English
language features, such as the
Afro-Asiatic and Asian languages.
Australian English is relatively homogeneous, some regional
variations are notable. The dialects of English spoken in South
Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania,
Queensland and the Torres Strait Islands differ slightly from each
other. Differences exist both in terms of vocabulary and phonology.
Most regional differences come down to word usage. For example,
swimming clothes are known as cossies or swimmers in New South Wales,
togs in Queensland, and bathers in Victoria, Tasmania, Western
Australia and South Australia; what is referred to as a stroller
in most of
Australia is usually called a pram in Western Australia,
Australia and Tasmania. Preference for synonymous words also
differs between states. For example, garbage (i.e., garbage bin,
garbage truck) dominates over rubbish in
New South Wales
New South Wales and
Queensland, while rubbish is more popular in Victoria, Tasmania,
Australia and South Australia. The word footy generally
refers to the most popular football code in the particular state or
territory; that is, rugby league or rugby union depending on the local
New South Wales
New South Wales and Queensland, and Australian rules football
elsewhere. Beer glasses are also named differently in different
states. Distinctive grammatical patterns exist such as the use of the
interrogative eh (also spelled ay or aye), which is particularly
associated with Queensland.
There are some notable regional variations in the pronunciations of
certain words. The extent to which the trap‑bath split has taken
hold is one example. This phonological development is more advanced in
South Australia, which had a different settlement chronology and type
from other parts of the country, which resulted in a prolonged British
English influence that outlasted that of the other colonies. Words
such as dance, advance, plant, graph, example and answer are
pronounced far more frequently with the older /æ/ (as in mad) outside
South Australia, but with /aː/ (as in father) within South
Australia. L-vocalisation is also more common in South Australia
than other states. In Western Australian and
Queensland English, the
vowels in near and square are typically realised as centring
diphthongs ("nee-ya"), whereas in the other states they may also be
realised as monophthongs. A feature common in Victorian English is
salary–celery merger, whereby a Victorian pronunciation of Ellen may
sound like Alan to speakers from other states. There is also regional
variation in /uː/ before /l/ (as in school and pool).
Australian English vocabulary
Bush poets such as
Banjo Paterson captured the Australian vocabulary
of the 19th century in their bush ballads.
Australian English has many words and idioms which are unique to the
dialect and have been written on extensively, with the Macquarie
Dictionary, widely regarded as the national standard, incorporating
numerous Australian terms.
Internationally well-known examples of Australian terminology include
outback, meaning a remote, sparsely populated area, the bush, meaning
either a native forest or a country area in general, and g'day, a
greeting. Dinkum, or fair dinkum means "true" or "is that true?",
among other things, depending on context and inflection. The
derivative dinky-di means "true" or devoted: a "dinky-di Aussie" is a
Australian poetry, such as "The Man from Snowy River", as well as folk
songs such as "Waltzing Matilda", contain many historical Australian
words and phrases that are understood by Australians even though some
are not in common usage today.
Australian English, in common with several
British English dialects
(for example, Cockney, Scouse, Glaswegian and Geordie), uses the word
mate. Many words used by Australians were at one time used in the
United Kingdom but have since fallen out of usage or changed in
For example, creek in Australia, as in North America, means a stream
or small river, whereas in the UK it means a small watercourse flowing
into the sea; paddock in
Australia means field, whereas in the UK it
means a small enclosure for livestock; bush or scrub in Australia, as
in North America, means a wooded area, whereas in England they are
commonly used only in proper names (such as
Shepherd's Bush and
Litotes, such as "not bad", "not much" and "you're not wrong", are
also used, as are diminutives, which are commonly used and are often
used to indicate familiarity. Some common examples are arvo
(afternoon), barbie (barbecue), smoko (cigarette break), Aussie
(Australian) and pressie (present/gift). This may also be done with
people's names to create nicknames (other English speaking countries
create similar diminutives). For example, "Gazza" from Gary, or
"Smitty" from John Smith. The use of the suffix -o originates in Irish
Gaelic (Irish ó), which is both a postclitic and a
suffix with much the same meaning as in Australian English.
In informal speech, incomplete comparisons are sometimes used, such as
"sweet as" (as in "That car is sweet as."). "Full", "fully" or "heaps"
may precede a word to act as an intensifier (as in "The waves at the
beach were heaps good."). This was more common in regional Australia
and South Australia[when?] but has been in common usage in urban
Australia for decades. The suffix "-ly" is sometimes omitted in
broader Australian English. For instance, "really good" can become
Australia's switch to the metric system in the 1970s changed the
country's vocabulary of measurement from imperial towards metric
measures. Since the switch to metric, heights of individuals are
still commonly spoken of and understood in feet and inches amongst the
older generation, despite being listed in centimetres on official
documents such as driver's licence.
Comparison with other varieties
Where British and American vocabulary differs, Australians sometimes
favour a usage different from both varieties, as with footpath (for US
sidewalk, UK pavement), capsicum (for US bell pepper, UK green/red
pepper), or doona (for US comforter, UK duvet) from a trademarked
brand. In other instances, it either shares a term with American
English, as with truck (UK: lorry) or eggplant (UK: aubergine), or
with British English, as with mobile phone (US: cell phone) or bonnet
A non-exhaustive selection of common
British English terms not
commonly used in
Australian English include (Australian usage in
brackets): artic/articulated lorry (semi-trailer); aubergine
(eggplant); bank holiday (public holiday); bedsit (one-bedroom
apartment); bin lorry (garbage truck); cagoule (raincoat); candy floss
(fairy floss); cash machine (automatic teller machine/ATM);
child-minder (babysitter); chivvy (nag); clingfilm (glad wrap/cling
wrap); cooker (stove); courgette (zucchini); skive (wag); dungarees
(overalls); dustbin (garbage/rubbish bin); dustcart (garbage/rubbish
truck); duvet (doona); elastoplast/plaster (band-aid); estate car
(station wagon); fairy cake (cupcake/patty cake); free phone
(toll-free); football (soccer); full fat milk (full-cream milk); goose
pimples (goose bumps); high street (main street); hoover (v - to
vacuum); horsebox (horse float); ice lolly (ice block/icy pole);
kitchen roll (paper towel); lavatory (toilet); lilo (inflatable
mattress, air bed); lorry (truck); marrow (squash); nettled
(irritated); off-licence (bottle shop); pavement (footpath); potato
crisps (potato chips); red/green pepper (capsicum); pilchard
(sardine); pillar box (post box); plimsoll (sandshoe); pushchair
(pram/stroller); saloon car (sedan); sellotape (sticky tape); snog (v
- kiss); swan (v - to go somewhere in an ostentatious way); sweets
(lollies); tangerine (mandarin); utility room (laundry); Wellington
A non-exhaustive list of
American English terms not commonly found in
Australian English include: acclimate (acclimatise); aluminum
(aluminium); bangs (fringe); bell pepper (capsicum); bellhop (hotel
porter); broil (grill); burglarize (burgle); busboy (included under
the broader term of waiter); candy (lollies); cell phone (mobile
phone); cilantro (coriander); comforter (doona); counter-clockwise
(anticlockwise); diaper (nappy); downtown (CBD); drywall
(plasterboard); emergency brake (handbrake); faucet (tap); flashlight
(torch); frosting (icing); gasoline (petrol); golden raisin (sultana);
hood (bonnet); jell-o (jelly); jelly (jam); math (maths); nightstand
(bedside table); pacifier (dummy); period (full stop); parking lot
(car park); popsicle (ice block/icy pole); railway ties (sleepers);
rear view mirror (rear vision mirror); row house (terrace house);
scallion (spring onion); silverware/flatware (cutlery); stickshift
(manual transmission); streetcar (tram); takeout (takeaway); trash can
(garbage/rubbish bin); trunk (boot); turn signal (indicator/blinker);
vacation (holiday); upscale/downscale (upmarket/downmarket);
Terms shared by British and
American English but not so commonly found
Australian English include: abroad (overseas); cooler/ice box
(Esky); flip-flops (thongs); pickup truck (ute); wildfire (bushfire).
Australian English is particularly divergent from other varieties with
respect to geographical terminology, due to the country's unique
geography. This is particularly true when comparing with British
English, due to that country's dramatically different geography.
British geographical terms not in common use in
coppice (cleared bushland); dell (valley); fen (swamp); heath
(shrubland); meadow (grassy plain); moor (swampland); spinney
(shrubland); stream (creek); woods (bush) and village (even the
smallest settlements in
Australia are called towns or stations).
In addition, a number of words in
Australian English have different
meanings from those ascribed in other varieties of English.
Clothing-related examples are notable. Pants in Australian English
follows American usage in refer to
British English trousers but in
British English refer to
Australian English underpants; vest in
Australian English pass also in American refers to British English
waistcoat but in
British English refers to
Australian English singlet;
thong in both American and
British English refers to underwear
(otherwise known as a G-string), while in
Australian English it refers
to British and
American English flip-flop (footwear). There are
numerous other examples, including biscuit which refers in Australian
British English to what in
American English is cookie or cracker
but to a savoury cake in American English; Asian, which in Australian
American English commonly refers to people of East Asian heritage,
as opposed to British English, in which it commonly refers to people
of South Asian descent; and (potato) chips which refers both to
British English crisps (which is not commonly used in Australian
English) and to
American English French fries (which is used alongside
In addition to the large number of uniquely Australian idioms in
common use, there are instances of idioms taking differing forms in
the various Anglophone nations, for example home away from home, take
with a grain of salt and wouldn't touch with a ten foot pole (which in
British English take the respective forms home from home, take with a
pinch of salt and wouldn't touch with a barge pole), or a drop in the
ocean and touch wood (which in
American English take the forms a drop
in the bucket and knock on wood).
As with American English, but unlike British English, collective nouns
are almost always singular in construction, e.g., the government was
unable to decide as opposed to the government were unable to decide.
Shan't, the use of should as in I should be happy if ..., the use of
haven't any instead of haven't got any and the use of don't let's in
place of let's not, common in upper-register British English, are
almost never encountered in Australian (or North American) English.
River generally follows the name of the river in question as in North
America, i.e., Darling River, rather than the British convention of
coming before the name, e.g., River Thames. In South Australia
however, the British convention applies—for example, the River
Murray or the River Torrens. As with American English, on the weekend
and studied medicine are used rather than the British at the weekend
and read medicine. Similarly, around is more commonly used in
constructions such as running around, stomping around or messing
around in contrast with the British convention of using about.
In common with British English, the past tense and past participles of
the verbs learn, spell and smell are often irregular (learnt, spelt,
smelt). Similarly, in Australian usage, the to in I'll write to you is
retained, as opposed to US usage where it may be dropped. While
prepositions before days may be omitted in American English, i.e., She
resigned Thursday, they are retained in Australian English, as in
British English: She resigned on Thursday. Ranges of dates use to,
i.e., Monday to Friday, as with British English, rather than Monday
through Friday in American English. When saying or writing out
numbers, and is inserted before the tens and units, i.e., one hundred
and sixty-two, as with British practice. However Australians, like
Americans, are more likely to pronounce numbers such as 1,200 as
twelve hundred, rather than one thousand two hundred.
Spelling and style
As in most English-speaking countries, there is no official
governmental regulator or overseer of correct spelling and grammar.
Macquarie Dictionary is used by some universities and some other
organisations as a standard for
Australian English spelling. The Style
Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers, the Cambridge Guide to
Australian English Usage and the Australian Guide to Legal Citation
are prominent style guides.
Australian spelling is closer to British than American spelling. As
with British spelling, the u is retained in words such as colour,
honour, labour and favour. While the
Macquarie Dictionary lists the
-our ending and follows it with the -or ending as an acceptable
variant, the latter is rarely found in actual use today. Australian
print media, including digital media, today strongly favour -our
endings. A notable exception to this rule is the Australian Labor
Party, which adopted the American spelling in 1912 as a result of -or
spellings' comparative popularity at that time. Consistent with
British spellings, -re, rather than -er, is the only listed variant in
Australian dictionaries in words such as theatre, centre and
manoeuvre. Unlike British English, which is split between -ise and
-ize in words such as organise and realise, with -ize favoured by the
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary and -ise listed as a variant, -ize is rare
Australian English and designated as a variant by the Macquarie
Dictionary. Ae and oe are often maintained in words such as manoeuvre,
paedophilia and foetus (excepting those listed below); however, the
Macquarie dictionary lists forms with e (e.g., pedophilia, fetus) as
acceptable variants and notes a tendency within Australian English
towards using only e. Individual words where the preferred spelling is
listed by the
Macquarie Dictionary as being different from the British
spellings include "program" (in all contexts) as opposed to
"programme", "inquire" and derivatives "inquired", "inquiry", etc. as
opposed to "enquire" and derivatives, "analog" (as opposed to digital)
as opposed to "analogue", "livable" as opposed to "liveable",
"guerilla" as opposed to "guerrilla", "yoghurt" as opposed to
"yogurt", "verandah" as opposed to "veranda", "burqa" as opposed to
"burka", "pastie" (food) as opposed to "pasty". Unspaced
prepositions such as "onto", "anytime", "alright" and "anymore" are
also listed as being equally as acceptable as their spaced
Different spellings have existed throughout Australia's history. A
pamphlet entitled The So-Called "American Spelling", published in
Sydney some time in the 19th century, argued that "there is no valid
etymological reason for the preservation of the u in such words as
honor, labor, etc." The pamphlet also claimed that "the tendency
of people in Australasia is to excise the u, and one of the Sydney
morning papers habitually does this, while the other generally follows
the older form." What are today regarded as American spellings were
Australia throughout the late 19th and early 20th
centuries, with the Victorian Department of Education endorsing them
into the 1970s and
The Age newspaper until the 1990s. This influence
can be seen in the spelling of the
Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party and also in
some place names such as Victor Harbor. The Concise Oxford English
Dictionary has been attributed with re-establishing the dominance of
the British spellings in the 1920s and 1930s. For a short time
during the late 20th century, Harry Lindgren's 1969 spelling reform
proposal (Spelling Reform 1 or SR1) gained some support in Australia:
in 1975, the
Australian Teachers' Federation
Australian Teachers' Federation adopted
SR1 as a
SR1 calls for the short /e/ sound (as in bet) to be spelt
with E (for example friend→frend, head→hed).
Both single and double quotation marks are in use (with double
quotation marks being far more common in print media), with logical
(as opposed to typesetter's) punctuation. Spaced and unspaced
em-dashes remain in mainstream use, as with American and Canadian
English. The DD/MM/YYYY date format is followed and the 12-hour clock
is generally used in everyday life (as opposed to service, police, and
There are two major
English language keyboard layouts, the United
States layout and the
United Kingdom layout.
United States keyboard layout, which lacks pound sterling,
Euro currency and negation symbols. Punctuation symbols are also
placed differently from British keyboards.
The Australian National Dictionary
International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects
^ English (Australia) at
Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
^ "Unified English Braille". Australian Braille Authority. 18 May
2016. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
^ en-AU is the language code for Australian English, as defined by ISO
ISO 639-1 and ISO 3166-1 alpha-2) and Internet
standards (see IETF language tag).
^ a b "history & accent change Australian Voices".
Clas.mq.edu.au. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
^ a b c Moore, Bruce (2008). Speaking our Language: the Story of
Australian English. South Melbourne: Oxford
p. 69. ISBN 0-19-556577-0.
^ Burgess, Anthony (1992). A Mouthful of Air: Language and Languages,
especially English. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0091774152.
^ Blainey, Geoffrey (1993). The Rush that Never Ended: a History of
Australian Mining (4 ed.). Carlton, Vic.: Melbourne
^ "Canberra Facts and figures". Retrieved 15 August 2012.
^ Baker, Sidney J. (1945). The Australian Language (1st ed.). Sydney:
Angus and Robertson.
^ Bell, Philip; Bell, Roger (1998). Americanization and
publ. ed.). Sydney:
New South Wales
New South Wales Press.
^ Trudgill, Peter and Jean Hannah. (2002). International English: A
Guide to the Varieties of Standard English, 4th ed. London: Arnold.
ISBN 0-340-80834-9, p. 4.
^ Harrington, J.; F. Cox & Z. Evans (1997). "An acoustic phonetic
study of broad, general, and cultivated
Australian English vowels".
Australian Journal of Linguistics. 17 (2): 155–84.
^ a b Cox, Felicity; Fletcher, Janet (2017) [First published 2012],
Australian English Pronunciation and Transcription (2nd ed.),
University Press, ISBN 978-1-316-63926-9
^ Robert Mannell (14 August 2009). "
Australian English -
Impressionistic Phonetic Studies". Clas.mq.edu.au. Archived from the
original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
^ Cox & Palethorpe (2007:343)
^ Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, Cambridge: Cambridge
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^ Robert Mannell (14 August 2009). "Robert Mannell, "Impressionistic
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^ Australia's unique and evolving sound Edition 34, 2007 (23 August
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^ Bruce Moore (Australian Oxford Dictionary) and Felicity Cox
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^ Das, Sushi (29 January 2005). "Struth! Someone's nicked me Strine".
^ Corderoy, Amy (26 January 2010). "It's all English, but vowels ain't
voils". Sydney Morning Herald.
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^ Kellie Scott (5 January 2016). "Divide over potato cake and scallop,
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^ "The Macquarie Dictionary", Fourth Edition. The Macquarie Library
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effectiveness of policies and procedures in Australia's conversion to
the metric system (PDF). Canberra: Australian Government Publishing
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2017. Measurements used by people in their private lives, in
conversation or in estimation of sizes had not noticeably changed nor
was such a change even attempted or thought necessary.
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^ a b "Macquarie Dictionary". Macquarie Dictionary. Retrieved
^ a b http://oxforddictionaries.com
^ The So Called "American Spelling." Its Consistency Examined.
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Mitchell, Alexander G. (1995). The Story of Australian English.
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Look up Appendix:
Australian English vocabulary in Wiktionary, the free
Australian National Dictionary Centre
Ozwords—free newsletter from the Australian National Dictionary
Centre, which includes articles on Australian English
Australian Word Map at the ABC—documents regionalisms
R. Mannell, F. Cox and J. Harrington (2009), An Introduction to
Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University
Aussie English for beginners—the origins, meanings and a quiz to
test your knowledge at the National Museum of Australia.
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