Athena[Notes 2] or Athene,[Notes 3] often given the epithet
Pallas,[Notes 4] is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft,
and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess
Athena was regarded as the patron and protectress of
various cities across Greece, particularly the city of Athens, from
which she most likely received her name. She is usually shown in
art wearing a helmet and holding a spear. Her major symbols include
owls, olive trees, snakes, and the Gorgoneion.
From her origin as an Aegean palace goddess,
Athena was closely
associated with the city. She was known as Polias and Poliouchos (both
derived from polis, meaning "city-state"), and her temples were
usually located atop the fortified
Acropolis in the central part of
the city. The
Parthenon on the Athenian
Acropolis is dedicated to her,
along with numerous other temples and monuments. As the patron of
craft and weaving,
Athena was known as Ergane. She was also a warrior
goddess, and was believed to lead soldiers into battle as Athena
Promachos. Her main festival in
Athens was the Panathenaia, which was
celebrated during the month of Hekatombaion in midsummer and was the
most important festival on the Athenian calendar.
In Greek mythology,
Athena was believed to have been born from the
head of her father Zeus. In the founding myth of Athens,
Poseidon in a competition over patronage of the city by creating the
first olive tree. She was known as
Athena Parthenos ("
Virgin"), but, in one archaic Attic myth, the god
Hephaestus tried and
failed to rape her, resulting in
Gaia giving birth to Erichthonius, an
important Athenian founding hero.
Athena was the patron goddess of
heroic endeavor; she was believed to have also aided the heroes
Perseus, Heracles, Bellerophon, and Jason. Along with
Athena was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the
beginning of the Trojan War. She plays an active role in the Iliad, in
which she assists the Achaeans and, in the Odyssey, she is the divine
counselor to Odysseus.
In the later writings of the Roman poet Ovid,
Athena was said to have
competed against the mortal
Arachne in a weaving competition,
Arachne into the first spider;
describes how she transformed
Medusa into a
Gorgon after witnessing
her being raped by
Poseidon in her temple. Since the Renaissance,
Athena has become an international symbol of wisdom, the arts, and
classical learning. Western artists and allegorists have often used
Athena as a symbol of freedom and democracy.
3 Cult and patronages
4 Epithets and attributes
5.2 Pallas Athena
5.3 Lady of Athens
5.4 Patron of heroes
5.5 Punishment myths
5.6 Trojan War
6 Classical art
7 Post-classical culture
7.1 Art and symbolism
7.2 Modern interpretations
9 See also
11.1.1 Ancient sources
11.1.2 Modern sources
12 External links
Athens (1846) by Leo von Klenze. Athena's name
probably comes from the name of the city of Athens.
Athena is associated with the city of Athens. The name of the city
in ancient Greek is Ἀθῆναι (Athenai), a plural toponym,
designating the place where—according to myth—she presided over
the Athenai, a sisterhood devoted to her worship. In ancient times,
scholars argued whether
Athena was named after
Athena. Now scholars generally agree that the goddess takes her
name from the city; the ending -ene is common in names of
locations, but rare for personal names. Testimonies from different
cities in ancient
Greece attest that similar city goddesses were
worshipped in other cities and, like Athena, took their names from
the cities where they were worshipped. For example, in Mycenae
there was a goddess called Mykene, whose sisterhood was known as
Mykenai, whereas at Thebes an analogous deity was called Thebe, and
the city was known under the plural form Thebai (or Thebes, in
English, where the ‘s’ is the plural formation). The name
Athenai is likely of
Pre-Greek origin because it contains the
Pre-Greek morpheme *-ān-.
In his dialogue Cratylus, the Greek philosopher
Plato (428–347 BC)
gives some rather imaginative etymologies of Athena's name, based on
the theories of the ancient Athenians and his own etymological
That is a graver matter, and there, my friend, the modern interpreters
Homer may, I think, assist in explaining the view of the ancients.
For most of these in their explanations of the poet, assert that he
Athena "mind" [νοῦς, noũs] and "intelligence"
[διάνοια, diánoia], and the maker of names appears to have had
a singular notion about her; and indeed calls her by a still higher
title, "divine intelligence" [θεοῦ νόησις, theoũ
nóēsis], as though he would say: This is she who has the mind of God
[ἁ θεονόα, a theonóa). Perhaps, however, the name Theonoe may
mean "she who knows divine things" [τὰ θεῖα νοοῦσα, ta
theia noousa] better than others. Nor shall we be far wrong in
supposing that the author of it wished to identify this Goddess with
moral intelligence [εν έθει νόεσιν, en éthei nóesin],
and therefore gave her the name Etheonoe; which, however, either he or
his successors have altered into what they thought a nicer form, and
called her Athena.
— Plato, Cratylus 407b
Plato believed that Athena's name was derived from Greek
Ἀθεονόα, Atheonóa—which the later Greeks rationalised as
from the deity's (θεός, theós) mind (νοῦς, noũs). The
second-century AD orator
Aelius Aristides attempted to derive natural
symbols from the etymological roots of Athena's names to be aether,
air, earth, and moon.
Athena was originally the Aegean goddess of the palace, who presided
over household crafts and protected the king. A single
Mycenaean Greek inscription 𐀀𐀲𐀙𐀡𐀴𐀛𐀊 a-ta-na
po-ti-ni-ja /Athana potnia/ appears at
Knossos in the
Linear B tablets
from the Late Minoan II-era "Room of the
these comprise the earliest
Linear B archive anywhere. Although
Athana potnia is often translated Mistress Athena, it could also
Potnia of Athana", or the Lady of Athens. However, any
connection to the city of
Athens in the
Knossos inscription is
uncertain. In the still undeciphered corpus of Linear A
tablets—written in the unclassified Minoan language—a sign series
a-ta-no-dju-wa-ja is to be found. This could be connected with the
Linear B Mycenaean expressions a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja and di-u-ja or
di-wi-ja (Diwia, "of Zeus" or, possibly, related to a homonymous
goddess), resulting in a translation "
Athena of Zeus" or "divine
Athena". Similarly, in the
Greek mythology and epic tradition, Athena
figures as a daughter of
Zeus (Διός θυγάτηρ; cfr.
Dyeus). However, the inscription quoted seems to be very similar
to "a-ta-nū-tī wa-ya", quoted as SY Za 1 by Jan Best. Best
translates the initial a-ta-nū-tī, which is recurrent in line
beginnings, as "I have given".
Marble Greek copy signed "Antiokhos", a first-century BC variant of
Athena Promachos that stood on the Acropolis
A Mycenean fresco depicts two women extending their hands towards a
central figure, who is covered by an enormous figure-eight shield;
this may depict the warrior-goddess with her palladion, or her
palladion in an aniconic representation. In the "Procession
Fresco" at Knossos, which was reconstructed by the Mycenaeans, two
rows of figures carrying vessels seem to meet in front of a central
figure, which is probably the Minoan precursor to Athena. The
early twentieth-century scholar Martin Persson Nilsson argued that the
Minoan snake goddess figurines
Minoan snake goddess figurines are early representations of
Nilsson and others have claimed that, in early times,
either an owl herself or a bird goddess in general. In the third
book of the Odyssey, she takes the form of a sea-eagle. Proponents
of this view argue that she dropped her prophylactic owl-mask before
she lost her wings. "Athena, by the time she appears in art," Jane
Ellen Harrison remarks, "has completely shed her animal form, has
reduced the shapes she once wore of snake and bird to attributes, but
occasionally in black-figure vase-paintings she still appears with
It is generally agreed that the cult of
Athena preserves some aspects
of the Proto-Indo-European transfunctional goddess. The cult
Athena may have also been influenced by those of Near Eastern
warrior goddesses such as the
Ishtar and the Ugaritic
Anat, both of whom were often portrayed bearing arms. Athena's
birth from the head of
Zeus may be derived from the earlier Sumerian
myth of Inanna's descent into and return from the Netherworld.
Miriam Robbins Dexter has suggested that, at least at some point in
Athena was a solar deity.
Athena bears traits common
with Indo-European solar goddesses, including the possession of a
mirror and the invention of weaving, characteristics which are also
held by the Baltic goddess Saulė. Athena's association with
Medusa, who is also suspected of being a solar goddess, adds
further solar iconography to her cultus.
Athena was later
syncretized with Sulis, a Celtic goddess whose name is derived from
the common Proto-Indo-European root for many solar deities. Though
the sun in Greek myth is personified as the male Helios, several
relictual solar goddesses are known, such as Alectrona.
Plato notes that the citizens of
Sais in Egypt worshipped a goddess
known as Neith,[Notes 5] whom he identifies with Athena.
the ancient Egyptian goddess of war and hunting, who was also
associated with weaving; her worship began during the Egyptian
Pre-Dynastic period. In Greek mythology,
Athena was reported to have
visited mythological sites in North Africa, including Libya's Triton
River and the Phlegraean plain.[Notes 6] Based on these similarities,
Martin Bernal created the "Black Athena" hypothesis,
which claimed that
Neith was brought to
Greece from Egypt, along with
"an enormous number of features of civilization and culture in the
third and second millennia". The "Black Athena" hypothesis
stirred up widespread controversy near the end of the twentieth
century, but it has now been widely rejected by modern
Cult and patronages
Athenian tetradrachm representing the goddess Athena
A new peplos was woven for
Athena and ceremonially brought to dress
her cult image (British Museum).
In her aspect of
Athena was venerated as the goddess of
the city and the protectress of the citadel. In Athens, the
Plynteria, or "Feast of the Bath", was observed every year at the end
of the month of Thargelion. The festival lasted for five days.
During this period, the priestesses of Athena, or plyntrídes,
performed a cleansing ritual within the Erechtheion, a sanctuary
Athena and Poseidon. Here Athena's statue was
undressed, her clothes washed, and body purified.
Athena was worshipped at festivals such as
Chalceia as Athena
Ergane, the patroness of various crafts, especially weaving.
She was also the patron of metalworkers and was believed to aid in the
forging of armor and weapons. During the late 5th century BC, the
role of goddess of philosophy became a major aspect of Athena's
Athena Promachos, she was believed to lead soldiers into
Athena represented the disciplined, strategic side of
war, in contrast to her brother Ares, the patron of violence,
bloodlust, and slaughter—"the raw force of war".
believed to only support those fighting for a just cause and was
thought to view war primarily as a means to resolve conflict. In
her aspect as a warrior maiden,
Athena was also known as
Parthenos, which means "virgin", because she was believed
to have never married or taken a lover.
Athena was especially
worshipped in this role during the festivals of the
Pamboeotia, both of which prominently featured displays of
athletic and military prowess. As the patroness of heroes and
Athena was believed to favor those who used cunning and
intelligence rather than brute strength.
Athena depicted on a coin of Attalus I, ruler of Pergamon, c. 200 BC
Athena was not only the patron goddess of Athens, but also other
cities, including Argos, Sparta, Gortyn, Lindos, and Larisa. The
various cults of
Athena were all branches of her panhellenic cult
and often proctored various initiation rites of Grecian youth, such as
the passage into citizenship by young men or the passage of young
women into marriage. These cults were portals of a uniform
socialization, even beyond mainland Greece.
Athena was frequently equated with Aphaea, a local goddess of the
island of Aegina, originally from
Crete and also associated with
Artemis and the nymph Britomartis. In Arcadia, she was assimilated
with the ancient goddess Alea and worshiped as
Sanctuaries dedicated to
Athena Alea were located in the Laconian
Mantineia and Tegea. The temple of
Athena Alea in
an important religious center of ancient Greece.[Notes 7] The
geographer Pausanias was informed that the temenos had been founded by
Aleus. Votive bronzes at the site from the Geometric and Archaic
periods take the forms of horses and deer; there are sealstone and
fibulae. In the Archaic period, the nine villages that underlie Tegea
banded together in a synoecism to form one city.[Notes 8]
listed in Homer's
Catalogue of Ships
Catalogue of Ships as one of the cities that
contributed ships and men for the Achaean assault on Troy.
Athena had a major temple on the Spartan Acropolis, where she was
venerated as Poliouchos and Khalkíoikos ("of the Brazen House", often
latinized as Chalcioecus). This epithet may refer to the fact that
cult statue held there may have been made of bronze, that the
walls of the temple itself may have been made of bronze, or that
Athena was the patron of metal-workers. Bells made of terracotta
and bronze were used in
Sparta as part of Athena's cult.
An Ionic-style temple to
Athena Polias was built at
Priene in the
fourth century BC. It was designed by Pytheos of Priene, the
same architect who designed the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. The
temple was dedicated by Alexander the Great and an inscription
from the temple declaring his dedication is now held in the British
Epithets and attributes
See also: Category:Epithets of Athena
Cult statue of
Athena with the face of the Carpegna type (late 1st
century BC to early 1st century AD), from the Piazza dell'Emporio,
Bust of the Velletri Pallas type, copy after a votive statue of
Athens (c. 425 BC)
Athena was known as Atrytone (Άτρυτώνη "the Unwearying"),
Parthenos (Παρθένος "Virgin"), and Promachos (Πρόμαχος
"she who fights in front"). The epithet Polias (Πολιάς "of the
city"), refers to Athena's role as protectress of the city. The
epithet Ergane (Εργάνη "the Industrious") pointed her out as the
patron of craftsmen and artisans. Burkert notes that the Athenians
sometimes simply called
Athena "the Goddess", hē theós (ἡ
θεός), certainly an ancient title. After serving as the judge
at the trial of
Orestes in which he was acquitted of having murdered
his mother Clytemnestra,
Athena won the epithet Areia
Athena was sometimes given the epithet Hippia (Ἵππια "of the
horses", "equestrian"), referring to her invention of the bit,
bridle, chariot, and wagon. The Greek geographer Pausanias
mentions in his Guide to
Greece that the temple of
("the bridler") in Corinth was located near the tomb of Medea's
children. Other epithets include Ageleia,
Itonia and Aethyia,
under which she was worshiped in Megara. The word aíthyia
(αἴθυια) signifies a "diver", also some diving bird species
(possibly the shearwater) and figuratively, a "ship", so the name must
Athena teaching the art of shipbuilding or navigation.
In a temple at Phrixa in Elis, reportedly built by Clymenus, she was
known as Cydonia (Κυδωνία).
The Greek biographer
Plutarch (46–120 AD) refers to an instance
during the Parthenon's construction of her being called
(Ὑγίεια, i. e. personified "Health"):
A strange accident happened in the course of building, which showed
that the goddess was not averse to the work, but was aiding and
co-operating to bring it to perfection. One of the artificers, the
quickest and the handiest workman among them all, with a slip of his
foot fell down from a great height, and lay in a miserable condition,
the physicians having no hope of his recovery. When
Pericles was in
distress about this, the goddess [Athena] appeared to him at night in
a dream, and ordered a course of treatment, which he applied, and in a
short time and with great ease cured the man. And upon this occasion
it was that he set up a brass statue of
Athena Hygeia, in the citadel
near the altar, which they say was there before. But it was Phidias
who wrought the goddess's image in gold, and he has his name inscribed
on the pedestal as the workman of it.
The owl of Athena, surrounded by an olive wreath. Reverse of an
Athenian silver tetradrachm, c. 175 BC
In Homer's epic works, Athena's most common epithet is Glaukopis
(γλαυκῶπις), which usually is translated as, "bright-eyed"
or "with gleaming eyes". The word is a combination of glaukós
(γλαυκός, meaning "gleaming, silvery", and later,
"bluish-green" or "gray") and ṓps (ὤψ, "eye, face"). The
word glaúx (γλαύξ, "little owl") is from the same root,
presumably according to some, because of the bird's own distinctive
Athena was clearly associated with the owl from very early
on; in archaic images, she is frequently depicted with an owl
perched on her hand. Through its association with Athena, the owl
evolved into the national mascot of the Athenians and eventually
became a symbol of wisdom.
Iliad (4.514), the
Odyssey (3.378), the Homeric Hymns, and in
Athena is also given the curious epithet
Tritogeneia (Τριτογένεια), whose significance remains
unclear. It could mean various things, including "Triton-born",
perhaps indicating that the homonymous sea-deity was her parent
according to some early myths. One myth relates the foster father
relationship of this Triton towards the half-orphan Athena, whom he
raised alongside his own daughter Pallas.
Karl Kerényi suggests
that "Tritogeneia did not mean that she came into the world on any
particular river or lake, but that she was born of the water itself;
for the name Triton seems to be associated with water
generally." In Ovid's Metamorphoses,
Athena is occasionally
referred to as "Tritonia".
Another possible meaning may be "triple-born" or "third-born", which
may refer to a triad or to her status as the third daughter of
the fact she was born from Metis, Zeus, and herself; various legends
list her as being the first child after
Artemis and Apollo, though
other legends identify her as Zeus' first child. Several scholars
have suggested a connection to the Rigvedic god Trita, who was
sometimes grouped in a body of three mythological poets. Michael
Janda has connected the myth of
Trita to the scene in the
which the "three brothers" Zeus, Poseidon, and
Hades divide the world
between them, receiving the "broad sky", the sea, and the underworld
respectively. Janda further connects the myth of
born of the head (i. e. the uppermost part) of Zeus,
understanding Trito- (which perhaps originally meant "the third") as
another word for "the sky". In Janda's analysis of Indo-European
mythology, this heavenly sphere is also associated with the
mythological body of water surrounding the inhabited world (cfr.
Triton's mother, Amphitrite).
Athena is "born" from Zeus's forehead as a result of him having
swallowed her mother Metis, as he grasps the clothing of
the right; black-figured amphora, 550–525 BC, Louvre.
Athena appears before
Zeus at Knossos—in Linear B, as
𐀀𐀲𐀙𐀡𐀴𐀛𐀊, a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja, "Mistress
Athena"—in the Classical Olympian pantheon,
remade as the favourite daughter of Zeus, born fully armed from his
forehead.[Notes 9] The story of her birth comes in several
versions. In the version recounted by
Hesiod in his Theogony, Zeus
lay with Metis, the goddess of crafty thought and wisdom, but he
immediately feared the consequences because
prophesized that Metis would bear children wiser than he himself.
In order to prevent this,
Zeus swallowed Metis, but it was too
late because Metis had already conceived.[Notes 10]
Zeus experienced an enormous headache; Prometheus,
Hephaestus, Hermes, Ares, or Palaemon (depending on the sources
examined) cleaved Zeus’ head with the double-headed Minoan axe,
Athena leaped from Zeus's head, fully grown and
armed, with a shout—"and pealed to the broad sky her clarion cry
of war. And
Ouranos trembled to hear, and Mother Gaia…" Plato,
in the Laws, attributes the cult of
Athena to the culture of Crete,
introduced, he thought, from Libya during the dawn of Greek culture.
Classical myths thereafter note that
Hera was so annoyed at
having produced a child that she conceived and bore
herself, but in Imagines 2. 27 (trans. Fairbanks), the third-century
AD Greek rhetorician
Philostratus the Elder writes that Hera
"rejoices" at Athena's birth "as though
Athena were her daughter
also." The second-century AD Christian apologist
Justin Martyr takes
issue with those pagans who erect at springs images of Kore, whom he
interprets as Athena: "They said that
Athena was the daughter of Zeus
not from intercourse, but when the god had in mind the making of a
world through a word (logos) his first thought was Athena."
A scholium on the Iliad makes
Athena the daughter of Brontes the
Cyclops, who seduced Metis and impregnated her, prompting
swallow her. The Etymologicum Magnum instead deems
daughter of the Daktyl Itonos. Fragments attributed by the
Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea to the semi-legendary Phoenician
historian Sanchuniathon, which Eusebius thought had been written
before the Trojan war, make
Athena instead the daughter of Cronus, a
Byblos who visited "the inhabitable world" and bequeathed
Attica to Athena.
Detail of a Roman fresco from
Ajax the Lesser
Ajax the Lesser dragging
Cassandra away from the palladion during the fall of Troy, an event
which invoked Athena's wrath against the Greek armies
Athena's epithet Pallas is derived either from πάλλω, meaning "to
brandish [as a weapon]", or, more likely, from παλλακίς and
related words, meaning "youth, young woman". On this topic, Walter
Burkert says "she is the Pallas of Athens, Pallas Athenaie, just as
Argos is Here Argeie." In later times, after the original
meaning of the name had been forgotten, the Greeks invented myths to
explain its origin, such as those reported by the Epicurean
Philodemus and the ancient mythographer
Pseudo-Apollodorus, which claim that Pallas was originally a separate
Athena had slain in combat.
In one version of the myth, Pallas was the daughter of the sea-god
Triton; she and
Athena were childhood friends, but Athena
accidentally killed her during a friendly sparring match.
Distraught over what she had done,
Athena took the name Pallas for
herself as a sign of her grief. In another version of the story,
Pallas was a Gigante;
Athena slew him during the
flayed off his skin to make her cloak, which she wore as a victory
trophy. In an alternate variation of the same myth, Pallas
was instead Athena's father, who attempted to assault his own
Athena to kill him and take his skin as a
The palladion was a statue of
Athena that was said to have stood in
her temple on the Trojan Acropolis.
Athena was said to have carved
the statue herself in the likeness of her dead friend Pallas. The
statue had special talisman-like properties and it was thought
that, as long as it was in the city,
Troy could never fall. When
the Greeks captured Troy, Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, clung to
the palladion for protection, but
Ajax the Lesser
Ajax the Lesser violently tore
her away from it and dragged her over to the other captives.
Athena was infuriated by this violation of her protection. Though
Agamemnon attempted to placate her anger with sacrifices,
a storm at Cape Kaphereos to destroy almost the entire Greek fleet and
scatter all of the surviving ships across the Aegean.
Lady of Athens
The Dispute of
Minerva and Neptune by
René-Antoine Houasse (c. 1689
In a founding myth reported by Pseudo-Apollodorus,
Poseidon for the patronage of Athens. They agreed that each
would give the Athenians one gift and that Cecrops, the king of
Athens, would determine which gift was better.
Poseidon struck the
ground with his trident and a salt water spring sprang up; this
gave the Athenians access to trade and water.
Athens at its height
was a significant sea power, defeating the Persian fleet at the Battle
of Salamis—but the water was salty and undrinkable. In an
alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon
instead gave the Athenians the first horse.
Athena offered the
first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops accepted this gift
Athena the patron goddess of Athens. The olive tree
brought wood, oil, and food, and became a symbol of Athenian
Robert Graves was of the opinion that
"Poseidon's attempts to take possession of certain cities are
political myths", which reflect the conflict between matriarchal
and patriarchal religions.
Athena Giustiniani, a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Pallas
Athena. The guardian serpent of the Athenian
Acropolis sits coiled at
Pseudo-Apollodorus records an archaic legend, which claims that
Hephaestus once attempted to rape Athena, but she pushed him away,
causing him to ejaculate on her thigh.
Athena wiped the
semen off using a tuft of wool, which she tossed into the
Gaia and causing her to give birth to
Athena adopted as her own child. The
Roman mythographer Hyginus records a similar story in which
Zeus to let him marry
Athena since he was the one
who had smashed open Zeus's skull, allowing
Athena to be born.
Zeus agreed to this and
Athena were married, but,
Hephaestus was about to consummate the union,
from the bridal bed, causing him to ejaculate on the floor, thus
Gaia with Erichthonius.
The geographer Pausanias records that
Athena placed the infant
Erichthonius into a small chest (cista), which she entrusted to
the care of the three daughters of Cecrops: Herse, Pandrosos, and
Aglauros of Athens. She warned the three sisters not to open the
chest, but did not explain to them why or what was in it.
Aglauros, and possibly one of the other sisters, opened the
chest. Differing reports say that they either found that the
child itself was a serpent, that it was guarded by a serpent, that it
was guarded by two serpents, or that it had the legs of a
serpent. In Pausanias's story, the two sisters were driven mad by
the sight of the chest's contents and hurled themselves off the
Acropolis, dying instantly, but an Attic vase painting shows them
being chased by the serpent off the edge of the cliff instead.
Erichthonius was one of the most important founding heroes of
Athens and the legend of the daughters of Cecrops was a cult myth
linked to the rituals of the
Arrhephoria festival. Pausanias
records that, during the Arrhephoria, two young girls known as the
Arrhephoroi, who lived near the temple of
Athena Polias, would be
given hidden objects by the priestess of Athena, which they would
carry on their heads down a natural underground passage. They
would leave the objects they had been given at the bottom of the
passage and take another set of hidden objects, which they would
carry on their heads back up to the temple. The ritual was
performed in the dead of night and no one, not even the
priestess, knew what the objects were. The serpent in the story
may be the same one depicted coiled at Athena's feet in Pheidias's
famous statue of the
Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon. Many of
the surviving sculptures of
Athena show this serpent.
Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis, which is dedicated to Athena
Herodotus records that a serpent lived in a crevice on the north side
of the summit of the Athenian Acropolis and that the Athenians
left a honey cake for it each month as an offering. On the eve of
Second Persian invasion of Greece
Second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, the serpent did not
eat the honey cake and the Athenians interpreted it as a sign that
Athena herself had abandoned them. Another version of the myth of
the Athenian maidens is told in
Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid
(43 BC – 17 AD); in this late variant
Hermes falls in love
with Herse. Herse, Aglaulus, and Pandrosus go to the temple to offer
sacrifices to Athena.
Hermes demands help from Aglaulus to seduce
Herse. Aglaulus demands money in exchange.
Hermes gives her the money
the sisters have already offered to Athena. As punishment for
Athena asks the goddess Envy to make Aglaulus
jealous of Herse. When
Hermes arrives to seduce Herse, Aglaulus stands
in his way instead of helping him as she had agreed. He turns her to
Athena never had a consort or lover and is thus known as Athena
Parthenos, "Virgin Athena". Her most famous temple, the
Parthenon, on the
Athens takes its name from this
title. It is not merely an observation of her virginity, but a
recognition of her role as enforcer of rules of sexual modesty and
ritual mystery. Even beyond recognition, the Athenians allotted
the goddess value based on this pureness of virginity as it upheld a
rudiment of female behavior in the patriarchal society.
Kerényi's study and theory of
Athena accredits her virginal epithet
to be a result of the relationship to her father
Zeus and a vital,
cohesive piece of her character throughout the ages. This role is
expressed in a number of stories about Athena. Marinus of Neapolis
reports that when Christians removed the statue of the Goddess from
the Parthenon, a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to Proclus, a
devotee of Athena, and announced that the "Athenian Lady" wished to
dwell with him.
Patron of heroes
According to Pseudo-Apollodorus's Bibliotheca,
Athena guided the hero
Perseus in his quest to behead Medusa. She and Hermes,
the god of travelers, appeared to
Perseus after he set off on his
quest and gifted him with tools he would need to kill the
Perseus a polished bronze shield to view
Medusa's reflection rather than looking at her directly and thereby
avoid being turned to stone.
Hermes gave him an adamantine
scythe to cut off Medusa's head. When
Perseus swung his
blade to behead Medusa,
Athena guided it, allowing his scythe to cut
it clean off. According to Pindar's Thirteenth Olympian Ode,
Athena helped the hero
Bellerophon tame the winged horse
giving him a bit. In ancient Greek art,
Athena is frequently
shown aiding the hero Heracles. She appears in four of the twelve
metopes on the Temple of
Zeus at Olympia depicting Heracles's Twelve
Labors, including the first, in which she passively watches
him slay the Nemean lion, and the tenth, in which she is shown
actively helping him hold up the sky. She is presented as his
"stern ally", but also the "gentle... acknowledger of his
achievements." Artistic depictions of Heracles's apotheosis show
Athena driving him to
Mount Olympus in her chariot and presenting him
Zeus for his deification. In Aeschylus's tragedy Orestes,
Athena intervenes to save
Orestes from the wrath of the
presides over his trial for the murder of his mother
Clytemnestra. When half the jury votes to acquit and the other
half votes to convict,
Athena casts the deciding vote to acquit
Orestes and declares that, from then on, whenever a jury is tied,
the defendant shall always be acquitted.
In The Odyssey, Odysseus' cunning and shrewd nature quickly wins
Athena's favour. For the first part of the poem, however, she
largely is confined to aiding him only from afar, mainly by implanting
thoughts in his head during his journey home from Troy. Her guiding
actions reinforce her role as the "protectress of heroes," or, as
Walter Friedrich Otto dubbed her, the "goddess of
nearness," due to her mentoring and motherly probing.
It is not until he washes up on the shore of the island of the
Nausicaa is washing her clothes that
personally to provide more tangible assistance. She appears in
Nausicaa's dreams to ensure that the princess rescues
plays a role in his eventual escort to Ithaca.
Athena appears to
Odysseus upon his arrival, disguised as a herdsman; she
initially lies and tells him that Penelope, his wife, has remarried
and that he is believed to be dead, but
Odysseus lies back to
her, employing skillful prevarications to protect himself.
Impressed by his resolve and shrewdness, she reveals herself and tells
him what he needs to know in order to win back his
kingdom. She disguises him as an elderly beggar so that
he will not be recognized by the suitors or Penelope, and
helps him to defeat the suitors.
Athena also appears to
Odysseus's son Telemachus. Her actions lead him to travel around
to Odysseus's comrades and ask about his father. He hears stories
about some of Odysseus's journey. Athena's push for Telemachos's
journey helps him grow into the man role, that his father once
held. She also plays a role in ending the resultant feud against
the suitors' relatives. She instructs
Laertes to throw his spear and
to kill Eupeithes, the father of Antinous.
Heracles on an Attic red-figure kylix, 480–470 BC
Attic red-figure kylix painting from c. 480-470 BC showing Athena
observing as the Colchian dragon disgorges the hero Jason
Silver coin showing
Scylla decorated helmet and Heracles
Nemean lion (Heraclea Lucania, 390-340 BC)
Paestan red-figure bell-krater (c. 330 BC), showing
Orestes at Delphi
Pylades among the
Erinyes and priestesses of
Apollo, with the
Pythia sitting behind them on her tripod
Classical Greek depiction of
Medusa from the fourth century BC
Gorgoneion appears to have originated as an apotropaic symbol
intended to ward off evil. In a late myth invented to explain the
origins of the Gorgon,
Medusa is described as having been a young
priestess who served in the temple of
Athena in Athens. Poseidon
lusted after Medusa, and raped her in the temple of Athena,
refusing to allow her vow of chastity to stand in his way. Upon
discovering the desecration of her temple,
Athena transformed Medusa
into a hideous monster with serpents for hair whose gaze would turn
any mortal to stone.
In his Twelfth Pythian Ode,
Pindar recounts the story of how Athena
invented the aulos, a kind of flute, in imitation of the lamentations
of Medusa's sisters, the Gorgons, after she was beheaded by the hero
Perseus. According to Pindar,
Athena gave the aulos to mortals as
a gift. Later, the comic playwright
Melanippides of Melos (c.
480-430 BC) embellished the story in his comedy Marsyas, claiming
Athena looked in the mirror while she was playing the aulos and
saw how blowing into it puffed up her cheeks and made her look silly,
so she threw the aulos away and cursed it so that whoever picked it up
would meet an awful death. The aulos was picked up by the satyr
Marsyas, who was later killed by
Apollo for his hubris. Later,
this version of the story became accepted as canonical and the
Myron created a group of bronze sculptures based on
it, which was installed before the western front of the
around 440 BC.
In one version of the
Tiresias stumbled upon Athena
bathing, and she struck him blind to ensure he would never again
see what man was not intended to see. Tiresias's mother
Chariclo intervened on his behalf and begged
Athena to have
Athena could not restore Tiresias's
eyesight, so instead she gave him the ability to understand
the language of the birds and thus foretell the future.
René-Antoine Houasse (1706)
The fable of
Arachne appears in Ovid's
Metamorphoses (8 AD) (vi.5–54
and 129–145), which is nearly the only extant source for
the legend. The story does not appear to have been well
known prior to Ovid's rendition of it and the only earlier
reference to it is a brief allusion in Virgil's Georgics, (29 BC) (iv,
246) that does not mention
Arachne by name. According to Ovid,
Arachne (whose name means spider in ancient Greek) was the
daughter of a famous dyer in
Tyrian purple in Hypaipa of Lydia, and a
weaving student of Athena. She became so conceited of her skill as a
weaver that she began claiming that her skill was greater than that of
Arachne a chance to redeem herself by
assuming the form of an old woman and warning
Arachne not to offend
Arachne scoffed and wished for a weaving contest, so
she could prove her skill.
Athena wove the scene of her victory over
Poseidon in the contest for
the patronage of Athens. Arachne's tapestry featured
twenty-one episodes of the deities' infidelity, including
Zeus being unfaithful with Leda, with Europa, and with Danaë.
Athena admitted that Arachne's work was flawless, but was
outraged at Arachne's offensive choice of subject, which displayed the
failings and transgressions of the deities. Finally, losing
Athena destroyed Arachne's tapestry and loom, striking it
with her shuttle.
Athena then struck
Arachne across the face
with her staff four times.
Arachne hanged herself in
Athena took pity on her and brought her back
from the dead in the form of a spider.
Main article: Judgement of Paris
Ancient Greek mosaic from
Antioch dating to the second century AD,
depicting the Judgement of Paris
The myth of the
Judgement of Paris
Judgement of Paris is mentioned briefly in the
Iliad, but is described in depth in an epitome of the Cypria, a
lost poem of the Epic Cycle, which records that all the gods and
goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of
Thetis (the eventual parents of Achilles). Only Eris,
goddess of discord, was not invited. She was annoyed at this, so
she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the word
καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, "for the fairest"), which she threw
among the goddesses. Aphrodite, Hera, and
Athena all claimed to
be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple.
The goddesses chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting
to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris,
a Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of
Mount Ida where
Troy was situated, the goddesses appeared before Paris for his
decision. In the extant ancient depictions of the Judgement of
Aphrodite is only occasionally represented nude, and
Hera are always fully clothed. Since the Renaissance, however,
western paintings have typically portrayed all three goddesses as
All three goddesses were ideally beautiful and Paris could not decide
between them, so they resorted to bribes.
Hera tried to bribe
Paris with power over all
Asia and Europe, and
wisdom, fame and glory in battle, but
Aphrodite promised Paris
that, if he were to choose her as the fairest, she would let him marry
the most beautiful woman on earth. This woman was Helen, who was
already married to King
Menelaus of Sparta. Paris selected
Aphrodite and awarded her the apple. The other two goddesses were
enraged and, as a direct result, sided with the Greeks in the Trojan
In Books V-VI of the Iliad,
Athena aids the hero Diomedes, who, in the
absence of Achilles, proves himself to be the most effective Greek
warrior. Several artistic representations from the early sixth
century BC may show
Athena and Diomedes, including an early
sixth-century BC shield band depicting
Athena and an unidentified
warrior riding on a chariot, a vase painting of a warrior with his
charioteer facing Athena, and an inscribed clay plaque showing
Athena riding in a chariot. Numerous passages in the
Iliad also mention
Athena having previously served as the patron of
Diomedes's father Tydeus. When the Trojan women go to the
Athena on the
Acropolis to plead her for protection from
Athena ignores them.
In Book XXII of the Iliad, while
Achilles is chasing
Hector around the
walls of Troy,
Athena appears to
Hector disguised as his brother
Deiphobus and persuades him to hold his ground so that they can
Achilles together. Then,
Hector throws his spear at
Achilles and misses, expecting
Deiphobus to hand him another, but
Athena disappears instead, leaving
Hector to face
without his spear. In Sophocles's tragedy Ajax, she punishes
Odysseus's rival Ajax the Great, driving him insane and causing him to
massacre the Achaeans' cattle, thinking that he is slaughtering the
Achaeans themselves. Even after
Odysseus himself expresses pity
Athena declares, "To laugh at your enemies - what
sweeter laughter can there be than that?" (lines 78-9). Ajax
later commits suicide as a result of his humiliation.
In early, archaic portraits of
Athena in black-figure pottery, the
goddess retains some of her Minoan-Mycenaean character, such as
great bird wings, although this is not true of archaic sculpture
such as those of Aphaean Athena, where
Athena has subsumed an earlier,
invisibly numinous—Aphaea—goddess with Cretan connections in her
In classical depictions,
Athena is usually portrayed standing upright,
wearing a full-length chiton. She is sometimes dressed in
armor, and is often represented wearing a Corinthian helmet
raised high atop her forehead. Her shield bears at its centre the
aegis with the head of the gorgon (gorgoneion) in the center and
snakes around the edge. It is in this standing posture that she
was depicted in Phidias's famous lost gold and ivory statue of her, 36
m tall, the
Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon.
Apart from her attributes, there seems to be a relative consensus in
late sculpture from the Classical period, the fifth century BC onward,
as to what
Athena looked like. Most noticeable in the face is perhaps
the full round strong, chin with a high nose that has a high bridge as
a natural extension of the forehead. The eyes typically are somewhat
deeply set. The unsmiling lips are usually full, but the mouth is
depicted fairly narrow, usually just slightly wider than the nose. The
neck is somewhat long.
Mourning Athena is a famous relief sculpture dating to around
470-460 BC that has been interpreted to represent Athena
Athena Polias is also represented in a Neo-Attic relief
now held in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, which depicts her
holding an owl in her hand[Notes 11] and wearing her characteristic
Corinthian helmet while resting her shield against a nearby
Attic black-figure exaleiptron of the birth of
Athena from the head of
Zeus (c. 570–560 BC)
Attic red-figure kylix of
Athena Promachos holding a spear and
standing beside a Doric column (c. 500-490 BC)
Restoration of the polychrome decoration of the
Athena statue from the
Aphaea temple at Aegina, c. 490 BC (from the exposition "Bunte
Götter" by the Munich Glyptothek)
Mourning Athena relief (c. 470-460 BC)
Attic red-figure kylix showing
Athena slaying the Gigante Enkelados
(c. 550–500 BC)
Athena and Nike slaying the Gigante Alkyoneus from the
Gigantomachy Frieze on the
Pergamon Altar (early second century BC)
Classical mosaic from a villa at Tusculum, 3rd century AD, now at
Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican
Mythological scene with
Athena (left) and
Herakles (right), on a stone
palette of the
Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, India
Atena farnese, Roman copy of a Greek original from Phidias' circle, c.
430 AD, Museo Archeologico, Naples
Art and symbolism
Statue of Pallas
Athena in front of the Austrian Parliament Building.
Athena has been used throughout western history as a symbol of freedom
Early Christian writers such as
Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria and Firmicus
Athena as representative of all the things that were
detestable about paganism; they condemned her as "immodest and
immoral". During the Middle Ages, however, many attributes of
Athena were given to the Virgin Mary, who, in fourth century
portrayals, was often depicted wearing the Gorgoneion. Some even
Virgin Mary as a warrior maiden, much like Athena
Parthenos; one anecdote tells that the
Virgin Mary once appeared
upon the walls of
Constantinople when it was under siege by the Avars,
clutching a spear and urging the people to fight. During the
Athena became widely used as a Christian symbol and
allegory, and she appeared on the family crests of certain noble
During the Renaissance,
Athena donned the mantle of patron of the arts
and human endeavor; allegorical paintings involving
Athena were a
favorite of the Italian
Renaissance painters. In Sandro
Botticelli's painting Pallas and the Centaur, probably painted
sometime in the 1480s,
Athena is the personification of chastity, who
is shown grasping the forelock of a centaur, who represents
lust. Andrea Mantegna's 1502 painting
Minerva Expelling the
Vices from the Garden of Virtue uses
Athena as the personification of
Graeco-Roman learning chasing the vices of medievalism from the garden
of modern scholarship.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,
Athena was used as a
symbol for female rulers. In his book A Revelation of the True
Thomas Blennerhassett portrays Queen Elizabeth I of
England as a "new Minerva" and "the greatest goddesse nowe on
earth". A series of paintings by
Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens depict Athena
as Marie de' Medici's patron and mentor; the final painting in
the series goes even further and shows
Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici with Athena's
iconography, as the mortal incarnation of the goddess herself.
During the French Revolution, statues of pagan gods were torn down all
throughout France, but statues of
Athena were not. Instead,
Athena was transformed into the personification of freedom and the
republic and a statue of the goddess stood in the center of the
Place de la Revolution
Place de la Revolution in Paris. In the years following the
Revolution, artistic representations of
A statue of
Athena stands directly in front of the Austrian Parliament
Building in Vienna, and depictions of
Athena have influenced
other symbols of western freedom, including the
Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty and
Britannia. For over a century, a full-scale replica of the
Parthenon has stood in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1990, the
curators added a gilded forty-two foot (12.5 m) tall replica of
Athena Parthenos, built from concrete and fiberglass.
The state seal of California bears the image of
Athena kneeling next
to a brown grizzly bear.
Athena has occasionally appeared on
modern coins, as she did on the ancient Athenian drachma. Her head
appears on the $50 1915-S Panama-Pacific commemorative coin.
Pallas and the Centaur
Pallas and the Centaur (c. 1482) by Sandro Botticelli
Minerva Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue (1502) by Andrea
Athena Scorning the Advances of
Hephaestus (c. 1555-1560) by Paris
Minerva Victorious Over Ignorance (c. 1591) by Bartholomeus Spranger
Maria de Medici (1622) by Peter Paul Rubens, showing her as the
incarnation of Athena
Minerva Protecting Peace from Mars (1629) by Peter Paul Rubens
Athena (c. 1655) by Rembrandt
Minerva Revealing Ithaca to Ulysses (fifteenth century) by Giuseppe
Minerva and the Triumph of Jupiter (1706) by René-Antoine Houasse
The Combat of Mars and
Minerva (1771) by Joseph-Benoît Suvée
Minerva Fighting Mars (1771) by Jacques-Louis David
Minerva of Peace mosaic in the Library of Congress
Athena on the Great Seal of California
Modern Neopagan Hellenist altar dedicated to
Athena and Apollo
One of Sigmund Freud's most treasured possessions was a small, bronze
statue of Athena, which sat on his desk. Freud once described
Athena as "a woman who is unapproachable and repels all sexual desires
- since she displays the terrifying genitals of the Mother."
Feminist views on
Athena are sharply divided; some feminists
regard her as a symbol of female empowerment, while others regard
her as "the ultimate patriarchal sell out... who uses her powers to
promote and advance men rather than others of her sex." In
Athena is venerated as an aspect of the
Goddess and some Wiccans believe that she may bestow the "Owl
Gift" ("the ability to write and communicate clearly") upon her
worshippers. Due to her status as one of the twelve Olympians,
Athena is a major deity in Hellenismos, a Neopagan religion which
seeks to authentically revive and recreate the religion of ancient
Greece in the modern world.
Athena is a natural patron of universities: At
Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr College in
Pennsylvania a statue of
Athena (a replica of the original bronze one
in the arts and archaeology library) resides in the Great Hall.
It is traditional at exam time for students to leave offerings to the
goddess with a note asking for good luck, or to repent for
accidentally breaking any of the college's numerous other
Athena is the tutelary goddess of the
international social fraternity Phi Delta Theta. Her owl is also
a symbol of the fraternity.
Athena's family tree
a [Notes 12]
b [Notes 13]
a [Notes 14]
b [Notes 15]
Greek mythology portal
^ In other traditions, Athena's father is sometimes listed as Pallas
the Gigante, Brontes the Cyclopes, or Itonos the Daktyl
^ /əˈθiːnə/; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or
Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric:
^ /əˈθiːniː/; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē
^ /ˈpæləs/; Παλλὰς
^ "The citizens have a deity for their foundress; she is called in the
Egyptian tongue Neith, and is asserted by them to be the same whom the
Hellenes call Athena; they are great lovers of the Athenians, and say
that they are in some way related to them." (Timaeus 21e.)
^ Aeschylus, Eumenides, v. 292 f.. Cf. the tradition that she was the
daughter of Neilos: see, e. g.
Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria Protr.
De Natura Deorum
De Natura Deorum 3.59.
^ "This sanctuary had been respected from early days by all the
Peloponnesians, and afforded peculiar safety to its suppliants"
(Pausanias, Description of
^ Compare the origin of Sparta.
^ Jane Ellen Harrison's famous characterization of this myth-element
as, "a desperate theological expedient to rid an earth-born Kore of
her matriarchal conditions" (Harrison 1922:302) has never been refuted
^ According to Hesiod's
Zeus had seven wives or
Zeus impregnated his first wife Metis and then swallowed
Athena was the first child to be conceived. Later Zeus
himself gave birth to
Athena from his head.
^ The owl's role as a symbol of wisdom originates in this association
^ According to Homer,
Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338,
Hephaestus was apparently the son of
Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
^ According to Hesiod,
Hephaestus was produced by
Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
^ According to Hesiod,
Aphrodite was born from
Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
^ According to Homer,
Aphrodite was the daughter of
Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (
Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz,
^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature, s.v. "
Athena p. 81.
^ a b Deacy & Villing 2001.
^ a b c d e f g h Burkert 1985, p. 139.
^ a b c d e f Ruck & Staples 1994, p. 24.
^ a b Beekes 2009, p. 29.
^ Johrens 1981, pp. 438–452.
^ a b Nilsson 1967, pp. 347, 433.
^ a b c d e f g Burkert 1985, p. 140.
^ Puhvel 1987, p. 133.
^ Kinsely 1989, pp. 141–142.
^ a b Chadwick 1976, pp. 88–89.
^ a b c d Ventris & Chadwick 1973, p. 126.
^ a b Palaima 2004, p. 444.
^ Burkert 1985, p. 44.
^ KO Za 1 inscription, line 1.
^ a b c Best 1989, p. 30.
^ a b Mylonas 1966, p. 159.
^ a b c Fururmark 1978, p. 672.
^ a b c d Nilsson 1950, p. 496.
^ Harrison 1922:306. "Cfr. ibid., p. 307, fig. 84: Detail of a cup in
the Faina collection". Archived from the original on 5 November 2004.
Retrieved 2007-05-06. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
^ Puhvel 1987, pp. 133–134.
^ Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 433.
^ Deacy 2007, pp. 20–21, 41.
^ a b c d e f g Dexter 1984, pp. 137–144.
^ Cf. also Herodotus, Histories 2:170–175.
^ Bernal 1987, pp. 21, 51 ff.
^ Fritze 2009, pp. 221–229.
^ Berlinerblau 1999, p. 93ff.
^ Fritze 2009, pp. 221–255.
^ Jasanoff & Nussbaum 1996, p. 194.
^ Fritze 2009, pp. 250–255.
^ Herrington 1955, pp. 11–15.
^ Simon 1983, p. 46.
^ a b Simon 1983, pp. 46–49.
^ a b c Herrington 1955, pp. 1–11.
^ Burkert 1985, pp. 305–337.
^ Herrington 1955, pp. 11–14.
^ a b c d e f g h Schmitt 2000, pp. 1059–1073.
^ a b c Darmon 1992, pp. 114–115.
^ Harrington 1955, pp. 11–14.
^ Goldhill 1986, p. 121.
^ a b c Garland 2008, p. 217.
^ Goldhill 1986, p. 31.
^ a b Noel 1992, pp. 90–109.
^ a b Hurwit 1999, p. 18.
^ Pilafidis-Williams 1998.
^ Jost 1996, pp. 134–135.
^ Pausanias, Description of
^ a b c d e f Deacy 2008, p. 127.
^ a b Burn 2004, p. 10.
^ a b Burn 2004, p. 11.
^ Burn 2004, pp. 10–11.
^ a b Hurwit 1999, p. 15.
^ a b c Hubbard 1986, p. 28.
^ Bell 1993, p. 13.
^ Pausanias, i. 5. § 3; 41. § 6.
^ John Tzetzes, ad Lycophr., l.c..
^ Schaus & Wenn 2007, p. 30.
^ Plutarch, Life of Pericles, 13.8.
^ γλαυκῶπις in Liddell and Scott.
^ γλαυκός in Liddell and Scott.
^ ὤψ in Liddell and Scott.
^ Thompson, D'Arcy Wentworth. A glossary of Greek birds. Oxford:
Clarendon Press 1895, p. 45f.
^ γλαύξ in Liddell and Scott.
^ a b Nilsson 1950, pp. 491–496.
^ a b Graves 1960, p. 55.
^ a b Graves 1960, pp. 50–55.
^ Kerényi 1951, p. 128.
^ Τριτογένεια in Liddell and Scott.
Theogony II, 886–900.
^ a b Janda 2005, p. 289-298.
^ a b c Janda 2005, p. 293.
Iliad XV, 187–195.
^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 118–122.
^ a b Kerényi 1951, p. 118.
^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 118–119.
^ a b Kerényi 1951, p. 119.
Theogony 885-900, 929e-929t
^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 119–120.
^ a b c d e f Kerényi 1951, p. 120.
^ Pindar, Seventh Olympian Ode
^ Justin, Apology 64.5, quoted in Robert McQueen Grant, Gods and the
One God, vol. 1:155, who observes that it is Porphyry "who similarly
Athena with 'forethought'".
^ a b c d e f g Kerényi 1951, p. 281.
^ a b c Kerényi 1951, p. 121.
^ Kerényi 1951, p. 122.
^ Oldenburg 1969, p. 86.
^ "''Sacred Texts: Ancient Fragments'', ed. and trans. I. P. Cory,
1832: "The Theology of the Phœnicians from Sanchoniatho"".
Sacred-texts.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2010.
^ a b c Deacy 2008, pp. 68-69.
^ Chantraine, s.v.; the New Pauly says the etymology is simply unknown
^ New Pauly s.v. Pallas
^ a b Graves 1960, p. 50.
^ Deacy 2008, p. 51.
^ Kerényi 1951, p. 120-121.
^ a b c d e f Deacy 2008, p. 68.
^ Deacy 2008, p. 71.
^ a b c d e f g h Kerényi 1951, p. 124.
^ a b c d e f Graves 1960, p. 62.
^ Kinsley 1989, p. 143.
^ a b c d e f g Deacy 2008, p. 88.
^ a b c d e f g h Kerényi 1951, p. 123.
^ a b c d e f g Burkert 1985, p. 143.
^ a b c d e f Kerényi 1951, p. 125.
^ Kerényi 1951, pp. 125–126.
^ a b Kerényi 1951, p. 126.
^ Deacy 2008, pp. 88–89.
^ a b c d e f Deacy 2008, p. 89.
^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, X. Aglaura, Book II, 708–751; XI. The Envy,
Book II, 752–832.
^ a b c d e Kerényi 1952.
^ Marinus of Samaria, "The Life of
Proclus or Concerning Happiness",
Translated by Kenneth S. Guthrie (1925), pp.15–55:30, retrieved 21
May 2007.Marinus, Life of Proclus
^ a b Burkert 1985, p. 141.
^ Kinsley 1989, p. 151.
^ a b c d e Deacy 2008, p. 61.
^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.37, 38, 39
^ a b Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.41
^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2.39
^ Deacy 2008, p. 48.
^ Pindar, Olympian
^ a b c Deacy 2007, pp. 64–65.
^ Pollitt 1999, pp. 48–50.
^ a b Deacy 2007, p. 65.
^ a b Pollitt 1999, p. 50.
^ a b Roman & Roman 2010, p. 161.
^ Roman & Roman 2010, pp. 161–162.
^ a b c Jenkyns 2016, p. 19.
^ W.F.Otto,Die Gotter Griechenlands(55-77).Bonn:F.Cohen,1929
^ Deacy 2007, p. 59.
^ de Jong 2001, p. 152.
^ de Jong 2001, pp. 152–153.
^ a b Trahman 1952, pp. 31–35.
^ a b c d e Burkert 1985, p. 142.
^ Trahman 1952, p. 35.
^ Trahman 1952, pp. 35–43.
^ a b Trahman 1952, pp. 35–42.
^ Jenkyns 2016, pp. 19–20.
^ Murrin 2007, p. 499.
^ a b Murrin 2007, pp. 499–500.
^ Murrin 2007, pp. 499–514.
^ Deacy 2008, p. 62.
^ Phinney 1971, pp. 445–447.
^ a b Phinney 1971, pp. 445–463.
^ a b c Seelig 2002, p. 895.
^ Seelig 2002, p. 895-911.
^ a b c d e f g Poehlmann 2017, p. 330.
^ Morford & Lenardon 1999, p. 315.
^ Morford & Lenardon 1999, pp. 315–316.
^ a b c Kugelmann 1983, p. 73.
^ a b c Morford & Lenardon 1999, p. 316.
^ Edmunds 1990, p. 373.
^ a b c Roman & Roman 2010, p. 78.
^ a b c Norton 2013, p. 166.
^ ἀράχνη, ἀράχνης. Liddell, Henry George; Scott,
A Greek–English Lexicon at the
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Harries 1990, pp. 64–82.
^ a b c d e f g h i Leach 1974, pp. 102–142.
^ a b Walcot 1977, p. 31.
^ a b Walcot 1977, pp. 31–32.
^ a b c d e f g Walcot 1977, p. 32.
^ a b Bull 2005, pp. 346–347.
^ a b c d Walcot 1977, pp. 32–33.
^ a b c Burgess 2001, p. 84.
Iliad 4.390, 5.115-120, 10.284-94
^ Burgess 2001, pp. 84–85.
^ a b Deacy 2008, p. 69.
^ a b Deacy 2008, pp. 69-70.
^ Deacy 2007, pp. 59–60.
^ a b c Deacy 2007, p. 60.
^ a b c Palagia & Pollitt 1996, p. 28-32.
^ a b c d e Palagia & Pollitt 1996, p. 32.
^ Deacy 2008, pp. 145–149.
^ Deacy 2008, pp. 141–144.
^ a b c d Deacy 2008, p. 144.
^ Deacy 2008, pp. 144–145.
^ Deacy 2008, pp. 146–148.
^ a b Deacy 2008, pp. 145–146.
^ Randolph 2002, p. 221.
^ a b Deacy 2008, p. 145.
^ Brown 2007, p. 1.
^ Deacy 2008, p. 147-148.
^ Deacy 2008, p. 147.
^ a b c d e f Deacy 2008, p. 148.
^ Deacy 2008, pp. 148–149.
^ a b Deacy 2008, p. 149.
^ a b Garland 2008, p. 330.
^ "Symbols of the Seal of California". LearnCalifornia.org. Archived
from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
^ Swiatek & Breen 1981, pp. 201–202.
^ Deacy 2008, p. 153.
^ Deacy 2003, p. 154.
^ a b c Deacy 2008, p. 154.
^ a b Gallagher 2005, p. 109.
^ Alexander 2007, pp. 31–32.
^ Alexander 2007, pp. 11–20.
^ a b c Friedman 2005, p. 121.
^ a b "
Phi Delta Theta
Phi Delta Theta International - Symbols". phideltatheta.org.
Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-07.
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