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Abū Ḥamīd bin Abū Bakr Ibrāhīm (c. 1145 – c. 1221; Persian: ابو حامد بن ابوبکر ابراهیم‎), better known by his pen-names Farīd ud-Dīn (فرید الدین) and ʿAṭṭār (عطار, Attar means pharmacist), was a 12th-century Persian[3][4][5] poet, theoretician of Sufism, and hagiographer from Nishapur
Nishapur
who had an immense and lasting influence on Persian poetry and Sufism. Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr [The Conference of the Birds] and Ilāhī-Nāma are among his most famous works.

Mausoleum of Attar Neyshaburi
Mausoleum of Attar Neyshaburi
in Nishapur, Iran

Contents

1 Biography 2 Teachings 3 Poetry

3.1 Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr

3.1.1 The Seven Valleys of spirituality (conference of the birds) 3.1.2 Gallery of The Conference of the Birds

3.2 Tadhkirat-ul-Awliyā 3.3 Ilāhī-Nama 3.4 Mukhtār-Nāma 3.5 Divan

4 Legacy

4.1 Influence on Rumi 4.2 As a pharmacist 4.3 In popular culture

5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links

Biography[edit] Information about Attar's life is rare and scarce. He is mentioned by only two of his contemporaries, `Awfi and Tusi. However, all sources confirm that he was from Nishapur, a major city of medieval Khorasan (now located in the northeast of Iran), and according to `Awfi, he was a poet of the Seljuq period. According to Reinert: It seems that he was not well known as a poet in his own lifetime, except at his home town, and his greatness as a mystic, a poet, and a master of narrative was not discovered until the 15th century.[4] At the same time, the mystic Persian poet Rumi
Rumi
has mentioned: "Attar was the spirit, Sanai
Sanai
his eyes twain, And in time thereafter, Came we in their train"[6] and mentions in another poem: "Attar has traversed the seven cities of Love, We are still at the turn of one street".[7] `Attar was probably the son of a prosperous chemist, receiving an excellent education in various fields. While his works say little else about his life, they tell us that he practiced the profession of pharmacy and personally attended to a very large number of customers.[4] The people he helped in the pharmacy used to confide their troubles in `Attar and this affected him deeply. Eventually, he abandoned his pharmacy store and traveled widely - to Baghdad, Basra, Kufa, Mecca, Medina, Damascus, Khwarizm, Turkistan, and India, meeting with Sufi
Sufi
Shaykhs - and returned promoting Sufi
Sufi
ideas.[8] `Attar's initiation into Sufi
Sufi
practices is subject to much speculation. Of all the famous Sufi
Sufi
Shaykhs supposed to have been his teachers, only one - Majd ud-Din Baghdadi a disciple of Najmuddin Kubra- comes within the bounds of possibility. The only certainty in this regard is `Attar's own statement that he once met him.[9] In any case it can be taken for granted that from childhood onward `Attar, encouraged by his father, was interested in the Sufis and their sayings and way of life, and regarded their saints as his spiritual guides.[10] At the age of 78, Attar died a violent death in the massacre which the Mongols inflicted on Nishapur
Nishapur
in April 1221.[4] Today, his mausoleum is located in Nishapur. It was built by Ali-Shir Nava'i in the 16th century and later on underwent a total renovation during Reza Shah the great in 1940. Teachings[edit]

Ayaz kneeling before Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. A miniature painting made in the year 1472, is used to illustrate the six poems by Attar of Nishapur.

The thoughts depicted in `Attar's works reflects the whole evolution of the Sufi
Sufi
movement. The starting point is the idea that the body-bound soul's awaited release and return to its source in the other world can be experienced during the present life in mystic union attainable through inward purification.[11] In explaining his thoughts, 'Attar uses material not only from specifically Sufi
Sufi
sources but also from older ascetic legacies. Although his heroes are for the most part Sufis and ascetics, he also introduces stories from historical chronicles, collections of anecdotes, and all types of high-esteemed literature.[4] His talent for perception of deeper meanings behind outward appearances enables him to turn details of everyday life into illustrations of his thoughts. The idiosyncrasy of `Attar's presentations invalidates his works as sources for study of the historical persons whom he introduces. As sources on the hagiology and phenomenology of Sufism, however, his works have immense value. Judging from `Attar's writings, he approached the available Aristotelian heritage with skepticism and dislike.[12][13] Interestingly, he did not seem to want to reveal the secrets of nature. This is particularly remarkable in the case of medicine, which fell well within the scope of his professional expertise as pharmacist. He obviously had no motive for sharing his expert knowledge in the manner customary among court panegyrists, whose type of poetry he despised and never practiced. Such knowledge is only brought into his works in contexts where the theme of a story touches on a branch of the natural sciences. Poetry[edit] According to Edward G. Browne, Attar as well as Rumi
Rumi
and Sana'i, were Sunni
Sunni
as evident from the fact that their poetry abounds with praise for the first two caliphs Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar ibn al-Khattāb
Umar ibn al-Khattāb
- who are detested by Shia
Shia
mysticism.[14] According to Annemarie Schimmel, the tendency among Shia
Shia
authors to include leading mystical poets such as Rumi
Rumi
and Attar among their own ranks, became stronger after the introduction of Twelver Shia
Shia
as the state religion in the Safavid Empire in 1501.[15] In the introductions of Mukhtār-Nāma (مختارنامه) and Khusraw-Nāma (خسرونامه), Attar lists the titles of further products of his pen:

Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr

Dīwān (دیوان) Asrār-Nāma (اسرارنامه) Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr (منطق الطیر), also known as Maqāmāt-uṭ-Ṭuyūr (مقامات الطیور) Muṣībat-Nāma (مصیبت‌نامه) Ilāhī-Nāma (الهی‌نامه) Jawāhir-Nāma (جواهرنامه) Šarḥ al-Qalb[16] (شرح القلب)

He also states, in the introduction of the Mukhtār-Nāma, that he destroyed the Jawāhir-Nāma' and the Šarḥ al-Qalb with his own hand. Although the contemporary sources confirm only `Attar's authorship of the Dīwān and the Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr, there are no grounds for doubting the authenticity of the Mukhtār-Nāma and Khusraw-Nāma and their prefaces.[4] One work is missing from these lists, namely the Tadhkirat-ul-Awliyā, which was probably omitted because it is a prose work; its attribution to `Attar is scarcely open to question. In its introduction `Attar mentions three other works of his, including one entitled Šarḥ al-Qalb, presumably the same that he destroyed. The nature of the other two, entitled Kašf al-Asrār (کشف الاسرار) and Maʿrifat al- Nafs
Nafs
(معرفت النفس), remains unknown.[17] Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr[edit] Main article: The Conference of the Birds Led by the hoopoe, the birds of the world set forth in search of their king, Simurgh. Their quest takes them through seven valleys in the first of which a hundred difficulties assail them. They undergo many trials as they try to free themselves of what is precious to them and change their state. Once successful and filled with longing, they ask for wine to dull the effects of dogma, belief, and unbelief on their lives. In the second valley, the birds give up reason for love and, with a thousand hearts to sacrifice, continue their quest for discovering the Simurgh. The third valley confounds the birds, especially when they discover that their worldly knowledge has become completely useless and their understanding has become ambivalent. There are different ways of crossing this Valley, and all birds do not fly alike. Understanding can be arrived at variously—some have found the Mihrab, others the idol. The fourth valley is introduced as the valley of detachment, i.e., detachment from desire to possess and the wish to discover. The birds begin to feel that they have become part of a universe that is detached from their physical recognizable reality. In their new world, the planets are as minute as sparks of dust and elephants are not distinguishable from ants. It is not until they enter the fifth valley that they realize that unity and multiplicity are the same. And as they have become entities in a vacuum with no sense of eternity. More importantly, they realize that God is beyond unity, multiplicity, and eternity. Stepping into the sixth valley, the birds become astonished at the beauty of the Beloved. Experiencing extreme sadness and dejection, they feel that they know nothing, understand nothing. They are not even aware of themselves. Only thirty birds reach the abode of the Simurgh. But there is no Simurgh
Simurgh
anywhere to see. Simurgh's chamberlain keeps them waiting for Simurgh
Simurgh
long enough for the birds to figure out that they themselves are the si-murgh — si (سی, "thirty") + murgh (مرغ, "bird"). The seventh valley is the valley of deprivation, forgetfulness, dumbness, deafness, and death. The present and future lives of the thirty successful birds become shadows chased by the celestial Sun. And themselves, lost in the Sea of His existence, are the Simurgh.[18] The Seven Valleys of spirituality (conference of the birds)[edit] Attar has described the seven stages of spirituality in the conference of the birds:

The Valley of Quest The Valley of Love The Valley of Understanding The Valley of Independence and Detachment The Valley of Unity The Valley of Astonishment and Bewilderment The Valley of Deprivation and Death

Gallery of The Conference of the Birds[edit] Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Folio from an illustrated manuscript dated c.1600. Paintings by Habiballah of Sava (active ca. 1590–1610), in ink, opaque watercolor, gold, and silver on paper, dimensions 25,4 x 11,4 cm.[19]

Tadhkirat-ul-Awliyā[edit] Main article: Tadhkirat al-Awliya Attar's only known prose work which he worked on throughout much of his life and which was available publicly before his death, is a biography of Muslim saints and mystics. In what is considered the most compelling entry in this book, `Attar relates the story of the execution of Mansur al-Hallaj, the mystic who had uttered the words "I am the Truth" in a state of ecstatic contemplation. Ilāhī-Nama[edit] The Ilāhī-Nama (Persian: الهی نامه‎) is another famous poetic work of Attar, consisting of 6500 verses. In terms of form and content, it has some similarities with Bird Parliament. The story is about a king who is confronted with the materialistic and worldly demands of his six sons. The King tries to show the temporary and senseless desires of his six sons by retelling them a large number of spiritual stories. The first son asks for the daughter of the king of fairies (Pariyaan). Mukhtār-Nāma[edit] Mukhtār-Nāma (Persian: مختار نامه‎), a wide-ranging collection of quatrains (2088 in number). In the Mokhtar-nama, a coherent group of mystical and religious subjects is outlined (search for union, sense of uniqueness, distancing from the world, annihilation, amazement, pain, awareness of death, etc.), and an equally rich group of themes typical of lyrical poetry of erotic inspiration adopted by mystical literature (the torment of love, impossible union, beauty of the loved one, stereotypes of the love story as weakness, crying, separation).[20] Divan[edit]

A miniature painting by Bihzad
Bihzad
illustrating the funeral of the elderly Attar of Nishapur
Nishapur
after he was held captive and killed by a Mongol invader.

The Diwan of Attar (Persian: دیوان عطار‎) consists almost entirely of poems in the Ghazal
Ghazal
("lyric") form, as he collected his Ruba'i
Ruba'i
("quatrains") in a separate work called the Mokhtar-nama. There are also some Qasida
Qasida
("Odes"), but they amount to less than one-seventh of the Divan. His Qasidas expound upon mystical and ethical themes and moral precepts. They are sometimes modeled after Sanai. The Ghazals
Ghazals
often seem from their outward vocabulary just to be love and wine songs with a predilection for libertine imagery, but generally imply spiritual experiences in the familiar symbolic language of classical Islamic Sufism.[4] Attar's lyrics express the same ideas that are elaborated in his epics. His lyric poetry does not significantly differ from that of his narrative poetry, and the same may be said of the rhetoric and imagery. Legacy[edit] Influence on Rumi[edit] `Attar is one of the most famous mystic poets of Iran. His works were the inspiration of Rumi
Rumi
and many other mystic poets. `Attar, along with Sanai
Sanai
were two of the greatest influences on Rumi
Rumi
in his Sufi views. Rumi
Rumi
has mentioned both of them with the highest esteem several times in his poetry. Rumi
Rumi
praises `Attar as follows:

Attar has roamed through the seven cities of love while we have barely turned down the first street.[21]

As a pharmacist[edit] `Attar was a pen-name which he took for his occupation. `Attar means herbalist, druggist, perfumist or alchemist, and during his lifetime in Persia, much of medicine and drugs were based on herbs. Therefore, by profession he was similar to a modern-day town doctor and pharmacist. Rose oil means attar. In popular culture[edit] Several musical artists have albums or songs which share the name of his most famous work, Conference of the Birds, as well as the themes of enlightenment contained therein. Notably, jazz bassist David Holland's album, which was written as a metaphor for his own enlightenment, and Om's Conference of the Birds, which deals with extremely esoteric themes often connected with metaphors of flight, inward vision, destruction of self, and oneness with the cosmos. Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges, used in one of his short stories, The Approach to Al-Mu'tasim, a summary of The Conference of the Birds as a reference. In 1963 the Persian composer Hossein Dehlavi
Hossein Dehlavi
wrote a piece for voice and orchestra on Attar's 'Forugh-e Eshgh'. The piece received its first performance by Saba Orchestra and the vocalist Khatereh Parvaneh at the National Television in Tehran. In 1990 the opera singer Hossein Sarshar performed this piece as well which its recording is available. See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal Poetry
Poetry
portal Spirituality portal

Sufism The Seven Valleys Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani

References[edit]

^ Encyclopedia Iranica ^ Daadbeh, Asghar and Melvin-Koushki, Matthew, “ʿAṭṭār Nīsābūrī”, in: Encyclopaedia Islamica, Editors-in-Chief: Wilferd Madelung and, Farhad Daftary ^ Farīd al-Dīn ʿAṭṭār, in Encyclopædia Britannica, online edition - accessed December 2012. [1] ^ a b c d e f g B. Reinert, "`Attar", in Encyclopædia Iranica, Online Edition ^ Ritter, H. (1986), “Attar”, Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Ed., vol. 1: 751-755. Excerpt: "ATTAR, FARID AL-DIN MUHAMMAD B. IBRAHIM.Persian mystical poet.Yahiya Emerick, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Rumi
Rumi
Meditations, "The three most influential Persian poets of all time, Fariduddin 'Attar, Hakim Sana'i, and Jalaluddin Rumi, were all Muslims, while Persia (Iran) today is over 90 percent Shi'a Muslim", Alpha, p. 48  ^ "A. J. Arberry, "Sufism: An Account of the Mystics ", Courier Dover Publications, Nov 9, 2001. p. 141 ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, "The Garden of Truth: The Vision and Promise of Sufism," HarperCollins, Sep 2, 2008. page 130: "Attar has traversed the seven cities of Love, We are still at the turn of one street!" ^ Iraj Bashiri, "Farid al-Din `Attar" ^ Taḏkerat al-Awliyā; pp. 1,6,21 ^ Taḏkerat al-Awliyā; pp. 1,55,23 ff ^ F. Meier, "Der Geistmensch bei dem persischen Dichter `Attar", Eranos-Jahrbuch 13, 1945, pp. 286 ff ^ Muṣībat-Nāma, p. 54 ff ^ Asrār-Nāma, pp. 50, 794 ff ^ Edward G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia from the Earliest Times Until Firdawsi, 543 pp., Adamant Media Corporation, 2002, ISBN 1-4021-6045-3, ISBN 978-1-4021-6045-5 (see p.437) ^ Annemarie Schimmel, Deciphering the Signs of God, 302 pp., SUNY Press, 1994, ISBN 0-7914-1982-7, ISBN 978-0-7914-1982-3 (see p.210) ^ quoted in H. Ritter, "Philologika X," pp. 147-53 ^ Ritter, "Philologika XIV," p. 63 ^ "Central Asia and Iran". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2012-02-23.  ^ "The Concourse of the Birds", Folio 11r from a Mantiq al-tair (Language of the Birds), The Met ^ Daniela Meneghini, "MOḴTĀR-NĀMA"[dead link] ^ Fodor's Iran
Iran
(1979) by Richard Moore and Peter Sheldon, p. 277

Sources[edit]

E.G. Browne. Literary History of Persia. 1998. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X. Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company. 1968 OCLC 460598. ISBN 90-277-0143-1 R. M. Chopra, 2014, " Great Poets of Classical Persian ", Sparrow Publication, Kolkata (ISBN 978-81-89140-75-5)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Attar.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Attar_of_Nishapur

Bird Parliament Fitzgerald translation Manṭiq-uṭ-Ṭayr, at archive.org. A few wikiquotes Attar in Encyclopedia Iranica by B. Reinert Attar, Farid ad-Din. A biography by Professor Iraj Bashiri, University of Minnesota. Poetry
Poetry
by `Attar Fifty Poems of `Attar. A Translation of 50 poems with the Persian on the facing page. Attar's works in original Persian at Ganjoor Persian Library Deewan-e-Attar in original Persian single pdf file uploaded by javed Hussen Panoramic Images of Attar Tombs Neyshabur Day Works by Attar of Nishapur
Nishapur
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

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Persian literature

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900s

Rudaki Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Ferdowsi
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1000s

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1100s

Hakim Iranshah Suzani Samarqandi Hassan Ghaznavi Faramarz Nama Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
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Nizami Ganjavi
(1141–1209) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Kamal al-din Esfahani Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
(d.1248)

1200s

Abu Tahir Tarsusi Awhadi Maraghai Shams al-Din Qays Razi Sultan Walad Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī Afdal al-Din Kashani Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi Mahmud Shabistari
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1300s

Ibn Yamin Shah Ni'matullah Wali Hafez Abu Ali Qalandar Fazlallah Astarabadi Nasimi Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani

1400s

Ubayd Zakani Salman Sawaji Hatefi Jami Kamal Khujandi Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535) Fuzûlî
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1500s

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1700s

Neshat Esfahani Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)

1800s

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(1797–1869) Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)

Contemporary

Poetry

Iran

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Nadia Anjuman Wasef Bakhtari Raziq Faani Khalilullah Khalili Youssof Kohzad Massoud Nawabi Abdul Ali Mustaghni

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Asad Gulzoda

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Muhammad Iqbal

Novels

Ali Mohammad Afghani Ghazaleh Alizadeh Bozorg Alavi Reza Amirkhani Mahshid Amirshahi Reza Baraheni Simin Daneshvar Mahmoud Dowlatabadi Reza Ghassemi Houshang Golshiri Aboutorab Khosravi Ahmad Mahmoud Shahriyar Mandanipour Abbas Maroufi Iraj Pezeshkzad

Short stories

Jalal Al-e-Ahmad Shamim Bahar Sadeq Chubak Simin Daneshvar Nader Ebrahimi Ebrahim Golestan Houshang Golshiri Sadegh Hedayat Mohammad-Ali Jamalzadeh Aboutorab Khosravi Mostafa Mastoor Jaafar Modarres-Sadeghi Houshang Moradi Kermani Bijan Najdi Shahrnush Parsipur Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi Bahram Sadeghi Goli Taraqqi

Plays

Reza Abdoh Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh Hamid Amjad Bahram Beyzai Mohammad Charmshir Alireza Koushk Jalali Hadi Marzban Bijan Mofid Hengameh Mofid Abbas Nalbandian Akbar Radi Pari Saberi Mohammad Yaghoubi

Screenplays

Saeed Aghighi Rakhshan Bani-E'temad Bahram Beyzai Hajir Darioush Pouran Derakhshandeh Asghar Farhadi Bahman Farmanara Farrokh Ghaffari Behrouz Gharibpour Bahman Ghobadi Fereydun Gole Ebrahim Golestan Ali Hatami Abolfazl Jalili Ebrahim Hatamikia Abdolreza Kahani Varuzh Karim-Masihi Samuel Khachikian Abbas Kiarostami David Mahmoudieh Majid Majidi Mohsen Makhmalbaf Dariush Mehrjui Reza Mirkarimi Rasoul Mollagholipour Amir Naderi Jafar Panahi Kambuzia Partovi Rasul Sadr Ameli Mohammad Sadri Parviz Shahbazi Sohrab Shahid-Saless

Translators

Amrollah Abjadian Jaleh Amouzgar Najaf Daryabandari Behzad Ghaderi Sohi Mohammad Ghazi Lili Golestan Sadegh Hedayat Saleh Hosseini Ahmad Kamyabi Mask Mohammad Moin Ebrahim Pourdavoud Hamid Samandarian Jalal Sattari Jafar Shahidi Ahmad Shamlou Ahmad Tafazzoli Abbas Zaryab

Essayists

Aydin Aghdashloo Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi Ehsan Yarshater

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100959652 LCCN: n81059703 ISNI: 0000 0001 2149 1783 GND: 118504924 SUDOC: 026694166 BNF:

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