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Atlantica
Atlantica
(Greek: Ατλαντικα; Atlantika) is an ancient continent that formed during the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
about 2,000 million years ago (two billion years ago, Ga) from various 2 Ga cratons located in what is now West Africa
West Africa
and eastern South America. [1] The name, introduced by Rogers 1996, was chosen because the continent opened up to form the South Atlantic Ocean. [2]

Contents

1 Formation 2 Breakup 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

Formation[edit] Atlantica
Atlantica
formed simultaneously with Nena at about 1.9 Ga from Archaean cratons, including Amazonia in present-day South America, and the Congo, West Africa
West Africa
and North Africa
Africa
Cratons in Africa.[3] Breakup[edit]

Reconstruction of Earth
Earth
550 Ma ago showing the cratons of Atlantica forming West Gondwana

Atlantica
Atlantica
separated from Nena between 1.6–1.4 Ga when Columbia — a supercontinent composed of Ur, Nena, and Atlantica — fragmented. [2] Together with continents Nena and Ur and some minor plates, Atlantica
Atlantica
formed the supercontinent Rodinia about 1 Ga ago. The rifting of Rodinia
Rodinia
between 1–0.5 Ga resulted in the formation of three new continents: Laurasia
Laurasia
and East and West Gondwana, of which Atlantica
Atlantica
became the nucleus of the latter. [1] During this later stage, the Neoproterozoic era, a Brasiliano-Pan African orogenic system developed. The central part of this system, the Araçuaí-West Congo orogen, has left a distinct pattern of deformations, still present on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. [4][5] See also[edit]

Plate tectonics

Notes[edit]

^ a b Rogers 1996 ^ a b Sankaran 2003, p. 1122 ^ Yoshida, Windley & Dasgupta 2003, p. 16 ^ Alkmim et al. 2006, Abstract ^ Noce et al. 2007, p. 60

References[edit]

Alkmim, Fernando F.; Marshak, Stephen; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio Carlos; Peres, Guilherme Gravina; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Whittington, Alan (September 1, 2006). "Kinematic evolution of the Araçuaí-West Congo orogen in Brazil and Africa: Nutcracker tectonics during the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana". Precambrian Research. 149 (1-2): 43–64. Bibcode:2006PreR..149...43A. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2006.06.007.  Noce, Carlos M.; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio Carlos; da Silva, Luiz Carlos; Armstrong, Richard; Piuzana, Danielle (2007). "Evolution of polycyclic basement complexes in the Aracuaí Orogen, based on U–Pb SHRIMP data: Implications for Brazil– Africa
Africa
links in Paleoproterozoic time" (PDF). Precambrian Research (159): 60–78. Bibcode:2007PreR..159...60N. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2007.06.001.  Rogers, John J. W. (January 1996). "A History of Continents in the Past Three Billion Years". The Journal of Geology. 104 (1): 91–107. Bibcode:1996JG....104...91R. doi:10.1086/629803. JSTOR 30068065.  Sankaran, A. V. (2003). "The supercontinent medley: Recent views" (PDF). Current Science. 85 (8): 1121–1123.  Yoshida, Masaru; Windley, Brian F.; Dasgupta, Somnath, eds. (2003). Proterozoic
Proterozoic
East Gondwana: supercontinent assembly and breakup. 206. Geological Society of London. ISBN 1-86239-125-4. 

v t e

Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

.