Schack August Steenberg Krogh ForMemRS (November 15, 1874 – September 13, 1949) was a Danish professor at the department of zoophysiology at the University of Copenhagen from 1916 to 1945. He contributed a number of fundamental discoveries within several fields of physiology, and is famous for developing the Krogh Principle. In 1920 August Krogh was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the mechanism of regulation of the capillaries in skeletal muscle. Krogh was first to describe the adaptation of blood perfusion in muscle and other organs according to demands through opening and closing the arterioles and capillaries. Besides his contributions to medicine, Krogh was also one of the founders of what is today Novo Nordisk.
1 Life 2 Publications 3 Family 4 Legacy 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External links
Life He was born in Grenaa on the peninsula of Jutland in Denmark, the son of Viggo Krogh, a shipbuilder. He was educated at the Gymnasium Aarhus in Jutland. He attended the University of Copenhagen graduating MSc in 1899 and gaining a doctorate PhD in 1903. Krogh was a pioneer in comparative physiology. He wrote his thesis on the respiration through the skin and lungs in frogs: Respiratory Exchange of Animals, 1915. Later Krogh took on studies of water and electrolyte homeostasis of aquatic animals and he published the books: Osmotic Regulation (1939) and Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanisms (1941). He contributed more than 200 research articles in international journals. He was a constructor of scientific instruments of which several had considerable practical importance, e.g. the spirometer and the apparatus for measuring basal metabolic rate. Krogh began lecturing in the University of Copenhagen in 1908 and in 1916 was promoted to full Professor becoming the head of the first laboratory for animal physiology (zoophysiology) at the university. Krogh and his wife Marie brought insulin to Denmark shortly after its discovery in 1922 by Nicolae Paulescu. Marie, a doctor who had patients with type 1 diabetes, was herself suffering from type 2 diabetes and was naturally very interested in the disease. Together with a doctor, Hagedorn, August and Marie Krogh founded Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium, where Krogh made decisive contributions to establishing a Danish production of insulin by ethanol extraction of the hormone from the pancreatic glands of pigs. In the 1930s, Krogh worked with two other Nobel prizewinners, the radiochemist George de Hevesy and the physicist Niels Bohr on the permeability of membranes to heavy water and radioactive isotopes, and together they managed to obtain Denmark's first cyclotron for experiments on animal and plant physiology, as well as in dental and medical work. Publications
The Respiratory Exchange of Animals and Man (1916) Osmatic Regulation in Aquatic Animals (1939) The Comparative Physiology of Respiratory Mechanisms (1941)
Family He married Marie Jorgenson in 1905. Much of Krogh's work was carried out in collaboration with his wife, Marie Krogh (1874–1943), a renowned scientist in her own right. August and Marie had four children, the youngest of whom, Bodil, was born in 1918. She too was a physiologist, and became the first woman president of the American Physiological Society in 1975. Bodil married another eminent physiologist, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen. Legacy Torkel Weis-Fogh, an eminent pioneer on the study of insect flight, was a student of August Krogh's. Together they wrote a classic paper on that subject in 1951. Krogh's name is preserved in two items now named for him:
Krogh length, the distance between capillaries which nutrients diffuse to, based on cellular consumption of the nutrients. Krogh's principle, that "for ... a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice, or a few such animals, on which it can be most conveniently studied."
Larsen, E. H. (2001). "August Krogh and the laboratory of animal physiology situated at Ny Vestergade 11". Ugeskrift for Laeger. 163 (51): 7240–7248. PMID 11797555. Kardel, T. (1999). "About the seven little devils who changed physiology. August and Marie Krogh on pulmonary gas exchange". Ugeskrift for Laeger. 161 (51): 7112–7116. PMID 10647306. Schmidt-Nielsen, B. (1984). "August and Marie Krogh and respiratory physiology". Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology. 57 (2): 293–303. PMID 6381437. Poulsen, J. E. (1975). "The impact of August Krogh on the insulin treatment of diabetes and our present status". Acta Medica Scandinavica. Supplementum. 578: 7–14. PMID 1098401. Dejours, P. (1975). "August Krogh and the physiology of respiration". Scandinavian Journal of Respiratory Diseases. 56 (6): 337–346. PMID 769148. Kenez, J. (1965). "The Capillaries and Krogh". Orvosi Hetilap. 106: 177–178. PMID 14275297.
^ Krebs, H. A. (1975). "The August Krogh Principle: "For many problems there is an animal on which it can be most conveniently studied"". Journal of Experimental Zoology. 194 (1): 221–6. doi:10.1002/jez.1401940115. PMID 811756. ^ Hill, A. V. (1950). "August Schack Steenberg Krogh. 1874-1949". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 7 (19): 220. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1950.0014. ^ Drinker, C. K. (1950). "August Krogh: 1874-1949". Science. 112 (2900): 105–107. doi:10.1126/science.112.2900.105. PMID 15442251. ^ Liljestrand, G. (1950). "August Krogh". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 20 (2–3): 109–116. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1950.tb00688.x. PMID 15413515. ^ "Deaths of C. M. Wenyon, Clifford Dobell and A. Krogh". Comptes rendus des séances de la Société de biologie et de ses filiales. 144 (3–4): 160–1. 1950. PMID 15420871. ^ "August Krogh (1874-1949) the physiologist's physiologist". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association. 199 (7): 496–497. 1967. doi:10.1001/jama.199.7.496. PMID 5335475. ^ Hurst, J. W.; Fye, W. B.; Zimmer, H. G. (2006). "August Krogh". Clinical Cardiology. 29 (5): 231–233. doi:10.1002/clc.4960290514. PMID 16739398. ^ Rehberg, P. B. (1951). "August Krogh, November 15, 1874-September 13, 1949". The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 24 (2): 83–102. PMC 2599127 . PMID 14901880. ^ Larsen, E. H. (2007). "August Krogh (1874-1949): 1920 Nobel Prize". Ugeskrift for Laeger. 169 (35): 2878. PMID 17877986. ^ Sulek, K. (1967). "Nobel prize for August Krogh in 1920 for his discovery of regulative mechanism in the capillaries". Wiadomosci Lekarskie. 20 (19): 1829. PMID 4870667. ^ a b "August Krogh - Facts". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2 August 2016. ^ "The Founders". www.novonordisk.com. Retrieved 2016-11-30. ^ BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH 1783 – 2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X. ^ a b "George de Hevesy: Explosion of new knowledge". Niels Bohr Institute. Retrieved 2 August 2016. ^ a b "The Founders". Novo Nordisk. Retrieved 2 August 2016. ^ Dantzler, William H. (July 2015). "Obituary Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen (1918-2015) 48th APS President". Retrieved December 17, 2015. ^ Living history of physiology: Bodil Schmidt-Nielsen (Prof. William Dantzler. University of Arizona)  ^ 48th APS President (1975-1976)Bodil M. Schmidt-Nielsen (American Physiological Society) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-11-21. Retrieved 2009-11-03. ^ Krogh, August; Weis-Fogh, Torkel (1951). "The Respiratory Exchange of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca Gregaria) before, During and After Flight". Journal of Experimental Biology. The Company of Biologists. 28 (3): 344–357. ^ Fournier, R. L. Basic Transport Phenomena in Biomedical Engineering. Taylor & Francis, London, 1999. ^ Choi et al. Microfluidic scaffolds for tissue engineering. Nature Materials (2007) vol. 6 pp. 908-915 ^ Bernard, Claude. Introduction à l'étude de la médecine expérimentale, J.B. Baillière et Fils, Libraires de L'Académie Impériale de Médecine, 1865. pp. 400
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August Krogh biography on Nobel Prize website
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Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi / Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff / Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill / Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting / John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925
1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman / Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington / Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple / George Minot / William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam / Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger / Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming / Ernst Chain / Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori / Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein / Philip Hench
1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann / Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum / Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa / Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick / James Watson / Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob / André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit / Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley / Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück / Alfred Hershey / Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler / Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman / Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch / Konrad Lorenz / Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude / Christian de Duve / George Palade 1975 David Baltimore / Renato Dulbecco / Howard Temin
1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally / Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber / Daniel Nathans / Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset / George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel / Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström / Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion / George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop / Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray / E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher / Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts / Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman / Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis / Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard / Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty / Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott / Louis Ignarro / Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson / Paul Greengard / Eric Kandel
2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt / Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner / H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur / Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel / Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall / Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi / Martin Evans / Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen / Luc Montagnier / Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn / Carol W. Greider / Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler / Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon / Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman / Randy Schekman / Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser / Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura / Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young
WorldCat Identities VIAF: 10653536 LCCN: n50078898 ISNI: 0000 0001 0954 1258 GND: 119318164 SELIBR: 252938 SUDOC: 050273183 BNF: cb13508500r (data) NDL: 00446381 NKC: nlk20000079