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ATTIC NUMERALS were used by the ancient Greeks , possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as HERODIANIC NUMERALS because they were first described in a 2nd-century manuscript by Herodian . They are also known as ACROPHONIC NUMERALS because the symbols derive from the first letters of the words that the symbols represent: five, ten, hundred, thousand and ten thousand. See Greek numerals and acrophony .

DECIMAL SYMBOL GREEK NUMERAL IPA

1 Ι – –

5 Π πέντε

10 Δ δέκα

100 Η ἑκατόν

1000 Χ χίλιοι / χιλιάς

10000 Μ μύριον

The use of Η for 100 reflects the early date of this numbering system: Η (Eta ) in the early Attic alphabet represented the sound /h/. In later, "classical" Greek, with the adoption of the Ionic alphabet throughout the majority of Greece, the letter eta had come to represent the long e sound while the rough aspiration was no longer marked. It wasn't until Aristophanes of Byzantium introduced the various accent markings during the Hellenistic period that the spiritus asper began to represent /h/. Thus the word for a hundred would originally have been written ΗΕΚΑΤΟΝ, as compared to the now more familiar spelling ἑκατόν. In modern Greek , the /h/ phoneme has disappeared altogether, but this has had no effect on the basic spelling.

Unlike the more familiar Modern Roman numeral system, the Attic system contains only additive forms. Thus, the number 4 is written ΙΙΙΙ, not ΙΠ.

The numerals representing 50, 500, and 5,000 were composites of pi (often in an old form, with a short right leg) and a tiny version of the applicable power of ten. For example, is five times one thousand.

The acrophonic numerals in comparison to the Roman numeral system. Ι Π Δ

Η

Χ

Μ

1 5 10 5 × 10 100 5 × 100 1000 5 × 1000 10000

50 500 1000 × 5 1000 × 10

I V X L C D M V X

EXAMPLE: 1982 = Χ ΗΗΗΗ . ΔΔΔΙΙ = MCM . LXXXII.

Specific numeral symbols were used to represent one drachma , to represent talents and staters , to represent ten mnas and to represent one half and one quarter.

SEE ALSO

* Attic numerals
Attic numerals
in Unicode * Etruscan numerals

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ Woodhead, A. G. (1981). The Study of Greek Inscriptions. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-521-23188-4 . * ^ Smyth, Herbert Weir; Messing, Gordon M. (2002) . Greek Grammar. Revised Edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 10 (§14). ISBN 0-674-36250-0 . * ^ Unicode character U+10142: 𐅂 * ^ Unicode characters U+10148 to U+1014E * ^ Unicode characters U+1014F to U+10156 * ^ Unicode character U+10157: 𐅗 * ^ Unicode character U+10141: 𐅁 * ^ Unicode character U+10140: 𐅀

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Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing * Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals

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* Hebrew

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* Teeline Shorthand
Teeline Shorthand
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ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

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Sylheti Nagari
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Tirhuta
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* Zhang-Zhung

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SOUTHERN

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OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

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Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli
Avoiuli
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* Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand
Eclectic shorthand
* Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand * Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
* Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
* Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand * Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet * Hangul * Hanifi * IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter
Blackletter
* Carolingian minuscule * Fraktur
Fraktur
* Gaelic * Insular * Kurrent * Merovingian * Sigla * Sütterlin * Tironian notes * Visigothic

* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Medefaidrin * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo- Tifinagh * New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham
Ogham
* Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau

* Runic

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* Sidetic * Shavian * Somali * Tifinagh * Vagindra * Visible Speech
Visible Speech
* Vithkuqi * Wancho * Zaghawa

NON-LINEAR

* Braille * Maritime flags * Morse code * New York Point * Semaphore line * Flag semaphore * Moon type

IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS

* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji * IConji * Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting * Nsibidi
Nsibidi
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LOGOGRAMS

CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS

CHINESE CHARACTERS

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* Seal Script

* large * small * bird-worm

* Hanja
Hanja
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CHINESE-INFLUENCED

* Jurchen * Khitan large script * Sui * Tangut

CUNEIFORM

* Akkadian * Assyrian * Elamite * Hittite * Luwian * Sumerian

OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC

* Anatolian * Bagam * Cretan * Isthmian * Maya * Proto-Elamite * Yi (Classical)

LOGO-CONSONANTAL

* Demotic * Hieratic * Hieroglyphs

NUMERALS

* Hindu-Arabic * Abjad * Attic (Greek) * Muisca * Roman

SEMI-SYLLABARIES

FULL

* Celtiberian * Northeastern Iberian * Southeastern Iberian * Khom

REDUNDANT

* Espanca * Pahawh Hmong * Khitan small script * Southwest Paleohispanic * Zhuyin fuhao

SOMACHEIROGRAMS

* ASLwrite * SignWriting * si5s * Stokoe Notation

SYLLABARIES

* Afaka * Bamum * Bété * Byblos * Cherokee * Cypriot * Cypro-Minoan * Ditema tsa Dinoko * Eskayan * Geba * Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics * Iban

* Japanese

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* Kikakui * Kpelle * Linear B * Linear Elamite * Lisu * Loma * Nüshu * Nwagu Aneke script * Old Persian Cuneiform * Vai * Woleai * Yi (Modern) * Yugtun

* v * t * e

Braille ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

BRAILLE CELL

* 1829 braille * International uniformity * ASCII braille * Unicode braille patterns

BRAILLE SCRIPTS

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

* Albanian * Amharic * Arabic * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Belarusian

* Bharati

* Devanagari (Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) * Bengali * Punjabi * Sinhalese * Tamil * Urdu * etc.

* Bulgarian * Burmese * Cambodian * Cantonese * Catalan * Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) * Czech * Dutch * Dzongkha (Bhutanese) * English (Unified English ) * Esperanto * Estonian * Faroese * French * Georgian * German * Ghanaian * Greek * Guarani * Hawaiian * Hebrew * Hungarian * Icelandic * Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) * Iñupiaq * IPA * Irish * Italian * Kazakh * Kyrgyz * Latvian * Lithuanian * Maltese * Mongolian * Māori * Nigerian * Northern Sami * Persian * Philippine * Polish * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Samoan * Scandinavian * Slovak * South African * Spanish * Tatar * Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) * Thai border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Algerian Braille (obsolete)

FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS

* American Braille (obsolete)

INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS

* Japanese * Korean * Two-Cell Chinese

EIGHT-DOT SCRIPTS

* Luxembourgish * Kanji * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

SYMBOLS IN BRAILLE

* Braille music * Canadian currency marks * Computer Braille Code * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) * International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) * Nemeth braille code

BRAILLE TECHNOLOGY

* Braille e-book * Braille embosser * Braille translator * Braille watch * Mountbatten Brailler * Optical braille recognition * Perforation * Perkins Brailler * Refreshable braille display * Slate and stylus * Braigo

PERSONS

* Louis Braille * Charles Barbier * Valentin Haüy * Thakur Vishva Narain Singh * Sabriye Tenberken * William Bell Wait

ORGANISATIONS

* Braille Institute of America * Braille Without Borders * Japan Braille Library * National Braille Association * Blindness organizations * Schools for the blind * American Printing House for the Blind

OTHER TACTILE ALPHABETS

* Decapoint
Decapoint
* Moon type * New York Point * Night writing * Vibratese

RELATED TOPICS

* Accessible publishing * Braille literacy * Robo Braille

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