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Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time (AWST; UTC+08:00), Australian Central Standard Time (ACST; UTC+09:30), and Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST; UTC+10:00).[1] Time is regulated by the individual state governments,[2] some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones. Standard time was introduced in the 1890s when all of the Australian colonies adopted it. Before the switch to standard time zones, each local city or town was free to determine its local time, called local mean time. Now, Western Australia
Western Australia
uses Western Standard Time; South Australia and the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
use Central Standard Time; while New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Victoria, and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) use Eastern Standard Time. Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
is used in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and the ACT. It is not currently used in Western Australia, Queensland
Queensland
or the Northern Territory.

Contents

1 History 2 Civil time and legislation

2.1 Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
(DST) 2.2 Anomalies 2.3 External territories 2.4 Special
Special
events 2.5 National times

3 IANA time zone database 4 Debate, trials and referendums

4.1 Queensland 4.2 Western Australia

5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

History[edit]

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The standardization of time in Australia began in 1892, when surveyors from the six colonies in Australia met in Melbourne
Melbourne
for the Intercolonial Conference of Surveyors. The delegates accepted the recommendation of the 1884 International Meridian Conference
International Meridian Conference
to adopt Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) as the basis for standard time. The colonies enacted time zone legislation, which took effect in February 1895. The clocks were set ahead of GMT by eight hours in Western Australia; by nine hours in South Australia
South Australia
(and the Northern Territory, which it governed); and by 10 hours in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania. The three time zones became known as Western Standard Time, Central Standard Time, and Eastern Standard Time. Broken Hill in the far west of New South Wales
New South Wales
also adopted Central Standard Time due to it being connected by rail to Adelaide but not Sydney
Sydney
at the time.[3] In May 1899, South Australia
South Australia
advanced Central Standard Time by thirty minutes (see above) after lobbying by businesses who wanted to be closer to Melbourne
Melbourne
time and cricketers and footballers who wanted more daylight to practice in the evenings [3] disregarding the common international practice of setting one-hour intervals between adjacent time zones.[why?]In doing so, South Australia
South Australia
also adopted a time meridian located outside its boundaries[why?] – another departure from international convention.[3] Attempts to correct these oddities in 1986 and 1994 were rejected.[why?] When the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
was separated from South Australia
South Australia
and placed under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government, that Territory kept Central Standard Time. Likewise, when the ACT was broken off from New South Wales, it retained Eastern Standard Time. Since 1899, the only major changes in Australian time zones have been the setting of clocks to one-half hour earlier than Eastern time (GMT plus 10:30) on the territory of Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island changing from UTC+11:30 to UTC+11:00 on 4 October 2015.[4] When abbreviating "Australian Central Time" and "Australian Eastern Time", in domestic contexts the leading "Australian" may be omitted; however, the prefix "A" is often used to avoid ambiguity with the time zone abbreviations "CST" and "EST" referring to the Central and Eastern Time Zones in North America.[citation needed] Civil time and legislation[edit] Though the governments of the states and territories have the power to legislate variations in time, the standard time within each of these is set related to Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) as determined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
International Bureau of Weights and Measures
and set by section 8AA of the National Measurement Act of 1960 [5] of the Commonwealth. Australia has kept a version of the UTC atomic time scale since the 1990s, but Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) remained the formal basis for the standard times of all of the states through 2005. In November 2004, the state and territory attorneys-general endorsed a proposal from the Australian National Measurement Institute to adopt UTC as the standard of all Australian standard times, thereby eliminating the effects of slight variations in the rate of rotation of the Earth that are inherent in mean solar time. All states have adopted the UTC standard, starting on 1 September 2005. In Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania
Tasmania
and the ACT, the starting and ending dates of daylight saving times are officially determined by proclamations, declarations, or regulation made by the State Governor or by the responsible minister. Such instruments may be valid for only the current year, and so this section generally only refers to the legislation. In New South Wales
New South Wales
and Western Australia, the starting and ending dates, if any, are to be set by legislation. Western Standard Time (WST) – UTC+08:00

Western Australia
Western Australia
– Standard Time Act 2005[6]

Central Standard Time (ACST) – UTC+09:30

South Australia
South Australia
– Standard Time Act 2009[7] and the Daylight Saving Act 1971[8] Northern Territory
Northern Territory
– Standard Time Act 2005[9]

Eastern Standard Time (AEST) – UTC+10:00

Queensland
Queensland
– Standard Time Act 1894[10] New South Wales
New South Wales
– Standard Time Act 1987 No 149[11] Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
– Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972[12] Victoria – Summer Time Act 1972[13] Tasmania
Tasmania
– Standard Time Act 1895[14] and the Daylight Saving Act 2007[15]

Time offsets during standard time

Time offsets during daylight-saving time (from Southern Hemisphere spring until autumn)

Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
(DST)[edit] Main article: Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time
in Australia

Play media

A vox-pop from the ABC in Tasmania
Tasmania
when DST was introduced in the 1970s

The choice of whether to use DST is a matter for the governments of the individual states and territories. However, during World War I and World War II all states and territories used daylight saving time (DST). In 1968 Tasmania
Tasmania
became the first state in peacetime to use DST, followed in 1971 by New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory. Western Australia
Western Australia
and the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
did not adopt it. Queensland
Queensland
abandoned DST in 1972. Queensland
Queensland
and Western Australia
Western Australia
have occasionally used DST during the past 40 years during trial periods. The main DST zones are the following:

(Australian) Central Daylight Saving Time (CDST or ACDT) – UTC+10:30, in South Australia (Australian) Eastern Daylight Saving Time (EDST or AEDT) – UTC+11, in New South Wales, the ACT, Victoria, and Tasmania

During the usual periods of DST, the three standard time zones in Australia become five zones. This includes the areas that do not observe DST: Western Australia
Western Australia
(UTC plus 8:00), the Northern Territory (UTC plus 9:30), and Queensland
Queensland
(UTC plus 10:00). The change to and from DST takes place at 2:00 am local standard time the appropriate Sunday. Until 2008, DST usually began on the last Sunday in October, and ended on the last Sunday in March. However, Tasmania, given its latitude further south, began DST earlier, on the first Sunday in October, and ended it later, on the first Sunday of April. On 12 April 2007, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and the ACT agreed to common beginning and ending dates for DST from 2008. DST in these states and South Australia
South Australia
began on the first Sunday in October and ended on the first Sunday in April. Western Australia
Western Australia
was then the only state to use DST from the last Sunday in October to the last Sunday in March, but it abolished DST in 2009.[16]

State/territory Start of DST End of DST

Western Australia

N/A

Queensland

Northern Territory

South Australia first Sunday in October first Sunday in April[17]

New South Wales

Australian Capital Territory

Victoria

Tasmania

Anomalies[edit]

Road sign near Broken Hill

Yancowinna County
Yancowinna County
in New South Wales

The town of Broken Hill (specified as Yancowinna County), is in far western New South Wales. Unlike the rest of New South Wales, Broken Hill (and the surrounding region) observes Australian Central Standard Time (UTC+9:30), a time zone it shares with South Australia
South Australia
and the Northern Territory. As mentioned above, at the time standard time was adopted, Broken Hill was linked by rail to Adelaide, not Sydney. Lord Howe Island, part of the state of New South Wales
New South Wales
but 600 kilometres (370 mi) east of the Australian mainland in the Pacific Ocean, uses UTC+10:30 during the winter months (30 minutes ahead of the eastern states), but advances to UTC+11:00 in summer (the same time as the rest of New South Wales). A compromise between Western and Central time (UTC+8:45, without DST), unofficially known as Central Western Standard Time, is used in one area in the southeastern corner of Western Australia
Western Australia
and one roadhouse in South Australia. Towns east of Caiguna
Caiguna
on the Eyre Highway (including Eucla,[18] Madura, Mundrabilla and Border Village, just over the border into South Australia), follow "CWST" instead of Western Australian time. The total population of that area is estimated at 200 people.[19] This area did not change when South Australia introduced DST. During the Western Australian trial of DST from 2006 to 2009, this area also sets its clocks ahead one hour during summer. This time zone is not officially recognised. The Indian Pacific
Indian Pacific
train has its own time zone – a so-called "train time" when travelling between Kalgoorlie, Western Australia
Western Australia
and Port Augusta, South Australia
South Australia
– which was at UTC plus 9:00 hours during November 2005 when DST was observed in the eastern and southern states. External territories[edit] Australia's external territories follow different time zones.

Territory Standard DST

Heard and McDonald Islands UTC+05:00 no DST

Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
CCT UTC+06:30 no DST

Christmas Island
Christmas Island
CXT UTC+07:00 no DST

Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
NFT UTC+11:00 no DST

Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
– Mawson UTC+05:00 no DST

Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
– Davis UTC+07:00 no DST

Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
– Casey UTC+11:00 no DST

Special
Special
events[edit] In 2000, all of the eastern jurisdictions that normally observe DST – New South Wales, Victoria, the ACT, and Tasmania
Tasmania
– began DST early because of the Summer Olympic Games held in Sydney. These jurisdictions moved to DST on 27 August 2000. South Australians did not change their clocks until the usual date, which was 29 October 2000. In 2006, all of the states that followed DST (the above states and South Australia) delayed their return to Standard Times by one week, because of the Commonwealth Games held in Melbourne. DST ended on 2 April 2006. National times[edit] There are situations in which a nationwide time is in effect. In the case of business activities, a national time can be used. For example, a prospectus for the issue of stock in a company would usually set the closing time for offers at some location (e.g. Sydney) as the time when offers must be received, regardless of the source of the offer. Similarly, tenders for their sale of stock usually set out the time at a given location by which they must be received to be considered. Another example is the Australian Stock Exchange
Australian Stock Exchange
which operates on Eastern Standard Time. On the other hand, Federal legislation yields to state-regulated standard times in many diverse situations. For example, it yields in setting the normal working times of Federal employees, the recognition of public holidays, etc. The Federal government also relies on local times for Federal elections, so that the polls in Western Australia close two or three hours after those in the eastern states. Also, documents to be filed in a Federal Court may be filed based on the local time. The effect of this is that if there had been a failure to file a legal document on time in an eastern State, that document can sometimes still be filed (within two hours) in Western Australia. IANA time zone database[edit] The 13 zones for Australia as given by zone.tab of the IANA time zone database. Columns marked * are from the zone.tab.

no. c.c.* coordinates* TZ* comments* Standard time Summer time

1 AU -3133+15905 Australia/Lord_Howe Lord Howe Island w-UTC+10:30 w UTC+11
UTC+11
(half hour difference only)

2 AQ -5430+15857 Antarctica/Macquarie Macquarie Island wUTC+11 -

3 AU -4253+14719 Australia/Hobart Tasmania
Tasmania
- most locations vUTC+10 wUTC+11

4 AU -3956+14352 Australia/Currie Tasmania
Tasmania
- King Island vUTC+10 wUTC+11

5 AU -3749+14458 Australia/Melbourne Victoria vUTC+10 wUTC+11

6 AU -3352+15113 Australia/Sydney New South Wales
New South Wales
- most locations vUTC+10 wUTC+11

7 AU -3157+14127 Australia/Broken_Hill New South Wales
New South Wales
- Yancowinna v-UTC+09:30 w-UTC+10:30

8 AU -2728+15302 Australia/Brisbane Queensland
Queensland
- most locations vUTC+10 -

9 AU -2016+14900 Australia/Lindeman Queensland
Queensland
- Holiday Islands vUTC+10 -

10 AU -3455+13835 Australia/Adelaide South Australia v-UTC+09:30 w-UTC+10:30

11 AU -1228+13050 Australia/Darwin Northern Territory v-UTC+09:30 -

12 AU -3157+11551 Australia/Perth Western Australia
Western Australia
- most locations tUTC+08 -

13 AU -3143+12852 Australia/Eucla Western Australia
Western Australia
- Eucla
Eucla
area u/UTC+08:45 -

14 NF -2903+16758 Pacific/Norfolk

u/UTC+11 -

Debate, trials and referendums[edit] Queensland[edit] Queensland
Queensland
has had a particularly involved debate over daylight saving time, with public opinion geographically divided. A referendum on DST in 1992, following a three-year trial (1989/90–1991/92), and was defeated with a 54.5 percent negative vote.[20] The referendum result displayed a distinct trend – that public opinion on DST in Queensland
Queensland
is geographically divided, with the negative vote being strongest in northern and western districts, while the positive vote being strongest in the southeastern region (e.g. in Brisbane).[21] Since the late 1900s, there have been a number of petitions submitted to Legislative Assembly of Queensland, lobbying for the introduction of daylight saving time or for another referendum to be held. A petition in 2006 was signed by 62,232 people.[22] In response to these petitions, then Queensland
Queensland
Premier Peter Beattie
Peter Beattie
commissioned research to find out if it should be re-introduced into Queensland. Around this time, Premier Peter Beattie
Peter Beattie
predicted that daylight saving in Queensland
Queensland
would increase the rate of skin cancer in the state, an assertion for which there is no evidence, according to the Queensland Cancer Fund.[23] In October 2007, the government-commissioned research was presented to the new Premier Anna Bligh, who ruled out holding a new referendum, despite the report indicating that 59 percent of the residents of Queensland
Queensland
and 69 percent of those in southeastern Queensland
Queensland
to be in favour of adopting daylight saving.[24] In December 2008, the Daylight Saving for South East Queensland (DS4SEQ) political Party was officially registered, to advocate for the use of a two-time-zone system for DST in Queensland, with most of the state (in land area) using standard time. This party contested the March 2009 Queensland
Queensland
State election with 32 candidates, and it received about one percent of the statewide primary vote.[25] In early 2010, the DS4SEQ political party approached the independent member, Peter Wellington, to introduce a private member's bill for DST.[26] Since Mr. Wellington agreed with the principles of the DS4SEQ proposal, specifically the dual-time-zone system, he drafted the DST for southeastern Queensland
Queensland
Referendum
Referendum
Bill of 2010 and he submitted this bill to Queensland
Queensland
Parliament on 14 April 2010.[27] Wellington has called for a referendum to be held at the next state election on the introduction of DST into southeastern Queensland
Queensland
under the dual-time-zone system. In response to this bill, the Premier of Queensland, Anna Bligh, announced a community consultation process, which resulted in over 74,000 respondents participating, 64 percent of whom voted in favour of a trial, and 63 percent of whom were in favour of holding a referendum.[28] The decision announced by the Premier on 7 June 2010 was that her Government would not support the bill because rural Queenslanders were overwhelmingly opposed to DST.[29] The Bill was defeated in Queensland
Queensland
Parliament on 15 June 2011.[30] Western Australia[edit] Western Australia
Western Australia
has also had a particularly involved debate over DST, with the issue being put to a referendum four times: in 1975, 1984, 1992, and 2009. All of these proposals to adopt DST were defeated. Voters registered a negative vote of 54.6 percent in the 2009 referendum, the highest percentage for all four of these referendums. Each referendum followed a trial period during which the state observed DST. The first three followed a one-year trial, while the 2006 Western Australian Daylight Saving Bill (No. 2) 2006 instituted a trial of DST beginning on 3 December 2006, and lasting for three years.[31] See also[edit]

Australia portal

List of time zones Daylight Saving for South East Queensland Daylight Saving for South East Queensland
Queensland
Referendum
Referendum
Act 2010 Queensland
Queensland
daylight saving referendum, 1992

Notes[edit]

^ "Official Australian government website". australia.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ Daylight Saving in New South Wales
New South Wales
Lawlink NSW. Retrieved 28 January 2012 ^ a b c "THE NEW STANDARD TIME". The Advertiser. Adelaide. 1 May 1899. p. 4. Retrieved 6 February 2015 – via National Library of Australia.  ^ Hardgrave, Gary (3 September 2015). " Norfolk Island
Norfolk Island
standard time changes 4 October 2015" (Press release). Administrator of Norfolk Island. Retrieved 4 October 2015.  ^ [1] ^ "slp.wa.gov" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2011.  ^ "South Australian Legislation". Legislation.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ "South Australian Legislation". Legislation.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ "STANDARD TIME ACT 2005". Notes.nt.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ "legislation.qld.gov" (PDF). Retrieved 20 September 2011.  ^ "Standard Time Act 1987 No 149". Legislation.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 21 June 2013.  ^ "ACT legislation register – Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 – main page". Legislation.act.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ "SUMMER TIME ACT 1972. Version incorporating amendments as at 31 May 2012". 31 May 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.  ^ "STANDARD TIME ACT 1895". 23 August 1895. Retrieved 23 October 2012.  ^ "Legislation View Page". Thelaw.tas.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ "Daylight Saving Time – Implementation". Bom.gov.au. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ "Daylight Saving in Victoria (Victoria Online)". Vic.gov.au. 21 September 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ Arrow, Bettina (16 December 2016). "Busy year wraps up for quarantine inspectors on Western Australia's border". ABC News. Retrieved 8 March 2017.  ^ "Border sign". Confluence.org. Retrieved 25 June 2010.  ^ "1992 Queensland
Queensland
Daylight Saving Referendum" (PDF). Retrieved 25 July 2010.  ^ Queensland
Queensland
Parliamentary Library; Research Brief No 2010/22 – Mary Westcott (July 2010). "1992 Daylight Saving in Queensland" (PDF). pp. 15, 19. Retrieved 29 January 2011.  ^ "Daylight Saving Petition". Retrieved 25 July 2010.  ^ "Daylight saving cancer claim disputed". The Sydney
Sydney
Morning Herald. 24 October 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2013.  ^ " Queensland
Queensland
Government-commissioned Daylight Saving Research" (PDF). Retrieved 25 July 2010.  ^ "Total Candidates Nominated for Election by Party – 2009 State Election". Electoral Commission of Queensland
Queensland
(ECQ). Retrieved 19 June 2010.  ^ "The Political Mouse that Roared". 16 April 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2010.  ^ "Daylight Saving for South East Queensland
Queensland
Referendum
Referendum
Bill 2010" (PDF). 14 April 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.  ^ " Queensland
Queensland
Government Daylight Saving for South East Queensland survey". Retrieved 25 July 2010.  ^ " Queensland
Queensland
Government Daylight Saving for South East Queensland decision". Retrieved 25 July 2010.  ^ "Daylight saving silence 'deafening'". 16 June 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.  ^ "Microsoft Word - D01 Daylight Saving Bill _No. 2_ 2006 _175-1B_.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 25 June 2010. 

References[edit]

The Australian National Time System National Standards Commission Leaflet No. 8, January 2003, linked via Wayback Machine NSW Legislative Council Hansard, 2 March 2005 Daylight Saving Petitions Daylight Saving Time – history of daylight saving time implementation dates at the Bureau of Meteorology website

External links[edit]

Information on time zones from official Government web site Daylight Saving for South East Queensland
Queensland
political party Official DS4SEQ website

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