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Aurelian
Aurelian
(Latin: Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus;[2][3] 9 September 214 or 215 – September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275. Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni
Alamanni
after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Aurelian
Aurelian
restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire
Palmyrene Empire
in 273. The following year he conquered the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
in the west, reuniting the Empire in its entirety. He was also responsible for the construction of the Aurelian Walls
Aurelian Walls
in Rome, and the abandonment of the province of Dacia. His successes were instrumental in ending the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century, earning him the title Restitutor Orbis or 'Restorer of the World'. Although Domitian
Domitian
was the first emperor who had demanded to be officially hailed as dominus et deus (master and god), these titles never occurred in written form on official documents until the reign of Aurelian.[4]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Military career

2.1 Service under Gallienus 2.2 Service under Claudius 2.3 Opposition to Quintillus

3 Emperor

3.1 The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 270s 3.2 Reunification of the empire

3.2.1 Defending Italy against the Iuthungi 3.2.2 Defeat of the Goths
Goths
and abandonment of Dacia 3.2.3 Conquest of the Palmyrene Empire 3.2.4 Conquest of the Gallic Empire

3.3 Reforms

3.3.1 Religious reform 3.3.2 Felicissimus' rebellion and coinage reform

4 Death 5 Legacy 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Primary sources 7.2 Secondary sources

8 Further reading 9 External links

Early life[edit] Aurelian
Aurelian
was born on 9 September, most likely in 214 AD, although 215 AD is also possible.[5] The ancient sources are not agreed on his place of birth, although he was generally accepted as being a native of Illyricum. Sirmium
Sirmium
in Pannonia Inferior
Pannonia Inferior
(now Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) is the preferred location,[6] which was created by Aurelian
Aurelian
as Emperor when he abandoned the old trans-Danubian territory of Dacia. The academic consensus is that he was of humble birth and that his father was a peasant-farmer who took his Roman nomen from his landlord, a senator of the clan Aurelius.[7] Saunders suggests that his family might in fact have been of Roman settler origin and of much higher social status; however, his suggestion has not been taken up by his more recent academic colleagues such as Southern and Watson. Using the evidence of the ancient sources, it was at one time suggested that Aurelian's mother was a freedwoman of a member of the clan Aurelius and that she herself was a priestess of the Sun-God in her native village. These two propositions, together with the tradition that the clan Aurelius had been entrusted with the maintenance of that deity's cult in Rome, inspired the notion that this could explain the devotion to the sun-god that Aurelian
Aurelian
was to manifest as Emperor - see below. However, it seems that this pleasant extrapolation of dubious facts is now generally accepted as being no more than just that.[8] Military career[edit] It is commonly accepted that Aurelian
Aurelian
probably joined the army in 235 AD at around age twenty.[7] It is also generally assumed that, as a member of the lowest rank of society - albeit a citizen[9] - he would have enlisted in the ranks of the legions. Idiosyncratically, Saunders suggests that his career is more easily understood if it is assumed that his family was of Roman settler origins with a tradition of military service and that he enlisted as an equestrian.[10] This would have opened up for him the tres militia - the three steps of the equestrian military career - one of the routes to higher equestrian office in the Imperial Service.[11] This could be a more expeditious route to senior military and procuratorial offices than that pursued by ex-rankers, although not necessarily less laborious.[12] However, Saunders's conjecture as to Aurelian's early career is not supported by any evidence other than his nomen which could indicate Italian settler ancestry - although even this is contested - and his rise to the highest ranks which is more easily understood if he did not have to start from the bottom. His suggestion has not been taken up by other academic authorities. Whatever his origins, Aurelian
Aurelian
certainly must have built up a very solid reputation for military competence during the tumultuous mid-decades of the century. To be sure, the exploits detailed in the Historia Augusta
Historia Augusta
vita Divi Aureliani, while not always impossible, are not supported by any independent evidence and one at least is demonstrably an invention typical of that author.[13] However, he was probably associated with Gallienus's cavalry army and shone as an officer of that corps d'élite because, when he finally emerged in a historically reliable context in the early part of the reign of Claudius
Claudius
II, he seems to have been its commander.[14] Service under Gallienus[edit] His successes as a cavalry commander ultimately made him a member of emperor Gallienus' entourage. In 268, Aurelian
Aurelian
and his cavalry participated in general Claudius' victory over the Goths
Goths
at the Battle of Naissus.[15] Later that year Gallienus
Gallienus
traveled to Italy and fought Aureolus, his former general and now usurper for the throne. Driving Aureolus
Aureolus
back into Mediolanum, Gallienus
Gallienus
promptly besieged his adversary in the city. However, while the siege was ongoing the Emperor was assassinated. One source says Aurelian, who was present at the siege, participated and supported general Claudius
Claudius
for the purple – which is plausible.[16] Aurelian
Aurelian
was married to Ulpia Severina, about whom little is known. Like Aurelian
Aurelian
she was from Dacia.[17] They are known to have had a daughter together.[18] Service under Claudius[edit] Claudius
Claudius
was acclaimed Emperor by the soldiers outside Mediolanum. The new Emperor immediately ordered the senate to deify Gallienus.[19] Next, he began to distance himself from those responsible for his predecessor's assassination, ordering the execution of those directly involved.[19] Aureolus
Aureolus
was still besieged in Mediolanum and sought reconciliation with the new emperor, but Claudius
Claudius
had no sympathy for a potential rival. The emperor had Aureolus
Aureolus
killed and one source implicates Aurelian
Aurelian
in the deed, perhaps even signing the warrant for his death himself.[19] During the reign of Claudius, Aurelian
Aurelian
was promoted rapidly: he was given command of the elite Dalmatian cavalry, and was soon promoted to overall Magister equitum, effectively the head of the army after the Emperor – and the Emperor Claudius' own position before his acclamation.[19] The war against Aureolus
Aureolus
and the concentration of forces in Italy allowed the Alamanni
Alamanni
to break through the Rhaetian limes along the upper Danube. Marching through Raetia
Raetia
and the Alps unhindered, they entered northern Italy and began pillaging the area. In early 269, emperor Claudius
Claudius
and Aurelian
Aurelian
marched north to meet the Alamanni, defeating them decisively at the Battle of Lake Benacus.[20] While still dealing with the defeated enemy, news came from the Balkans
Balkans
reporting large-scale attacks from the Heruli, Goths, Gepids, and Bastarnae.[20] Claudius
Claudius
immediately dispatched Aurelian
Aurelian
to the Balkans
Balkans
to contain the invasion as best he could until Claudius
Claudius
could arrive with his main army.[21] The Goths
Goths
were besieging Thessalonica when they heard of emperor Claudius' approach, causing them to abandon the siege and pillage north-eastern Macedonia. Aurelian
Aurelian
intercepted the Goths
Goths
with his Dalmatian cavalry and defeated them in a series of minor skirmishes, killing as many as three thousand of the enemy.[21] Aurelian
Aurelian
continued to harass the enemy, driving them northward into Upper Moesia
Upper Moesia
where emperor Claudius
Claudius
had assembled his main army. The ensuing battle was indecisive: the northward advance of the Goths
Goths
was halted but Roman losses were heavy.[21] Claudius
Claudius
could not afford another pitched battle, so he instead laid a successful ambush, killing thousands. However, the majority of the Goths
Goths
escaped and began retreating south the way they had come. For the rest of year, Aurelian
Aurelian
harassed the enemy with his Dalmatian cavalry.[22] Now stranded in Roman territory, the Goths' lack of provisions began to take its toll. Aurelian, sensing his enemies' desperation, attacked them with the full force of his cavalry, killing many and driving the remainder westward into Thrace.[22] As winter set in, the Goths retreated into the Haemus Mountains, only to find themselves trapped and surrounded. The harsh conditions now exacerbated their shortage of food. However, the Romans underestimated the Goths
Goths
and let their guard down, allowing the enemy to break through their lines and escape. Apparently emperor Claudius
Claudius
ignored advice, perhaps from Aurelian, and withheld the cavalry and sent in only the infantry to stop their break-out. The determined Goths
Goths
killed many of the oncoming infantry and were only prevented from slaughtering them all when Aurelian
Aurelian
finally charged in with his Dalmatian cavalry. The Goths
Goths
still managed to escape and continued their march through Thrace.[22] The Roman army continued to follow the Goths
Goths
during the spring and summer of 270. Meanwhile, a devastating plague swept through the Balkans, killing many soldiers in both armies. Emperor Claudius
Claudius
fell ill on the march to the battle and returned to his regional headquarters in Sirmium, leaving Aurelian
Aurelian
in charge of operations against the Goths.[22] Aurelian
Aurelian
used his cavalry to great effect, breaking the Goths
Goths
into smaller groups which were easier to deal with. By late summer the Goths
Goths
were defeated: any survivors were stripped of their animals and booty and were levied into the army or settled as farmers in frontier regions.[22] Aurelian
Aurelian
had no time to relish his victories; in late August news arrived from Sirmium
Sirmium
that emperor Claudius
Claudius
was dead.[23] Opposition to Quintillus[edit] When Claudius
Claudius
died, his brother Quintillus
Quintillus
seized power with support of the Senate. With an act typical of the Crisis of the Third Century, the army refused to recognize the new Emperor, preferring to support one of its own commanders: Aurelian
Aurelian
was proclaimed emperor in September 270 by the legions in Sirmium. Aurelian
Aurelian
defeated Quintillus' troops, and was recognized as Emperor by the Senate after Quintillus' death. The claim that Aurelian
Aurelian
was chosen by Claudius
Claudius
on his death bed[24] can be dismissed as propaganda; later, probably in 272, Aurelian
Aurelian
put his own dies imperii the day of Claudius' death, thus implicitly considering Quintillus
Quintillus
a usurper.[25] With his base of power secure, he now turned his attention to Rome's greatest problems — recovering the vast territories lost over the previous two decades, and reforming the res publica. Emperor[edit] The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 270s[edit]

Aurelian
Aurelian
was a military commander, and during his reign he tried to keep legions' fidelity; this coin celebrated the CONCORDIA MILITVM, "concord of the soldiers" – in other words, "harmony between the emperor and the military".

In 248, Emperor Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
had celebrated the millennium of the city of Rome
Rome
with great and expensive ceremonies and games, and the Empire had given a tremendous proof of self-confidence. In the following years, however, the Empire had to face a huge pressure from external enemies, while, at the same time, dangerous civil wars threatened the empire from within, with usurpers weakening the strength of the state. Also, the economic substrate of the state, agriculture and commerce, suffered from the disruption caused by the instability. On top of this an epidemic swept through the Empire around 250, greatly diminishing manpower both for the army and for agriculture. The end result was that the Empire could not endure the blow of the capture of Emperor Valerian in 260 by the Sassanids. The eastern provinces found their protectors in the rulers of the city of Palmyra, in Syria, whose autonomy grew until the formation of the Palmyrene Empire, which was successful in defending against the Sassanid
Sassanid
threat. The western provinces, those facing the limes of the Rhine, seceded to form a third, autonomous state within the territories of the Roman Empire, which is now known as the Gallic Empire. In Rome, the Emperor was occupied with internal menaces to his power and with the defense of Italia and the Balkans. Reunification of the empire[edit] The first actions of the new Emperor were aimed at strengthening his own position in his territories. Late in 270, Aurelian
Aurelian
campaigned in northern Italia against the Vandals, Juthungi, and Sarmatians, expelling them from Roman territory. To celebrate these victories, Aurelian
Aurelian
was granted the title of Germanicus Maximus.[26] The authority of the Emperor was challenged by several usurpers — Septimius, Urbanus, Domitianus, and the rebellion of Felicissimus — who tried to exploit the sense of insecurity of the empire and the overwhelming influence of the armies in Roman politics. Aurelian, being an experienced commander, was aware of the importance of the army, and his propaganda, known through his coinage, shows he wanted the support of the legions.[25] Defending Italy against the Iuthungi[edit]

The Porta Asinara, a gate in the Aurelian
Aurelian
Walls.

The burden of the northern barbarians was not yet over, however. In 271, the Alamanni
Alamanni
moved towards Italia, entering the Po plain and sacking the villages; they passed the Po River, occupied Placentia and moved towards Fano. Aurelian, who was in Pannonia to control the Vandals' withdrawal, quickly entered Italia, but his army was defeated in an ambush near Placentia (January 271). When the news of the defeat arrived in Rome, it caused great fear for the arrival of the barbarians. But Aurelian
Aurelian
attacked the Alamanni
Alamanni
camping near the Metaurus River, defeating them in the Battle of Fano, and forcing them to re-cross the Po river; Aurelian
Aurelian
finally routed them at Pavia. For this, he received the title Germanicus Maximus. However, the menace of the Germanic people remained high as perceived by the Romans, so Aurelian
Aurelian
resolved to build the walls that became known as the Aurelian Walls around Rome.[27] Defeat of the Goths
Goths
and abandonment of Dacia[edit] The emperor led his legions to the Balkans, where he defeated and routed the Goths
Goths
beyond the Danube, killing the Gothic leader Cannabaudes, and assuming the title of Gothicus Maximus. However, he decided to abandon the province of Dacia, on the exposed north bank of the Danube, as too difficult and expensive to defend. He reorganized a new province of Dacia
Dacia
south of the Danube, inside the former Moesia, called Dacia
Dacia
Aureliana, with Serdica
Serdica
as the capital.[28] Conquest of the Palmyrene Empire[edit]

The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
by 271 A.D before the reconquest of the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
by Aurelian

Aurelian, personification of Sol, defeats the Palmyrene Empire, and celebrates ORIENS AVG – oriens Augusti: the rising sun/star of Augustus.

In 272, Aurelian
Aurelian
turned his attention to the lost eastern provinces of the empire, the so-called "Palmyrene Empire" ruled by Queen Zenobia from the city of Palmyra.[29] Zenobia
Zenobia
had carved out her own empire, encompassing Syria, Palestine, Egypt
Egypt
and large parts of Asia Minor. The Syrian queen cut off Rome's shipments of grain, and in a matter of weeks, the Romans started running low on bread. In the beginning, Aurelian
Aurelian
had been recognized as Emperor, while Vaballathus, the son of Zenobia, held the title of rex and imperator ("king" and "supreme military commander"), but Aurelian
Aurelian
decided to invade the eastern provinces as soon as he felt his army to be strong enough. Asia Minor
Asia Minor
was recovered easily; every city but Byzantium
Byzantium
and Tyana surrendered to him with little resistance. The fall of Tyana
Tyana
lent itself to a legend: Aurelian
Aurelian
to that point had destroyed every city that resisted him, but he spared Tyana
Tyana
after having a vision of the great 1st-century philosopher Apollonius of Tyana, whom he respected greatly, in a dream. Apollonius implored him, stating, "Aurelian, if you desire to rule, abstain from the blood of the innocent! Aurelian, if you will conquer, be merciful!" Whatever the reason, Aurelian
Aurelian
spared Tyana. It paid off; many more cities submitted to him upon seeing that the Emperor would not exact revenge upon them. Within six months, his armies stood at the gates of Palmyra, which surrendered when Zenobia
Zenobia
tried to flee to the Sassanid
Sassanid
Empire. The "Palmyrene Empire" was no more. Eventually Zenobia
Zenobia
and her son were captured and made to walk on the streets of Rome
Rome
in his triumph, the woman in golden chains. With the grain stores once again shipped to Rome, Aurelian's soldiers handed out free bread to the citizens of the city, and the Emperor was hailed a hero by his subjects. After a brief clash with the Persians and another in Egypt
Egypt
against the usurper Firmus, Aurelian
Aurelian
was obliged to return to Palmyra
Palmyra
in 273 when that city rebelled once more. This time, Aurelian
Aurelian
allowed his soldiers to sack the city, and Palmyra
Palmyra
never recovered. More honors came his way; he was now known as Parthicus Maximus and Restitutor Orientis ("Restorer of the East").[25] The rich province of Egypt
Egypt
was also recovered by Aurelian. The Brucheion (Royal Quarter) in Alexandria was burned to the ground. This section of the city once contained the Library of Alexandria, although the extent of the surviving Library in Aurelian's time is uncertain. Conquest of the Gallic Empire[edit] In 274, the victorious emperor turned his attention to the west, and the "Gallic Empire" which had already been reduced in size by Claudius II. Aurelian
Aurelian
won this campaign largely through diplomacy; the "Gallic Emperor" Tetricus was willing to abandon his throne and allow Gaul and Britain to return to the Empire, but could not openly submit to Aurelian. Instead, the two seem to have conspired so that when the armies met at Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
that autumn, Tetricus simply deserted to the Roman camp and Aurelian
Aurelian
easily defeated the Gallic army facing him.[citation needed] Tetricus was rewarded for his part in the conspiracy with a high-ranking position in Italy itself.

A Radiate of Aurelian

A Radiate of Aurelian

Aurelian
Aurelian
returned to Rome
Rome
and won his last honorific from the Senate – Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World"). This title was first assumed by Aurelian
Aurelian
in late summer of 272, and had been carried previously by both Valerian and Gallienus.[30] In four years, Aurelian had secured the frontiers of the Empire and reunified it, effectively giving the Empire a new lease on life that lasted 200 years. Reforms[edit] Aurelian
Aurelian
was a reformer, and settled many important functions of the imperial apparatus, dealing with the economy and religion. He restored many public buildings, re-organized the management of the food reserves, set fixed prices for the most important goods, and prosecuted misconduct by the public officers. Religious reform[edit] Aurelian
Aurelian
strengthened the position of the Sun god Sol Invictus
Sol Invictus
as the main divinity of the Roman pantheon. His intention was to give to all the peoples of the Empire, civilian or soldiers, easterners or westerners, a single god they could believe in without betraying their own gods. The center of the cult was a new temple, built in 274 and dedicated on December 25[31] of that year in the Campus Agrippae in Rome, with great decorations financed by the spoils of the Palmyrene Empire. During his short rule, Aurelian
Aurelian
seemed to follow the principle of "one faith, one empire", which would not be made official until the Edict of Thessalonica. He appears with the title deus et dominus natus ("God and born ruler") on some of his coins, a style also later adopted by Diocletian. Lactantius
Lactantius
argued that Aurelian
Aurelian
would have outlawed all the other gods if he had had enough time. He was recorded by Christian historians as having organized persecutions.[32] Felicissimus' rebellion and coinage reform[edit] Aurelian's reign records the only uprising of mint workers. The rationalis Felicissimus, a senior public financial official whose responsibilities included supervision of the mint at Rome, revolted against Aurelian. The revolt seems to have been caused by the fact that the mint workers, and Felicissimus first, were accustomed to stealing the silver for the coins and producing coins of inferior quality. Aurelian
Aurelian
wanted to eliminate this, and put Felicissimus on trial. The rationalis incited the mintworkers to revolt: the rebellion spread in the streets, even if it seems that Felicissimus was killed immediately, presumably executed. The Palmyrene rebellion in Egypt
Egypt
had probably reduced the grain supply to Rome, thus disaffecting the population to the emperor. This rebellion also had the support of some senators, probably those who had supported the election of Quintillus, and thus had something to fear from Aurelian. Aurelian
Aurelian
ordered the urban cohorts, reinforced by some regular troops of the imperial army, to attack the rebelling mob: the resulting battle, fought on the Caelian hill, marked the end of the revolt, even if at a high price (some sources give the figure, probably exaggerated, of 7,000 casualties). Many of the rebels were executed; also some of the supporting senators were put to death. The mint of Rome
Rome
was closed temporarily, and the institution of several other mints caused the main mint of the empire to lose its hegemony.[33] His monetary reformation included the introduction of antoniniani containing 5% silver. They bore the mark XXI (or its Greek numerals form KA), which meant that twenty of such coins would contain the same silver quantity of an old silver denarius.[34] Considering that this was an improvement over the previous situation gives an idea of the severity of the economic situation Aurelian
Aurelian
faced. The Emperor struggled to introduce the new "good" coin by recalling all the old "bad" coins prior to their introduction.[25] Death[edit] In 275, Aurelian
Aurelian
marched towards Asia Minor, preparing another campaign against the Sassanids: the deaths of Kings Shapur I
Shapur I
(272) and Hormizd I
Hormizd I
(273) in quick succession, and the rise to power of a weakened ruler (Bahram I), set the possibility to attack the Sassanid Empire. On his way, the Emperor suppressed a revolt in Gaul — possibly against Faustinus, an officer or usurper of Tetricus — and defeated barbarian marauders in Vindelicia
Vindelicia
(Germany). However, Aurelian
Aurelian
never reached Persia, as he was murdered while waiting in Thrace
Thrace
to cross into Asia Minor. As an administrator, Aurelian
Aurelian
had been very strict and handed out severe punishments to corrupt officials or soldiers. A secretary of Aurelian
Aurelian
(called Eros by Zosimus) had told a lie on a minor issue. In fear of what the Emperor might do, he forged a document listing the names of high officials marked by the emperor for execution and showed it to collaborators. The notarius Mucapor and other high-ranking officers of the Praetorian Guard, fearing punishment from the Emperor, murdered him in September 275, in Caenophrurium, Thrace
Thrace
(modern Turkey). Aurelian's enemies in the Senate briefly succeeded in passing damnatio memoriae on the Emperor, but this was reversed before the end of the year and Aurelian, like his predecessor Claudius
Claudius
II, was deified as Divus Aurelianus. There is substantial evidence that Aurelian's wife Ulpia Severina, who had been declared Augusta in 274, may have ruled the Empire by her own power for some time after his death.[17][18] The sources indicate that there was an interregnum between Aurelian's death and the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus
Marcus Claudius Tacitus
as his successor. Additionally, some of Ulpia's coins appear to have been minted after Aurelian's death.[18] Legacy[edit] Aurelian's short reign reunited a fragmented Empire while saving Rome from barbarian invasions that had reached Italy itself. His death prevented a full restoration of political stability and a lasting dynasty that could end the cycle of assassination of emperors and civil war that marked this period. Even so, he brought the Empire through a very critical period in its history, and without Aurelian
Aurelian
it may never have survived the invasions and fragmentation of the decade in which he reigned. Much hard fighting remained for his successors before the Empire finally regained the initiative against the Persians and the northern barbarian peoples, and it would be another twenty years or more before Diocletian
Diocletian
fully restored stability and ended the Crisis of the third century. However, after that the Western half of the Empire would survive another two hundred years, while the East would last another millennium, and for that Aurelian
Aurelian
must be allowed much of the credit. The city of Orléans
Orléans
in France is named after Aurelian. Originally named Cenabum, Aurelian
Aurelian
rebuilt and renamed it Aurelianum or Aureliana Civitas ("city of Aurelian", cité d'Aurélien), which evolved into Orléans. The city of New Orleans
New Orleans
(in French, La Nouvelle-Orléans), in Louisiana, United States
United States
is named after the commune of Orléans, and therefore by extension, Aurelian. [35]

Notes[edit]

^ White, John (2015). The Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Aurelian
Aurelian
Restorer of the World New Revised Version. Pen & Sword. p. 139.  ^ In Classical Latin, Aurelian's name would be inscribed as LVCIVS DOMITIVS AVRELIANVS AVGVSTVS. ^ His full name, with honorific and victory titles, was Imperator Caesar Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus, Germanicus Maximus, Gothicus Maximus, Parthicus Maximus, Restitutor Orientis, Restitutor Orbis. ^ G.H. Halsberghe, The Cult of Sol Invictus, Leiden, 1972, p. 152. ^ Saunders(1992:104-6) ^ Milošević(2010:pp 106-7) ^ a b Watson(1999:1). ^ Saunders(1992:107). ^ Had Aurelian's family been enfranchised by virtue of the Constitutio Antoniniana (212 AD) his nomen would have been "Aurelius". ^ Saunders(1992:109). ^ The tres militia were: (I) prefecture of a cohort of auxiliary infantry; (ii) tribunate of a legionary cohort; and (iii) prefecture of an ala of auxiliary cavalry. ^ Compare the career of Pertinax
Pertinax
who pursued the Tres Militia with those of Publius Aelius Aelianus, Lucius Aurelius Marcianus (both probably) and Traianus Mucianus (certainly) who rose e caliga - i.e. through the ranks. ^ For instance, vita Divi Aureliani paras 5.5-6, 6.3-5, and 7.1-2. If he ever was a tribune of a legion as suggested in 7.1-2 it could not have been with Legio VII Gallicana as that unit never existed. ^ Saunders(1992:129-130). ^ Watson, p. 41 ^ Aurelius Victor, xxxiii,21. Other sources do not cite Aurelian
Aurelian
among those who conspired against Gallienus, though different sources have claimed that he was the one who called Gallienus
Gallienus
out of his tent under a proposed "conspiracy" at that point Gallienus
Gallienus
was stabbbed. ^ a b Watson, Alaric (1999). Aurelian
Aurelian
and the Third Century. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4.  ^ a b c Körner, Christian (23 December 2008). " Aurelian
Aurelian
(A.D. 270–275)". De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2011.  ^ a b c d Watson, p. 42 ^ a b Watson, p. 43 ^ a b c Watson, p. 44 ^ a b c d e Watson, p. 45 ^ Watson, p. 46 ^ Zonaras. ^ a b c d Korner. ^ Zosimus, 1,48f.; Eutropius; Dexippus, FGrH IIA 460 F7; Historia Augusta – Aurelianus xxi,1–3 and xviii,2. ^ Watson, pp. 51–54, 217. ^ Watson, pp. 54–55. ^ The war against the Palmyrene Empire
Palmyrene Empire
is described in Zosimus, 1,50,1–1,61,1, and Historia Augusta, Aurelianus, 22–31. ^ Watson 1999 ^ Manfred Clauss, Die römischen Kaiser - 55 historische Portraits von Caesar bis Iustinian, ISBN 978-3-406-47288-6, p. 250 ^ For example, in the Annales Cambriae, B & C Texts. ^ Watson, pp. 52–53. ^ Watson, p. 130. Later emperors Tacitus and Carus
Carus
would mint coins with the legends XI or IA, signalling a 10% of silver in the alloy. ^ For an exact etymology, see Cenabum, Aurelianis, Orléans
Orléans
de Jacques Debal (Coll. Galliae civitates, Lyon, PUL, 1996)

References[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Aurelius Victor Epitome de Caesaribus, xxxv "Epitome de Caesaribus" (4th century) Eutropius, Breviarium historiae Romanae, IX. 13–15 (4th century) Historia Augusta
Historia Augusta
Aurelianus Life of Aurelian
Aurelian
Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Zosimus, Historia Nova Translation of the Historia Nova (published in 1814), book 1, (5th–6th century) Joannes
Joannes
Zonaras, Compendium of History Compendium excerpt: Claudius
Claudius
to Diocletian
Diocletian
268–284(12th century)

Secondary sources[edit]

Körner, Christian (2001-07-20). "Aurelian". De Imperatoribus Romanis. Archived from the original on 20 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-04.  (Korner:2001) Saunders, Randall Titus
Titus
(1992). A biography of the Emperor Aurelian (AD 270-275). Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Dissertation Services.  (Saunders:1992); Southern, Pat (2001). The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 0-415-23944-3.  (Southern:2001); Watson, Alaric (1999). Aurelian
Aurelian
and the Third Century. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07248-4.  (Watson:1999).

Further reading[edit]

White, John F (2005). Restorer of the World: The Roman Emperor Aurelian. Tempus Publishing. ISBN 1-86227-250-6. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Aurelianus.

Aurelian
Aurelian
coinage, at Wildwinds.com On coins of Aurelian
Aurelian
with the title dominus et deus (Section 1.9)

Regnal titles

Preceded by Quintillus Roman Emperor 270–275 Succeeded by Marcus Claudius
Claudius
Tacitus

Political offices

Preceded by Flavius Antiochianus , Virius Orfitus , Victorinus Consul of the Roman Empire 271 with Pomponius Bassus , Tetricus I Succeeded by Titus
Titus
Flavius Postumius Quietus, Junius Veldumnianus , Tetricus I

Preceded by M. Claudius
Claudius
Tacitus, Iulius Placidianus , Tetricus I Consul of the Roman Empire 274–275 with Capitolinus, Marcellinus Succeeded by Imp. Caesar M. Claudius
Claudius
Tacitus Augustus
Augustus
II, Aemilianus
Aemilianus
II

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus ( Domitianus
Domitianus
II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 77109448 LCCN: nr93015014 ISNI: 0000 0001 2140 570X GND: 11865117X SELIBR: 208488 SUDOC: 032089708 BNF: cb12318705r (data) NLA: 47753272

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