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The East Coast
Coast
of the United States
United States
is the coastline along which the Eastern United States
Eastern United States
meets the North Atlantic Ocean. This area is also known as the Eastern Seaboard, the Atlantic Coast
Coast
and the Atlantic Seaboard. The coastal states that have shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
are, from north to south, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.

Contents

1 Toponymy and composition 2 Colonial history 3 Climate and physical geography 4 Demographics 5 Transportation 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References

Toponymy and composition[edit] The place name "East Coast" derives from the idea that the contiguous 48 states are defined by two major coastlines, one at the western edge and one on the eastern edge. Other terms for referring to this area include the "Eastern Seaboard" ("seaboard" being American English
American English
for coast), "Atlantic Coast", and "Atlantic Seaboard" (because the coastline lies along the Atlantic Ocean). The fourteen states that have a shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
are, from north to south, the U.S. states of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.[1] In addition, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and the District of Columbia border tidal arms of the Atlantic (the Delaware
Delaware
River and the Potomac River, respectively). Although Vermont
Vermont
and West Virginia
Virginia
have no Atlantic coastline, they are sometimes grouped with the Eastern Seaboard states because of their locations in New England
New England
and the Old South[2] and their history as part of the land base of the original Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
(viz. the Colony of New Hampshire, the Colony of New York
Colony of New York
and the Colony of Virginia). Colonial history[edit] The original thirteen colonies of Great Britain in North America
North America
all lay along the East Coast.[a] Two additional U.S. states on the East Coast
Coast
were not among the original thirteen colonies: Maine
Maine
(became part of the English colony of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
in 1677)[3] and Florida
Florida
(part of New Spain
New Spain
until 1821, though held by the British for 20 years after the French and Indian War).[4] The Middle Colonies
Middle Colonies
(New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware) had been owned by the Dutch as New Netherland, until they were captured by the English in the mid-to-late 17th century.[citation needed] Climate and physical geography[edit] There are three basic climate regions on the East Coast
Coast
according to the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
from north to south based on the monthly mean temperature of the coldest month (January): The region from northern Maine
Maine
south to northern Connecticut
Connecticut
has continental climate, with warm summers, and cold and snowy winters. The area from southern Connecticut
Connecticut
and New York City south to central Florida
Florida
has a Temperate climate, with long, hot summers and cold winters with occasional snow. Winters become milder with decreasing latitude until around south-central Florida
Florida
southward (Stuart, south through the Florida
Florida
Keys) has a tropical climate, which is frost free and is warm to hot all year. Average monthly precipitation ranges from a slight late fall (November) maximum from Massachusetts
Massachusetts
northward (as at Portland, Maine), to a slight summer maximum in the Mid-Atlantic states
Mid-Atlantic states
from southern Connecticut
Connecticut
south to Virginia
Virginia
(as at Wilmington, Delaware, and Norfolk, Virginia), to a more pronounced summer maximum from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, southward along the Southeastern United States coast to Savannah, Georgia. The Florida
Florida
peninsula has a sharp wet-summer/dry-winter pattern, with 60 to 70 percent of precipitation falling between June and October in an average year, and a dry, and sunny late fall, winter, and early spring. Although landfalls are rare, the Eastern seaboard is susceptible to hurricanes in the Atlantic hurricane season, officially running from June 1 to November 30, although hurricanes can occur before or after these dates.[5] Hurricanes Hazel, Hugo, Bob, Isabel, Irene, and most recently Sandy are some of the more significant storms to have affected the region. The East Coast
Coast
is a low-relief, passive margin coast.[6] It has been shaped by the Pleistocene glaciation
Pleistocene glaciation
in the far northern areas from New York City northward, with offshore islands such as Nantucket, Block Island, Fishers Island, the nearly peninsular Long Island
Long Island
and New York City's Staten Island
Staten Island
the result of terminal moraines, with Massachusetts' unique peninsula of Cape Cod
Cape Cod
showing the additional action of outwash plains, besides terminal moraines. The coastal plain broadens southwards, separated from the Piedmont region by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line of the East Coast
Coast
rivers, often marking the head of navigation and prominent sites of cities. The coastal areas from Long Island
Long Island
south to Florida
Florida
are often made up of barrier islands that front the coastal areas. Many of the larger capes along the lower East Coast
Coast
are in fact barrier islands, like the Outer Banks of North Carolina
North Carolina
and Cape Canaveral, Florida. The Florida
Florida
Keys are made up of limestone coral and provide the only coral reefs on the US mainland. Demographics[edit] In 2010, the population of the states which have shoreline on the East Coast
Coast
was estimated at 112,642,503 (36% of the country's total population). The East Coast
Coast
is the most populated coastal area in the United States.[7] Transportation[edit] The primary Interstate Highway
Interstate Highway
along the East Coast
Coast
is Interstate 95,[8] completed in the late 1970s, which replaced the historic U.S. Route 1 (Atlantic Highway),[9][10] the original federal highway that traversed all East Coast
Coast
states (except Delaware).[11][12] By water, the East Coast
Coast
is connected from Norfolk, Virginia, to Miami, Florida, by the Intracoastal Waterway, also known as the East Coast
Coast
Canal, which was completed in 1912.[13][14] Amtrak's Downeaster and Northeast Regional offer the main passenger rail service on the Seaboard. The Acela Express
Acela Express
offers the only high-speed rail passenger service in the Americas. Between New York and Boston the Acela Express
Acela Express
has up to a 54% share of the combined train and air passenger market.[15][16] Some of the largest airports in the United States
United States
are located in states which lie in the East Coast
Coast
of the United States, such as John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York, Logan International Airport in Boston, Newark Liberty Airport
Newark Liberty Airport
in Newark, New Jersey, Philadelphia International Airport
Philadelphia International Airport
in Philadelphia, Baltimore–Washington International Airport
Baltimore–Washington International Airport
near Baltimore, Washington-Dulles International Airport
Washington-Dulles International Airport
near Washington, D.C., Hartsfield International Airport
Hartsfield International Airport
in Atlanta, Miami International Airport in Miami, Charlotte Douglas International Airport
Charlotte Douglas International Airport
in Charlotte, North Carolina, Tampa International Airport
Tampa International Airport
in Tampa and Orlando International Airport
Orlando International Airport
in Orlando, Florida. See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal Geography portal

Atlantic coastal plain Atlantic Seaboard fall line BosWash
BosWash
(Boston, Massachusetts, and Washington, D.C.) Northeast megalopolis

Notes[edit]

^ Those colonies were New Hampshire, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Texas, and Georgia. While Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is not directly along the Atlantic shoreline, it borders the tidal portion of the Delaware
Delaware
River, and the city of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
was a major seaport.

References[edit]

^ General Reference Map Archived 2012-10-17 at the Wayback Machine., National Atlas of the United States, 2003. ^ " NOAA
NOAA
Chart Locator". National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-03-09. Retrieved Feb 21, 2013.  ^ 1500-1667: Contact & Conflict, Maine
Maine
History Online, Maine Historical Society ^ A Brief History of Florida: From the Stone Age to the Space Age, Division of Historical Resources, Florida
Florida
Department of State ^ Neal Dorst. "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?". Hurricane Research Division, NOAA. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2016.  ^ Gabler, Robert E.; Petersen, James F.; Trapasso, L. Michael; Sack, Dorothy (2008). Physical Geography. Cengage Learning. p. 575. Retrieved March 14, 2016.  ^ 2010 Census: Resident Population Data Archived October 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Let's Go Roadtripping USA: The Student Travel Guide. Harvard Student Agencies. p. 31.  ^ "U.S. 1: Fort Kent, Maine
Maine
to Key West, Florida". Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. April 7, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2016.  ^ "Fun facts about US Route 1" Archived 2012-10-22 at the Wayback Machine., Roger's Sport Center, Fort Kent, Maine[unreliable source?] ^ "US Route 1 – This is where it all begins", Northern Door Inn, Fort Kent[unreliable source?] ^ Cappasso, Tony, "America's Highway: A Journal of Discovery Along US Route 1" Archived February 8, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Reiley, Laura (2008). Florida
Florida
Gulf Coast. Moon Handbooks. p. 373.  ^ Maurice J. Robinson. Ponte Vedra Beach: A History. p. 89.  ^ Nixon, Ron (August 15, 2012). "Air Travel's Hassles drive riders to Amtrak's Acela". The New York Times.  (for Acela express passenger numbers only) ^ "The Information: Most popular airline routes". Financial Times. January 17, 2009. Retrieved February 2, 2010. 

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