ATTIC GREEK is the Greek dialect of ancient
* 1 Origin and range * 2 Literature * 3 Alphabet
* 4 Phonology
* 4.1 Vowels
* 4.2 Consonants
* 4.2.1 Palatalization * 4.2.2 Shortening of ss * 4.2.3 Loss of w * 4.2.4 Retention of h * 4.2.5 Movable n
* 5 Morphology
* 6 Grammar
* 6.1 Number * 6.2 Declension
* 7 Classical Attic
* 7.1 Varieties
* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links
ORIGIN AND RANGE
Greek is the primary member of the Hellenic branch of the
Indo-European language family. In ancient times, Greek had already
come to exist in several dialects, one of which was Attic. The
earliest attestations of Greek, dating from the 16th to 11th centuries
BC, are written in
The original range of the spoken Attic dialect included
Greek literature , which is attributed to
The first extensive works of literature in Attic are the plays of the
Students who learn
A ballot voting against Themistocles, son of Neocles, under the Athenian Democracy (see ostracism ). The text is an example of the epichoric alphabet; note that the last two letters of Themistocles are written in a boustrophedon manner and that E is used for both long and short e.
Attic Greek, like other dialects, was originally written in a local
variant of the Greek alphabet. According to the classification of
archaic Greek alphabets , which was introduced by
In the 5th century, Athenian writing gradually switched from this
local system to the more widely used Ionic alphabet, native to the
eastern Aegean islands and Asia Minor. By the late 5th century, the
concurrent use of elements of the Ionic system with the traditional
local alphabet had become common in private writing, and in 403 BC, it
was decreed that public writing would switch to the new Ionic
orthography, as part of the reform following the
Thirty Tyrants . This
new system, also called the "Eucleidian" alphabet, after the name of
Eucleides , who oversaw the decision, was to become the
Proto-Greek long ā → Attic long ē, but ā after e, i, r. ⁓ Ionic ē in all positions. ⁓ Doric and Aeolic ā in all positions.
* Proto-Greek and Doric mātēr → Attic mētēr "mother" * Attic chōrā ⁓ Ionic chōrē "place", "country"
However, Proto-Greek ā → Attic ē after w (digamma ), deleted by the Classical Period.
* Proto-Greek korWā → early Attic-Ionic *korwē → Attic korē (Ionic kourē)
Proto-Greek ă → Attic ě. ⁓ Doric: ă remains.
* Doric ArtAmis ⁓ Attic ArtEmis
Compensatory lengthening of vowel before cluster of sonorant (r, l, n, m, w, sometimes y) and s, after deletion of s. ⁓ Aeolic: compensatory lengthening of sonorant. PIE VsR or VRs → Attic-Ionic-Doric VVR. VsR or VRs → Aeolic VRR.
* Proto-Indo-European *ES-Mi (athematic verb) → Attic-Ionic ēMi (= εἰμί) ⁓ Aeolic EMMi "I am"
Proto-Greek and other dialects' /u/ (English fOOd) became Attic /y/ (pronounced as German ü, French u) and represented by y in Latin transliteration of Greek names.
* Boeotian kOUrios ⁓ Attic kYrios "lord"
In the diphthongs eu and au, upsilon continued to be pronounced .
Attic contracts more than Ionic does. a + e → long ā.
* nikA-E → nikā "conquer (thou)!"
e + e → ē (written ει: spurious diphthong )
* PIE *trEY-Es → Proto-Greek trEHEs → Attic trēs = τρεῖς "three"
e + o → ō (written ου: spurious diphthong)
* early *genES-Os → Ionic genEOs → Attic genOUs "of a kind" (genitive singular: Latin generis, with r from rhotacism )
Attic ē (from ē-grade of ablaut or Proto-Greek ā) is sometimes shortened to e:
* when it is followed by a short vowel, with lengthening of the short vowel (quantitative metathesis ): ēo → eō * when it is followed by a long vowel: ēō → eō * when it is followed by u and s: ēus → eus (Osthoff\'s law )
* basilēOs → basilEōs "of a king" (genitive singular) * basilēōn → basilEōn (genitive plural) * basilēUsi → basilEUsi (dative plural)
Attic deletes one of two vowels in a row, called HYPHAERESIS (ὑφαίρεσις).
* Homeric boē-thO-Os → Attic boēthOs "running to a cry", "helper in battle"
PIE *ky or *chy → Proto-Greek ts (palatalization ) → Attic tt. — Ionic and Koine ss.
* Proto-Greek *glōKH-Ya → Attic glōTTa — Ionic glōSSa "tongue"
Sometimes, Proto-Greek *ty and *tw → Attic tt. — Ionic and Koine ss.
* PIE *kweTWores → Attic teTTares — Ionic teSSeres "four" (Latin quaTTUor)
Proto-Greek and Doric t before i or y → Attic-Ionic s (palatalization).
* Doric ti -the -nTI → Attic tithēSI = τίθεισι "he places" (compensatory lengthening of e → ē = spurious diphthong ει)
Shortening Of ss
Early Attic-Ionic ss → Classical Attic s.
* PIE *meDH-Yos → Homeric meSSos (palatalization) → Attic meSos "middle"
Loss Of w
Proto-Greek w (digamma ) was lost in Attic before historical times.
* Proto-Greek korWā → Attic korē "girl"
Retention Of h
Attic retained Proto-Greek h- (from debuccalization of Proto-Indo-European initial s- or y-), but some other dialects lost it (psilosis "stripping", "de-aspiration").
* Proto-Indo-European *Si-sta-mes → Attic Histamen — Cretan istamen "we stand"
Attic-Ionic places an n (movable nu ) at the end of some words that would ordinarily end in a vowel, if the next word starts with a vowel, to prevent hiatus (two vowels in a row).
* pāsiN élegon "they spoke to everyone" vs. pāsi legousi * pāsi(N) dative plural of "all" * legousi(N) "they speak" (third person plural, present indicative active) * elege(N) "he was speaking" (third person singular, imperfect indicative active) * titheisi(N) "he places", "makes" (third person singular, present indicative active: athematic verb)
* Attic tends to replace the -ter "doer of" suffix with -tes: dikastes for dikaster "judge". * The Attic adjectival ending -eios and corresponding noun ending, both having two syllables with the diphthong ei, stand in place of ēios, with three syllables, in other dialects: politeia, Cretan politēia, "constitution", both from politewia whose w is dropped.
In addition to singular and plural numbers,
With regard to declension , the stem is the part of the declined word to which case endings are suffixed. In the alpha or first declension feminines, the stem ends in long a, which os parallel to the Latin first declension. In Attic-Ionic the stem vowel has changed to ē in the singular, except (in Attic only) after e, i or r. For example, the respective nominative, genitive, dative and accusative singular forms are gnome, gnomes, gnome(i), gnomen, "opinion" but thea, theas, thea(i), thean, "goddess".
The plural is the same in both cases, gnomai and theai, but other sound changes were more important in its formation. For example, original -as in the nominative plural was replaced by the diphthong -ai, which did not change from a to e. In the few a-stem masculines, the genitive singular follows the second eclension: stratiotēs, stratiotou, stratiotēi, etc.
In the omicron or second declension, mainly masculines (but with some feminines), the stem ends in o or e, which is composed in turn of a root plus the thematic vowel , an o or e in Indo-European ablaut series parallel to similar formations of the verb. It is the equivalent of the Latin second declension. The alternation of Greek -os and Latin -us in the nominative singular is familiar to readers of Greek and Latin.
In Attic Greek, an original genitive singular ending *-osyo after losing the s (like in the other dialects) lengthens the stem o to the spurious diphthong -ou (see above under Phonology, Vowels): logos "the word" logou from *logosyo "of the word". The dative plural of Attic-Ionic had -oisi, which appears in early Attic but later simplifies to -ois: anthropois "to or for the men".
See also: Classical
Classical Attic may refer either to the varieties of Attic Greek spoken and written in Greek majuscule in the 5th and 4th centuries BC (Classical-era Attic) or to the Hellenistic and Roman era standardized Attic Greek, mainly on the lan