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The Atrebates (
Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language spoken in parts of Continental Europe before and during the period of the Roman Empire. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language of the Celts of Gaul (now France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switze ...
: *''Atrebatis'', 'dwellers, land-owners, possessors of the soil') were a Belgic tribe of the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic) and the Bronze Age (Chalcolithic). The concept has been mostly appl ...
and the
Roman period The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Romanum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity, it included large territorial holdings aro ...
, originally dwelling in the
Artois Artois ( ; ; nl, Artesië; English adjective: ''Artesian'') is a region of Hauts-de-France, northern France. Its territory covers an area of about 4,000 km2 and it has a population of about one million. Its principal cities are Arras (Dut ...
region. After the tribes of
Gallia Belgica Gallia Belgica ("Belgic Gaul") was a Roman province, province of the Roman Empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily northern France, Belgium, and Luxembourg, along with parts of the Netherlands and German ...
were defeated by
Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in Caes ...
in 57 BC, 4,000 Atrebates participated in the
Battle of Alesia The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia (September 52 BC) was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars around the Gallic ''oppidum'' (fortified settlement) of Alesia in modern France France (), officially the French Republic ...
in 53, led by their chief
Commius Commius (Commios, Comius, Comnios) was a king of the Belgae, Belgic nation of the Atrebates, initially in Gaul, then in Prehistoric Britain, Britain, in the 1st century BC. Ally of Caesar When Julius Caesar conquered the Atrebates in Gaul in 57 ...
. They revolted again in 51 BC, after which they maintained a friendly relationship with Rome, as Commius received sovereignty over the neighbouring Morini. The quality of their woollens is still mentioned in 301 AD by
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, grc, Διοκλητιανός, Diokletianós; c. 242/245 – 311/312), nicknamed ''Iovius'', was Roman emperor from 284 until his abdication in 305. He was born Gaius Valerius Diocles ...
's Price Edict. An offshoot of the Belgic tribe probably entered Britain before 54 BC, where it was successively ruled by kings Commius, Tincommius, Eppillus and Verica. After 43 AD, only parts of the area were still controlled by king Claudius Cogidubnus, after which they fell under Roman power.


Name

They are mentioned as ''Atrebates'' by
Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in Caes ...
(mid-1st c. BC) and Pliny (1st c. AD), ''Atrebátioi'' (Ἀτρεβάτιοι) by
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. The father of Pompey was called "Pompeius Strabo". A native of Sicily so clear-sighted that he could see ...
(early 1st c. AD), ''Atribátioi'' (Ἀτριβάτιοι) by
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-gre, wikt:Πτολεμαῖος, Πτολεμαῖος, ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and music theorist, who wrote about a dozen scientific Treatise, treatis ...
(2nd c. AD), ''Atrébas'' (Ἀτρέβας) by
Cassius Dio Lucius Cassius Dio (), also known as Dio Cassius ( ), was a Roman historian and senator of maternal Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of the History of ancient Rome, history on ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas in Italy. The ...
(3rd c. AD), and as ''Atrabatis'' in the ''
Notitia Dignitatum The ''Notitia Dignitatum'' (Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the Late Antiquity, late Roman Empire that details the administrative organization of the Western Roman Empire, Western and the Byzantine Empire, Eastern Roman Empire. ...
'' (5th c. AD). The
ethnonym An ethnonym () is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and used ...
''Atrebates'' is a latinized form of the
Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language spoken in parts of Continental Europe before and during the period of the Roman Empire. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language of the Celts of Gaul (now France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switze ...
*''Atrebatis'' (sing. ''Atrebas''), which literally means 'dwellers, land-owners, possessors of the soil'. It derives from the
Proto-Celtic Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language of all known Celtic languages, and a descendant of Proto-Indo-European. It is not attested in writing but has been partly reconstructed through the comparative method. Proto-Ce ...
stem ''*attreb-'' ('settlement') attached to the suffix ''-atis'' ('belonging to'), the former descending, as a result of an assimilation from an earlier *''ad-treb''-, from the
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-E ...
root for 'settlement', ''*treb-'' (cf. Osc. ''trííbúm'', Germ. ''*Þurpa'', Lith. ''trobà'' 'house'). The ethnic name is
cognate In historical linguistics, cognates or lexical cognates are sets of words in different languages that have been inherited in direct descent from an etymological ancestor in a common parent language. Because language change can have radical ...
with the
Old Irish Old Irish, also called Old Gaelic ( sga, Goídelc, Ogham, Ogham script: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann-Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ), is the oldest form of the Goidelic languages, Goidelic/Gaelic language for which ...
''ad-treba'' ('he dwells, cultivates') and ''attrab'' ('possession, the act of occupying, a dwelling'), the
Modern Irish Irish (an Caighdeán Oifigiúil, Standard Irish: ), also known as Gaelic, is a Goidelic languages, Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is a part of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European lang ...
''áitreabhach'' ('inhabitant'), and the
Middle Welsh Middle Welsh ( cy, Cymraeg Canol, wlm, Kymraec) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 15th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period. This form of Welsh developed directly from Old Welsh ( cy, Hen G ...
''athref'' ('dwelling-place, abode'). The city of
Arras Arras ( , ; pcd, Aro; historical nl, Atrecht ) is the prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais Departments of France, department, which forms part of the regions of France, region of Hauts-de-France; before the regions of France#Reform and mergers of ...
, attested ca. 400 AD as ''civitas Atrabatum'' ('
civitas In Ancient Rome, the Latin term (; plural ), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the , or citizens, united by Roman law, law (). It is the law that binds them together, giving them responsibilitie ...
of the Atrebates'; ''Atrebatis'' in 881, ''Arras'' in 1137), the region of
Artois Artois ( ; ; nl, Artesië; English adjective: ''Artesian'') is a region of Hauts-de-France, northern France. Its territory covers an area of about 4,000 km2 and it has a population of about one million. Its principal cities are Arras (Dut ...
, attested in 799 as ''pago Atratinse'' ('
pagus In ancient Rome, the Latin word (plural ) was an administrative term designating a rural subdivision of a tribal territory, which included individual farms, villages (), and strongholds () serving as refuges, as well as an early medieval geogra ...
of the Abrates'; ''Atrebatense castrum'' in 899, later ''Arteis''), and the , attested ca. 1050 as ''Atravasia silva'' ('forest of the Atrebates'; ''Arwasia'' in 1202), are all named after the Belgic tribe.


Geography


Territory

The Belgic Atrebates dwelled in the present-day region of
Artois Artois ( ; ; nl, Artesië; English adjective: ''Artesian'') is a region of Hauts-de-France, northern France. Its territory covers an area of about 4,000 km2 and it has a population of about one million. Its principal cities are Arras (Dut ...
, in the catchment area of the Scarpe river. They commanded two hill forts: a large and central one near Arras, and a frontier one on the Escaut river. The Atrebates were separated from the
Ambiani The Ambiani (Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language spoken in parts of Continental Europe before and during the period of the Roman Empire. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language of the Celts of Gaul (now France, Luxembourg, ...
by the Canche river. In the mid-first century BC, an offshoot of the tribe lived in Britain, where they occupied a region stretching between the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the Longest rivers of the United Kingdom, se ...
, the Test, and
West Sussex West Sussex is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the English Channel coast. The Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county comprises the Non-metropolitan district, shire districts of Adur District, Adur, Arun Distr ...
.


Settlements

During the
Roman period The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Romanum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Roman Republic, Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity, it included large territorial holdings aro ...
, their centre was transferred from the hill-fort of Etrun to Nemetocennae (present-day
Arras Arras ( , ; pcd, Aro; historical nl, Atrecht ) is the prefecture of the Pas-de-Calais Departments of France, department, which forms part of the regions of France, region of Hauts-de-France; before the regions of France#Reform and mergers of ...
), on an important road junction. The name ''Nemetocennae'' means in
Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language spoken in parts of Continental Europe before and during the period of the Roman Empire. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language of the Celts of Gaul (now France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switze ...
either 'far' or 'born' 'from the sacred wood, the sanctuary', stemming from the root '' nemet(o)-'' ('sacred wood' > 'sanctuary') attached to the suffix -''cenna'' ('far') or, more likely, to a deformed suffix -''genna'' ('born from'). It is later attested as ''Metacon'' by
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-gre, wikt:Πτολεμαῖος, Πτολεμαῖος, ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and music theorist, who wrote about a dozen scientific Treatise, treatis ...
(ca. 170 AD), and as ''Nemetacum'' (ca. 300 AD) or ''Nemetaco'' (365), with the same root attached to the Gaulish suffix ''-acos''. Before 54 BC, an offshoot of the Gallic tribe probably settled in Britain. After the
Roman invasion of Britain The Roman conquest of Britain refers to the conquest of the island of Great Britain, Britain by occupying Roman Empire, Roman forces. It began in earnest in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, and was largely completed in the southern half of ...
, three '' civitates'' were created in the late 1st c. BC: one of the Atrebates, with a capital in
Calleva Atrebatum Calleva Atrebatum ("Calleva of the Atrebates") was an British Iron Age, Iron Age oppidum, the capital of the Atrebates civitas, tribe. It then became a walled town in the Roman province of Britannia, at a major crossroads of the roads of southern ...
(
Silchester Silchester is a village and civil parishes in England, civil parish about north of Basingstoke in Hampshire. It is adjacent to the county boundary with Berkshire and about south-west of Reading, Berkshire, Reading. Silchester is most notable ...
); one of the
Belgae The Belgae () were a large confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and the northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC. They were discussed in depth by Ju ...
with its capital at Venta Belgarum (
Winchester Winchester is a City status in the United Kingdom, cathedral city in Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government Districts of England, district, at the western end of the South Downs Nation ...
); and one of the Reg(i)ni, with a capital at Noviomagus Reginorum (
Chichester Chichester () is a cathedral city and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation wh ...
).


History


Gaul

In 57 BC, they were part of a Belgic military alliance in response to
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in Caes ...
's conquests elsewhere in Gaul, contributing 15,000 men.Caesar, ''De Bello Gallico,'' 2.4 Caesar took this build-up as a threat and marched against it, but the Belgae had the advantage of position and the result was a stand-off. When no battle was forthcoming, the Belgic alliance broke up, determining to gather to defend whichever tribe Caesar attacked. Caesar subsequently marched against several tribes and achieved their submission. The Atrebates then joined with the
Nervii The Nervii were one of the most powerful Belgae, Belgic tribes of northern Gaul at the time of its conquest by Rome. Their territory corresponds to the central part of modern Belgium, including Brussels, and stretched southwards into French Hain ...
and Viromandui and attacked Caesar at the battle of the Sabis, but were there defeated. After thus conquering the Atrebates, Caesar appointed one of their countrymen,
Commius Commius (Commios, Comius, Comnios) was a king of the Belgae, Belgic nation of the Atrebates, initially in Gaul, then in Prehistoric Britain, Britain, in the 1st century BC. Ally of Caesar When Julius Caesar conquered the Atrebates in Gaul in 57 ...
, as their king. Commius was involved in Caesar's two expeditions to Britain in 55 and 54 BC and negotiated the surrender of
Cassivellaunus Cassivellaunus was a historical Celtic Britons, British military leader who led the defence against Caesar's invasions of Britain, Julius Caesar's second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. He led an alliance of tribes against Ancient Rome, Roman for ...
. In return for his loyalty, he was also given authority over the Morini. However, he later turned against the Romans and joined in the revolt led by
Vercingetorix Vercingetorix (; Ancient Greek, Greek: Οὐερκιγγετόριξ; – 46 BC) was a Gauls, Gallic king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe who united the Gauls in a failed revolt against Roman Republic, Roman forces during the last phase of Ju ...
in 52 BC. After Vercingetorix's defeat at the
Siege of Alesia The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia (September 52 BC) was a military engagement in the Gallic Wars The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul Gaul ( l ...
, Commius had further confrontations with the Romans, negotiated a truce with
Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Ancient Rome, Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the Crisis of the Roman Republic, transformation of the Roman Republic f ...
, and ended up fleeing to Britain with a group of followers. However, he appears to have retained some influence in Gaul: coins of post-conquest date have been found stamped with his name, paired with either Garmanos or Carsicios, who may have been his sons or regents.


Britain

Commius soon established himself as king of the British Atrebates, a kingdom he may have founded. Their territory comprised modern
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a ceremonial county, ceremonial and non-metropolitan county, non-metropolitan counties of England, county in western South East England on the coast of the English Channel. Home to two major English citi ...
,
West Sussex West Sussex is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the English Channel coast. The Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county comprises the Non-metropolitan district, shire districts of Adur District, Adur, Arun Distr ...
and
Berkshire Berkshire ( ; in the 17th century sometimes spelt phonetically as Barkeshire; abbreviated Berks.) is a historic county in South East England. One of the home counties, Berkshire was recognised by Queen Elizabeth II as the Royal County of B ...
, centred on the capital
Calleva Atrebatum Calleva Atrebatum ("Calleva of the Atrebates") was an British Iron Age, Iron Age oppidum, the capital of the Atrebates civitas, tribe. It then became a walled town in the Roman province of Britannia, at a major crossroads of the roads of southern ...
(modern
Silchester Silchester is a village and civil parishes in England, civil parish about north of Basingstoke in Hampshire. It is adjacent to the county boundary with Berkshire and about south-west of Reading, Berkshire, Reading. Silchester is most notable ...
). They were bordered to the north by the Dobunni and
Catuvellauni The Catuvellauni (Common Brittonic Common Brittonic ( cy, Brythoneg; kw, Brythonek; br, Predeneg), also known as British, Common Brythonic, or Proto-Brittonic, was a Celtic languages, Celtic language spoken in Great Britain, Britain and B ...
; to the east by the Regni; and to the south by the
Belgae The Belgae () were a large confederation of tribes living in northern Gaul, between the English Channel, the west bank of the Rhine, and the northern bank of the river Seine, from at least the third century BC. They were discussed in depth by Ju ...
. The settlement of the Atrebates in Britain was not a mass population movement. Archaeologist
Barry Cunliffe Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe, (born 10 December 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, is a British archaeologist and academic. He was Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford from 1972 to 2007. Since 2007, he has been an Emerit ...
argues that they "seem to have comprised a series of indigenous tribes, possibly with some intrusive Belgic element, given initial coherence by Commius". It is possible that the name "Atrebates", as with many "tribal" names in this period, referred only to the ruling house or dynasty and not to an ethnic group; Commius and his followers, after arriving in Britain, may have established a power-base and gradually expanded their sphere of influence, creating what was in effect a proto- state. However, during Caesar's first expedition to Britain in 55 BC, after the Roman cavalry had been unable to cross the Channel, Commius was able to provide a small group of horsemen from his people, suggesting that he may have already had kin in Britain at that time. After this time, the Atrebates were recognized as a
client kingdom A client state, in international relations International relations (IR), sometimes referred to as international studies and international affairs, is the Scientific method, scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a b ...
of Rome. Coins stamped with Commius's name were issued from Calleva from ca. 30 BC to 20 BC. Some coins are stamped "COM COMMIOS": interpreting this as "Commius son of Commius", and considering the length of his apparent ''
floruit ''Floruit'' (; abbreviated fl. or occasionally flor.; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Ti ...
'', some have concluded that there were two kings, father and son, of the same name. Three later kings of the British Atrebates name themselves on their coins as sons of Commius: Tincomarus, Eppillus and Verica. Tincomarus seems to have ruled jointly with his father from about 25 BC until Commius's death in about 20 BC. After that, Tincomarus ruled the northern part of the kingdom from Calleva, while Eppillus ruled the southern half from Noviomagus (
Chichester Chichester () is a cathedral city and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation wh ...
). Numismatic and other archeological evidence suggests that Tincomarus took a more pro-Roman stance than his father, and John Creighton argues from the imagery on his coins that he was brought up as an ''obses'' (diplomatic hostage) in
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus (Romulus and Remus, legendary) , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg ...
under
Augustus Caesar Augustus (born Gaius Octavius; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), also known as Octavian, was the first Roman emperor; he reigned from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He is known for being the founder of the Roman Pri ...
. Augustus's '' Res Gestae'' mentions two British kings presenting themselves to him as supplicants, probably ca. 7 AD. The passage is damaged, but one is probably Tincomarus (the other is
Dubnovellaunus Dubnovellaunus or Dumnovellaunus was the name of at least one, and possibly several kings of south-eastern Prehistoric Britain, Britain in the late 1st century BC/early 1st century AD, known from coin legends and from a mention in the ''Res Gestae D ...
, of either the Trinovantes or the
Cantiaci The Cantiaci or Cantii were an Iron Age Celtic people living in Britain before the Roman conquest of Britain, Roman conquest, and gave their name to a ''civitas'' of Roman Britain. They lived in the area now called Kent, in south-eastern England ...
). It appears Tincomarus was ousted by his brother, and from this point Epillus's coins are marked "''Rex''", indicating that he was recognised as king by Rome. In about 15, Eppillus was succeeded by Verica (at about the same time, a king by the name of Eppillus appears as ruler of the Cantiaci in
Kent Kent is a Counties of England, county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west, and Essex to the north across the estuary of the River ...
). But Verica's kingdom was being pressed by the expansion of the
Catuvellauni The Catuvellauni (Common Brittonic Common Brittonic ( cy, Brythoneg; kw, Brythonek; br, Predeneg), also known as British, Common Brythonic, or Proto-Brittonic, was a Celtic languages, Celtic language spoken in Great Britain, Britain and B ...
under
Cunobelinus Cunobeline (or Cunobelin, from Latin , derived from Common Brittonic ''*Cunobelinos'' "Strong as a Dog", "Strong Dog") was a king in Ancient Britain, pre-Roman Britain from about AD 9 until about AD 40.Malcolm Todd (2004)"Cunobelinus ymbeline/n ...
. Calleva fell to Cunobelinus's brother Epaticcus by about 25. Verica regained some territory following Epaticcus's death in about 35, but Cunobelinus's son Caratacus took over the campaign and by the early 40s the Atrebates were conquered. Verica fled to Rome, giving the new emperor Claudius the pretext for the Roman conquest of Britain. After the Roman conquest, part of the Atrebates' lands were organized into the pro-Roman kingdom of the Regni under Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, who may have been Verica's son. The tribal territory was later organised as the '' civitates'' (administrative districts within a Roman province) of the Atrebates, Regni and possibly the Belgae. However it is possible that the Atrebates were a family of rulers (
dynasty A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897. usually in the context of a monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in republic ...
), as there is no evidence for a major migration from
Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Northwestern Europe. The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the ...
to Britain.


List of kings of the Atrebates

#
Commius Commius (Commios, Comius, Comnios) was a king of the Belgae, Belgic nation of the Atrebates, initially in Gaul, then in Prehistoric Britain, Britain, in the 1st century BC. Ally of Caesar When Julius Caesar conquered the Atrebates in Gaul in 57 ...
, 57 - c. 20 BC # Tincomarus, c. 20 BC - AD 7, son of Commius # Eppillus, AD 8 - 15, brother of Tincomarus # Verica, 15 - 40, brother of Eppillus #Claudius Cogidubnus #Full Roman annexation.


See also

*
List of Celtic tribes This is a list of Celts, Celtic tribes, organized in order of the likely ethnolinguistic kinship of the peoples and tribes. In Classical antiquity, Celts were a large number and a significant part of the population in many regions of Western E ...
*
List of peoples of Gaul The Gauls ( la, Galli; grc, Γαλάται, ''Galátai'') were a group of Celts, Celtic peoples of mainland Europe in the Iron Age Europe, Iron Age and the Roman Gaul, Roman period (roughly 5th century BC to 5th century AD). Their homeland was k ...
* Celtic tribes in the British Isles


References


Citations


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * *


Primary sources

*
Augustus Caesar Augustus (born Gaius Octavius; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), also known as Octavian, was the first Roman emperor; he reigned from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He is known for being the founder of the Roman Pri ...
, '' Res Gestae Divi Augusti'' *
Dio Cassius Lucius Cassius Dio (), also known as Dio Cassius ( ), was a Roman historian and senator of maternal Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of the History of ancient Rome, history on ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas in Italy. The ...
, ''Roman History'' *
Sextus Julius Frontinus Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman Empire, Roman civil engineer, author, soldier and senator of the late 1st century AD. He was a successful general under Domitian, commanding forces in Roman Britain, and on the Rh ...
, ''Strategemata'' *
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; ; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman. A member of the First Triumvirate, Caesar led the Roman armies in the Gallic Wars before defeating his political rival Pompey in Caes ...
, ''
De Bello Gallico ''Commentarii de Bello Gallico'' (; en, Commentaries on the Gallic War, italic=yes), also ''Bellum Gallicum'' ( en, Gallic War, italic=yes), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In it Ca ...
'' *
Ptolemy Claudius Ptolemy (; grc-gre, wikt:Πτολεμαῖος, Πτολεμαῖος, ; la, Claudius Ptolemaeus; AD) was a mathematician, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, and music theorist, who wrote about a dozen scientific Treatise, treatis ...
, ''Geography''


Further reading

* *John Creighton, ''Coins and Power in Late Iron Age Britain'', Cambridge University Press, 2000 *
Barry Cunliffe Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe, (born 10 December 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, is a British archaeologist and academic. He was Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford from 1972 to 2007. Since 2007, he has been an Emerit ...
, ''Iron Age Britain''. London: B. T. Batsford/English Heritage, 1995 * Sheppard Frere, ''Britannia''. 1967, revised 1978, 3rd ed. 1987


External links


Commius
and th

a
Roman-Britain.org
a
Romans in BritainAtrebates Living History Group
{{Authority control Tribes of ancient Britain Belgae Tribes involved in the Gallic Wars Roman client kingdoms in Britain Tribes conquered by Rome Tribes of pre-Roman Gaul Gauls