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ATLANTICA (Greek : Ατλαντικα; Atlantika) is an ancient continent that formed during the Proterozoic about 2,000 million years ago (two billion years ago, Ga ) from various 2 Ga cratons located in what is now West Africa
West Africa
and eastern South America
South America
. The name, introduced by Rogers 1996 , was chosen because the continent opened up to form the South Atlantic Ocean .

CONTENTS

* 1 Formation * 2 Breakup * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References

FORMATION

Atlantica
Atlantica
formed simultaneously with Nena at about 1.9 Ga from Archaean cratons, including Amazonia in present-day South America, and the Congo, West Africa
West Africa
and North Africa
Africa
Cratons in Africa.

BREAKUP

Reconstruction of Earth
Earth
550 Ma ago showing the cratons of Atlantica
Atlantica
forming West Gondwana

Atlantica
Atlantica
separated from Nena between 1.6–1.4 Ga when Columbia — a supercontinent composed of Ur , Nena, and Atlantica
Atlantica
— fragmented. Together with continents Nena and Ur and some minor plates, Atlantica formed the supercontinent Rodinia about 1 Ga ago. The rifting of Rodinia between 1–0.5 Ga resulted in the formation of three new continents: Laurasia
Laurasia
and East and West Gondwana , of which Atlantica became the nucleus of the latter. During this later stage, the Neoproterozoic era, a Brasiliano -Pan African orogenic system developed. The central part of this system, the Araçuaí -West Congo orogen, has left a distinct pattern of deformations, still present on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

SEE ALSO

* Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics

NOTES

* ^ A B Rogers 1996 * ^ A B Sankaran 2003 , p. 1122 * ^ Yoshida, Windley Marshak, Stephen; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio Carlos; Peres, Guilherme Gravina; Cruz, Simone Cerqueira Pereira; Whittington, Alan (September 1, 2006). "Kinematic evolution of the Araçuaí-West Congo orogen in Brazil and Africa: Nutcracker tectonics during the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana". Precambrian Research. 149 (1-2): 43–64. doi :10.1016/j.precamres.2006.06.007 . * Noce, Carlos M.; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio Carlos; da Silva, Luiz Carlos; Armstrong, Richard; Piuzana, Danielle (2007). "Evolution of polycyclic basement complexes in the Aracuaí Orogen, based on U–Pb SHRIMP data: Implications for Brazil– Africa
Africa
links in Paleoproterozoic time" (PDF). Precambrian Research (159): 60–78. doi :10.1016/j.precamres.2007.06.001 . * Rogers, John J. W. (January 1996). "A History of Continents in the Past Three Billion Years". The Journal of Geology. 104 (1): 91–107. Bibcode :1996JG....104...91R. JSTOR 30068065 . doi :10.1086/629803 . * Sankaran, A. V. (2003). "The supercontinent medley: Recent views" (PDF). Current Science. 85 (8): 1121–1123. * Yoshida, Masaru; Windley, Brian F.; Dasgupta, Somnath, eds. (2003). Proterozoic East Gondwana: supercontinent assembly and breakup. 206. Geological Society of London. ISBN 1-86239-125-4 .

* v * t * e

Continents of the world

Africa
Africa

Antarctica
Antarctica

Asia
Asia

Australia

Europe
Europe

North America
North America

South America
South America

Afro-Eurasia

Americas
Americas

Eurasia
Eurasia

Oceania
Oceania

* FORMER SUPERCONTINENTS Gondwana * Laurasia
Laurasia
* Pangaea
Pangaea
* Pannotia
Pannotia
* Rodinia * Columbia * Kenorland * Nena * Sclavia * Ur * Vaalbara

* HISTORICAL CONTINENTS Amazonia * Arctica
Arctica
* Asiamerica * Atlantica * Avalonia
Avalonia
* Baltica
Baltica
* Cimmeria * Congo craton
Congo craton
* Euramerica * Kalaharia * Kazakhstania * Laurentia * North China * Siberia * South China * East Antarctica
Antarctica
* India

* SUBMERGED CONTINENTS Kerguelen Plateau * Zealandia
Zealandia

* POSSIBLE FUTURE SUPERCONTINENTS Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima * Amasia * Novopangaea
Novopangaea

* MYTHICAL AND HYPOTHESISED CONTINENTS Atlantis
Atlantis
* Kumari Kandam * Lemuria * Meropis * Mu * Hyperborea * Terra Australis
Terra Australis

* See also Regions of the world * Continental fragment

* BOOK * CATEGORY

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Atlantica
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