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Coordinates : 24°30′S 69°15′W / 24.500°S 69.250°W / -24.500; -69.250

Atacama Desert

Desert

Atacama by NASA World Wind
NASA World Wind

COUNTRY Chile
Chile

AREA 105,000 km2 (40,541 sq mi)

BIOME Desert
Desert

Map of the Atacama Desert. The area most commonly defined as Atacama is yellow. In orange are the outlying arid areas of southern Peru
Peru
, Altiplano
Altiplano
, Puna de Atacama and Norte Chico .

The ATACAMA DESERT (Spanish : _Desierto de Atacama_) is a plateau in South America
South America
, covering a 1,000-kilometre (600 mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes
Andes
mountains. It is the driest non-polar desert in the world. According to estimates, the Atacama Desert
Desert
proper occupies 105,000 square kilometres (41,000 sq mi), or 128,000 square kilometres (49,000 sq mi) if the barren lower slopes of the Andes
Andes
are included. Most of the desert is composed of stony terrain, salt lakes (_salares_), sand , and felsic lava that flows towards the Andes.

Geographically, the aridity of the Atacama is explained by it being situated between two mountain chains (the Andes
Andes
and the Chilean Coast Range ) of sufficient height to prevent moisture advection from either the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, a two-sided rain shadow .

CONTENTS

* 1 Setting

* 2 Climate

* 2.1 Aridity * 2.2 Comparison to Mars
Mars

* 3 Flora * 4 Fauna

* 5 Human presence

* 5.1 Chinchorro culture * 5.2 Abandoned nitrate mining towns

* 6 Astronomical observatories

* 7 Other uses

* 7.1 Sports * 7.2 Solar car racing * 7.3 Tourism

* 8 El Tatio Geyser * 9 Termas Baños de Puritama * 10 Gallery * 11 Protected areas * 12 Legends * 13 See also

* 14 References

* 14.1 Notes * 14.2 Bibliography

* 15 External links

SETTING

See also: Andean orogeny and Arid Diagonal

According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the Atacama Desert ecoregion occupies a continuous strip for nearly 1,600 km along the narrow coast of the northern third of Chile
Chile
, from near Arica (18°24' S) southward to near La Serena (29°55' S). The National Geographic Society considers the coastal area of southern Peru
Peru
to be part of the Atacama Desert
Desert
and also includes the deserts south of the Ica Region in Peru.

Peru
Peru
borders it on the north and the Chilean Matorral ecoregion borders it on the south. To the east lies the less arid Central Andean dry puna ecoregion. The drier portion of this ecoregion is located south of the Loa River between the parallel Sierra Vicuña Mackenna and Cordillera Domeyko . To the north of the Loa lies the Pampa del Tamarugal .

The Coastal Cliff of northern Chile
Chile
west of the Chilean Coast Range is the main topographic feature of the coast. The geomorphology of the Atacama Desert
Desert
has been characterized as a low-relief bench "similar to a giant uplifted terrace" by Armijo and co-workers. The intermediate depression (or Central Valley) forms a series of endorheic basins in much of Atacama Desert
Desert
south of latitude 19°30’ S. North of this latitude the intermediate depression drains into the Pacific Ocean.

CLIMATE

Snow in Paranal Observatory
Paranal Observatory
at 2,600 masl .

Although the almost total lack of precipitation is the most prominent characteristic of the Atacama Desert, exceptions may occur. In July 2011, an extreme Antarctic cold front broke through the rain shadow , bringing 80 cm (31 in) of snow to the plateau, stranding residents across the region, particularly in Bolivia, where many drivers became stuck in snow drifts and emergency crews became overtaxed with a large number of rescue calls.

In 2012, the altiplano winter brought floods to San Pedro de Atacama .

On 25 March 2015, heavy rainfall affected the southern part of the Atacama desert. Resulting floods triggered mudflows that affected the cities of Copiapo , Tierra Amarilla , Chanaral , and Diego de Almagro , causing the deaths of more than 100 people.

ARIDITY

A flat area of the Atacama Desert
Desert
between Antofagasta
Antofagasta
and Taltal

The Atacama Desert
Desert
is commonly known as the driest non-polar place in the world, especially the surroundings of the abandoned Yungay town (in Antofagasta Region , Chile). The average rainfall is about 15 mm (0.6 in) per year, although some locations, such as Arica and Iquique , receive 1 to 3 mm (0.04 to 0.12 in) in a year. Moreover, some weather stations in the Atacama have never received rain. Periods of up to four years have been registered with no rainfall in the central sector, delimited by the cities of Antofagasta
Antofagasta
, Calama and Copiapó , in Chile. Evidence suggests that the Atacama may not have had any significant rainfall from 1570 to 1971. Wild donkey in the Atacama desert.

The Atacama Desert
Desert
may be the oldest desert on earth, and has experienced extreme hyperaridity for at least 3 million years, making it the oldest continuously arid region on earth. The long history of aridity raises the possibility that supergene mineralisation , under the appropriate conditions, can form in arid environments, instead of requiring humid conditions. Geological research suggests that in some sections of the Atacama Desert, such as in today's Chile, hyperaridity has persisted for the last 200 million years (since the Triassic ), competing only with Africa's Namib Desert
Desert
for such a title.

The Atacama is so arid that many mountains higher than 6,000 m (20,000 ft) are completely free of glaciers . Only the highest peaks (such as Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
, Monte Pissis , and Llullaillaco
Llullaillaco
) have some permanent snow coverage.

The southern part of the desert, between 25 and 27°S, may have been glacier-free throughout the Quaternary
Quaternary
(including during glaciations ), though permafrost extends down to an altitude of 4,400 m (14,400 ft) and is continuous above 5,600 m (18,400 ft). Studies by a group of British scientists have suggested that some river beds have been dry for 120,000 years. However, some locations in the Atacama receive a marine fog known locally as the _camanchaca _, providing sufficient moisture for hypolithic algae , lichens , and even some cacti —the genus _ Copiapoa _ is notable among these.

Geographically, the aridity of the Atacama is explained by it being situated between two mountain chains (the Andes
Andes
and the Chilean Coast Range ) of sufficient height to prevent moisture advection from either the Pacific or the Atlantic Oceans, a two-sided rain shadow .

COMPARISON TO MARS

The lack of humidity, rain and light pollution together produce both a dusty, rocky landscape.

In a region about 100 km (60 mi) south of Antofagasta, which averages 3,000 m (10,000 ft) in elevation, the soil has been compared to that of Mars
Mars
. Owing to its otherworldly appearance, the Atacama has been used as a location for filming Mars
Mars
scenes, most notably in the television series _Space Odyssey: Voyage to the Planets _.

In 2003, a team of researchers published a report in the journal _Science _ in which they duplicated the tests used by the Viking 1
Viking 1
and Viking 2 Mars
Mars
landers to detect life, and were unable to detect any signs in Atacama Desert
Desert
soil in the region of Yungay. The region may be unique on Earth in this regard, and is being used by NASA
NASA
to test instruments for future Mars
Mars
missions. The team duplicated the Viking tests in Mars-like Earth environments and found that they missed present signs of life in soil samples from Antarctic dry valleys , the Atacama Desert
Desert
of Chile
Chile
and Peru, and other locales. However, in 2014, a new hyperarid site was reported, María Elena South, which was much drier than Yungay, and thus, a better Mars-like environment. Towards Atacama, near the deserted coast, you see a land without men, where there is not a bird, not a beast, nor a tree, nor any vegetation. “ ” _ La Araucana _ by Alonso de Ercilla , 1569

In 2008, the Phoenix Mars
Mars
Lander detected perchlorates on the surface of Mars
Mars
at the same site where water was first discovered. Perchlorates are also found in the Atacama and associated nitrate deposits have contained organics, leading to speculation that signs of life on Mars
Mars
are not incompatible with perchlorates. The Atacama is also a testing site for the NASA
NASA
-funded Earth- Mars
Mars
Cave Detection Program .

FLORA

Rare rainfall events cause the flowering desert phenomenon in the southern Atacama Desert
Desert

In spite of the geographic and climatic conditions of the desert, a rich variety of flora has evolved there. Over 500 species have been gathered within the border of this desert. These species are characterized by their extraordinary ability to adapt to this extreme environment. Most common species are the herbs and flowers such as thyme , llareta , and saltgrass (_ Distichlis spicata _) and, where humidity is sufficient, trees such as the chañar (_Geoffroea decorticans _), the pimiento tree, and the leafy algarrobo (_Prosopis chilensis _). Vegetation in Pan de Azúcar National Park on the coast of the Atacama Desert
Desert

The llareta is one of the highest-growing wood species in the world. It is found at altitudes between 3,000 and 5,000 m (9,800 and 16,400 ft). Its dense form is similar to a pillow some 3 to 4 m (9.8 to 13.1 ft) thick. It concentrates and retains the heat from the day to cope with low evening temperatures. The growth rate of the llareta has been recently estimated at about 1.5 cm per year, making many llaretas over 3,000 years old. It produces a much-prized resin, which the mining industry once harvested indiscriminately as fuel, making this plant endangered.

The desert is also home to cacti, succulents, and other plants that thrive in a dry climate. Cactus
Cactus
species here include the candelabro (_ Browningia candelaris _) and cardon (_ Echinopsis atacamensis _), which can reach a height of 7 m (23 ft) and a diameter of 70 cm (28 in).

The Atacama Desert
Desert
flowering (Spanish: _desierto florido_) can be seen from September to November in years with sufficient precipitation, as happened in 2015.

FAUNA

Andean flamingos in Salar de Atacama
Salar de Atacama

The climate of the Atacama Desert
Desert
limits the number of animals living permanently in this extreme ecosystem. Some parts of the desert are so arid, no plant or animal life can survive. Outside of these extreme areas, sand-colored grasshoppers blend with pebbles on the desert floor, and beetles and their larvae provide a valuable food source in the _lomas _ (hills). Desert
Desert
wasps and butterflies can be found during the warm and humid season, especially on the lomas. Red scorpions also live in the desert. _ Liolaemus nitidus _, a lizard native to the southern reaches of the Atacama Desert
Desert

A unique environment is provided by some _lomas_, where the fog from the ocean provides enough moisture for seasonal plants and a few animal species. Surprisingly few reptile species inhabit the desert and even fewer amphibian species. _ Chaunus atacamensis _, the Vallenar toad or Atacama toad, lives on the _lomas_, where it lays eggs in permanent ponds or streams. Iguanas and lava lizards inhabit parts of the desert, while salt flat lizards, _ Liolaemus _, live in the dry areas bordering the ocean. One species, _ Liolaemus fabiani _, is endemic to the Salar de Atacama
Salar de Atacama
, the Atacama salt flat.

Birds are probably the largest animal group in the Atacama. Humboldt penguins live year-round along the coast, nesting in desert cliffs overlooking the ocean. On salt flats both near the Pacific and inland, Andean flamingos flock to eat algae. Other birds (including species of hummingbirds and sparrows ) visit the _lomas_ seasonally to feed on insects, nectar, seeds, and flowers. The _lomas_ help sustain several threatened species, such as the endangered Chilean woodstar .

Because of the desert's extreme aridity, only a few specially adapted mammal species live in the Atacama, such as Darwin\'s leaf-eared mouse . The less arid parts of the desert are inhabited by the South American gray fox and the viscacha (a relative of the chinchilla ). Larger animals, such as guanacos and vicuñas , graze in areas where grass grows, mainly because it is seasonally irrigated by melted snow. Vicuñas need to remain near a steady water supply, while guanacos can roam into more arid areas and survive longer without fresh water. Seals and sea lions often gather along the coast.

HUMAN PRESENCE

View of Chuquicamata
Chuquicamata
, a large state-owned copper mine.

The Atacama is sparsely populated, with most towns located along the Pacific coast. In interior areas, oases and some valleys have been populated for millennia and were the location of the most advanced Pre-Columbian societies found in Chile.

CHINCHORRO CULTURE

Main article: Chinchorro culture

The Chinchorro culture developed in the Atacama Desert
Desert
area from 7,000 to 1,500 BCE. These peoples were sedentary fishermen inhabiting mostly coastal areas. Their presence is found from today's towns of Ilo
Ilo
, in southern Peru, to Antofagasta
Antofagasta
in northern Chile. Presence of fresh water in the arid region on the coast facilitated human settlement in these areas. The Chinchorro were famous for their detailed mummification and funerary practices.

In later times, the Atacama oases experienced little population growth and urban development. During the 20th century they have had conflicts over water resources with the coastal cities and the mining industry.

San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama
, at about 2,400 metres (8,000 ft) elevation, is like many of the small towns. Before the Inca
Inca
empire and prior to the arrival of the Spanish, the extremely arid interior was inhabited primarily by the Atacameño tribe. They are noted for building fortified towns called _pucarás _, one of which is located a few kilometers from San Pedro de Atacama. The town's church was built by the Spanish in 1577.

The coastal cities originated in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries during the time of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
, when they emerged as shipping ports for silver produced in Potosí and other mining centers. During the 19th century the desert came under control of Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. With the discovery of sodium nitrate deposits and as a result of unclear borders the area soon became a zone of conflict and resulted in the War of the Pacific . Chile
Chile
annexed most of the desert, and cities along the coast developed into international ports, hosting many Chilean workers who migrated there.

With the guano and saltpeter booms of the 19th century the population grew immensely, mostly as a result of immigration from central Chile. In the 20th century the nitrate industry declined and at the same time the largely male population of the desert became increasingly problematic for the Chilean state. Miners and mining companies came into conflict, and protests spread throughout the region.

ABANDONED NITRATE MINING TOWNS

Main article: List of saltpeter works in Tarapacá and Antofagasta
Antofagasta

The desert has rich deposits of copper and other minerals and the world's largest natural supply of sodium nitrate which was mined on a large scale until the early 1940s. The Atacama border dispute over these resources between Chile
Chile
and Bolivia began in the 19th century and resulted in the War of the Pacific .

The desert is littered with approximately 170 abandoned nitrate (or "saltpeter") mining towns, almost all of which were shut down decades after the invention of synthetic nitrate in Germany
Germany
at the turn of the 20th century (see Haber process ). The towns include Chacabuco , Humberstone, Santa Laura , Pedro de Valdivia, Puelma, María Elena , and Oficina Anita.

The Atacama Desert
Desert
is rich in metallic mineral resources such as copper, gold, silver and iron as well as non metallic minerals including important deposits of boron, lithium, sodium nitrate and potassium salts. The Salar de Atacama
Salar de Atacama
is a place where bischofite is extracted. These resources are exploited by various mining companies such as Codelco, Lomas Bayas, Mantos Blancos, and Soquimich.

ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES

ALMA and the center of the Milky Way
Milky Way
.

Because of its high altitude, nearly non-existent cloud cover, dry air, and lack of light pollution and radio interference from widely populated cities and towns, this desert is one of the best places in the world to conduct astronomical observations. The European Southern Observatory
Observatory
operates two major observatories in the Atacama:

* The La Silla Observatory
Observatory
* The Paranal Observatory
Paranal Observatory
, which includes the Very Large Telescope
Very Large Telescope

A new radio astronomy telescope, called the Atacama Large Millimeter Array , built by Europe
Europe
, Japan
Japan
, the United States
United States
, Canada
Canada
and Chile in the Llano de Chajnantor Observatory
Observatory
officially opened on 3 October 2011. A number of radio astronomy projects, such as the CBI , the ASTE and the ACT , among others, have been operating in the Chajnantor area since 1999.

OTHER USES

SPORTS

The Atacama Desert
Desert
is popular with all-terrain sports enthusiasts. Various championships have taken place here including the Lower Atacama Rally, Lower Chile
Chile
Rally, Patagonia-Atacama Rally and the latter Dakar Rally 's editions. The rally was organized by the A.S.O. and held in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The dunes of the desert are ideal rally races located in the outskirts of the city of Copiapó. The 2013 Dakar 15-Day Rally started on 5 January in Lima, Peru, through Chile, Argentina and back to Chile
Chile
finishing in Santiago. Visitors also use the Atacama Desert
Desert
sand dunes for Sandboarding (Spanish: _duna_).

A week-long foot race called the Atacama Crossing is a race in which the competitors cross the various landscapes of the Atacama.

An event called Volcano Marathon takes place near the Lascar volcano in the Atacama Desert.

SOLAR CAR RACING

Eighteen solar powered cars were displayed in front of the presidential palace (_La Moneda_) in Santiago in November 2012. The cars were then raced 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) through the desert from 15–19 November 2012.

TOURISM

Most people who go to tour the sites in the desert stay in the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The Atacama Desert
Desert
is in the top three tourist locations in Chile. The specially commissioned ESO
ESO
hotel is reserved for astronomers.

EL TATIO GEYSER

Main article: El Tatio

There are geysers 80 km from the town of San Pedro de Atacama. There are about 80 geysers that lie in a valley. They are closer to the town of Chiu Chiu.

TERMAS BAñOS DE PURITAMA

Baños de Puritama are rock pools which are 37 miles from the geysers.

GALLERY

*

"Icy Penitents by Moonlight
Moonlight
" *

Valle de la Luna, near San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama
*

Laguna Verde *

Valley in Atacama *

Vista before sunset. *

Chajnantor Plateau
Plateau
in the Chilean Andes, home to the ESO
ESO
/NAOJ/NRAO ALMA *

Salt evaporation ponds in the Atacama Desert
Desert
*

Paranal Observatory
Paranal Observatory
*

_ Flowering desert _ *

Llamas
Llamas
*

Valley of Death *

Machuca chapel

PROTECTED AREAS

* Pan de Azúcar National Park * Pampa del Tamarugal National Reserve * La Chimba National Reserve

LEGENDS

* Alicanto * Atacama Giant

SEE ALSO

* Puna de Atacama * Norte Grande, Chile
Chile
* 2010 Copiapó mining accident * Atacama border dispute * Salar de Atacama
Salar de Atacama
* List of deserts by area * Llano de Chajnantor Observatory
Observatory
* Transverse Valleys * Mano del Desierto * Pulpería * The asteroid 18725 Atacama has been named after the Atacama Desert. * Paposo * Lomas * Camanchaca

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Vesilind, Priit J. (August 2003). "The Driest Place on Earth". _National Geographic Magazine_. Retrieved 2 April 2013. (Excerpt) * ^ "Even the Driest Place on Earth Has Water". _Extreme Science_. Retrieved 2 April 2013. * ^ Mckay, Christopher P. (May–June 2002). "Two dry for life: the Atacama Desert
Desert
and Mars" (PDF). _AdAstra_: 30–33. * ^ Jonathan Amos (8 December 2005). " Chile
Chile
desert\'s super-dry history". BBC News. Retrieved 29 December 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wright, John W., ed. (2006). _The New York Times Almanac_ (2007 ed.). New York: Penguin Books. p. 456. ISBN 978-0-14-303820-7 . * ^ Rundel, P. W.; Villagra, P. E.; et al. (2007). "Arid and Semi-Arid Ecosystems". In Veblen, Thomas T. ; Young, Kenneth R.; Orme, Anthony R. _Physical Geography of South America_. Oxford University Press. pp. 158–183. * ^ _A_ _B_ Veblen, Thomas T. , ed. (2007). _The Physical Geography of South America_. Oxford University Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-19-531341-3 . * ^ "Atacama desert". _Terrestrial Ecoregions_. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 11 March 2008. * ^ Handwerk, Brian (23 October 2006). "Viking Mission May Have Missed Mars
Mars
Life, Study Finds". _National Geographic News_. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 3 April 2013. * ^ Minard, Anne (25 June 2007). "Giant Penguins Once Roamed Peru, Fossils Show". _National Geographic News_. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 3 April 2013. * ^ Quezada, Jorge; Cerda, José Luis; Jensen, Arturo (2010). "Efectos de la tectónica y el clima en la configuración morfológica del relieve costero del norte de Chile". _ Andean Geology _ (in Spanish). 37 (1): 78–109. doi :10.4067/s0718-71062010000100004 . Retrieved 5 December 2015. * ^ Armijo, Rolando; Lacassin, Robin; Coudurier-Curveur, Aurélie; Carrizo, Daniel (2015). "Coupled tectonic evolution of Andean orogeny and global climate". _Earth-Science Reviews_. 143: 1–35. doi :10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.01.005 . * ^ Evenstar, Laura; Mather, Anna; Stuart, Finlay; Cooper, Frances; Sparks, Steve (May 2014). "Geomorphic surfaces and supergene enrichment in Northern Chile". Vienna: EGU General Assembly 2014, held 27 April - 2 May 2014. * ^ "Snow Comes to the Atacama Desert". ESO. Retrieved 3 April 2013. * ^ "Hyper-Arid Atacama Desert
Desert
Hit By Snow". BBC News. 7 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011. * ^ "Inundación en San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama
deja 800 afectados y 13 turistas evacuados". _El Mostrador_ (in Spanish). 11 February 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012. * ^ "Tourism in San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama
restricted by floods". This is Chile. Retrieved 3 December 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Atacama Desert
Desert
Blooms Pink After Historic Rainfall (Photos)". _LiveScience.com_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Erin Blakemore. "The World\'s Driest Desert
Desert
Is in Breathtaking Bloom". _ Smithsonian (magazine) _. * ^ "Yungay - the driest place in the world Wondermondo". _www.wondermondo.com_. Retrieved 2017-05-06. * ^ Boehm, Richard G.; Armstrong, David G.; Hunkins, Francis P.; Reinhartz, Dennis; Lobrecht, Merry (2005). _The World and its People_ (Teacher's wraparound ed.). New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-07-860977-0 . * ^ "The desert biome". University of California Museum of Paleontology. * ^ "Rare snow in the Atacama Desert: Image of the Day". NASA. * ^ Jonathan D. A. Clarke (2006). "Antiquity of aridity in the Chilean Atacama Desert" (PDF). _Geomorphology_. 73: 101–114. doi :10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.06.008 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-05. * ^ " Chile
Chile
desert\'s super-dry history". BBC News. 8 December 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ "A trip to Mars". _www.eso.org_. Retrieved 2 May 2017. * ^ Navarro-Gonzalez, R. (7 November 2003). "Mars-Like Soils in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and the Dry Limit of Microbial Life". _Science_. 302 (5647): 1018–1021. PMID 14605363 . doi :10.1126/science.1089143 . * ^ azua-bustos, A. (24 December 2014). "Discovery and microbial content of the driest site of the hyperarid Atacama Desert, Chile.". _Environmental Microbiology Reports_. * ^ Braudel, Fernand (1992). _The Perspective of the World_. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. p. 388. ISBN 978-0-520-08116-1 . * ^ Thompson, Andrea (5 August 2008). "Scientists Set Record Straight on Martian Salt Find". _Space.com_. Retrieved 6 August 2008. * ^ Wynne, J. J.; Cabrol, N. A.; Chong Diaz, G.; Grin, G. A.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Moersch, J. E.; Titus, T. N. Earth– Mars
Mars
Cave Detection Program Phase 2 – 2008 Atacama Desert
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Expedition (PDF) (Report). Retrieved 3 April 2013. * ^ Thos. Morong. (12 February 1891). "_The Flora of the Desert
Desert
of Atacama_". _The Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club_. 18 (2): 39–48. doi :10.2307/2475523 . * ^ Monique Bos. "Animals that live in the Atacama Desert". Paw Nation. * ^ Claudio M. Escobar; et al. (March 2003). "Chemical Composition of Precloacal Secretions of Two Liolaemus fabiani Populations: Are They Different?". _Diary of Chemical Ecology_. 29 (3): 629. doi :10.1023/A:1022858919037 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ South America
South America
physical map * ^ Sanz, Nuria; Arriaza, Bernardo T.; Standen, Vivien G., The Chinchorro Culture: A Comparative Perspective. The archaeology of the earliest human mummification. UNESCO Office Mexico; Universidad de Tarapacá (Chile); National Monuments Council (Chile) Paris, UNESCO, 2014 * ^ Holsti, K.J. (1997). _The State, War, and the State of War_. Cambridge University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-521-57790-8 . * ^ Clayton, Lawrence A. (1984). _The Bolivarian Nations_. The Forum Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-88273-603-7 . * ^ St. John, Robert Bruce (1994). The Bolivia-Chile- Peru
Peru
dispute in the Atacama Desert
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(Report). International Boundaries Research Unit. * ^ "Exploring the Atacama". _yes_. Retrieved 2012-12-03. * ^ Kogel, Jessica Elzea (2006). Kogel, Jessica Elzea; Trivedi, Nikhil; Barker, James; Krukowski, Stanley, eds. _Industrial Minerals & Rocks: Commodities, Markets, and Uses_ (7th ed.). Littleton, Colo.: Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. p. 605. ISBN 978-0-87335-233-8 . * ^ "ALMA Upgrade to Image the Event Horizons of Supermassive Black Holes". _ ESO
ESO
Announcement_. Retrieved 10 June 2014. * ^ "Top 10 Atacama Desert
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Facts That Every Tourist Must Know". Retrieved 19 November 2015. * ^ Bustos, R.; Rubio, M.; et al. (2014). "Parque Astronómico de Atacama: An Ideal Site for Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Mid-Infrared Astronomy". _Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific_. 126 (946): 1126. Bibcode :2014PASP..126.1126B. arXiv :1410.2451  _. doi :10.1086/679330 . * ^ Toll, Rosser (3 October 2011). "In Chile
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desert, huge telescope begins galaxy probe". AFP. Retrieved 3 October 2011. * ^ "Ruíz-Tagle ve difícil que Chile
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no esté en un nuevo Dakar". La Nacion_. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012. * ^ " Dakar Rally event 2013 to culminate in Chilean capital". _yes_. This is Chile. Retrieved 3 December 2012. * ^ "Atacama Crossing". _yes_. 4 deserts. Retrieved 3 December 2012. * ^ Volcano Marathon _Volcanomarathon.com_. Retrieved 18 November 2015. * ^ "Nueva generación de autos solares son presentados en Chile". _La Nacion_. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012. * ^ "Los autos que competirán en la súper carrera solar de Atacama". _La Nacion_. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012. * ^ "Guide to Atacama Desert". _Conde Nast Traveller_. Conde Nast. Retrieved 3 April 2013. * ^ Vickers, Graham (2005). _21st Century Hotel_. London: Laurence King. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-85669-401-8 . * ^ Erfurt-Cooper, Patricia; Cooper, Malcolm, eds. (2010). _Volcano and Geothermal Tourism: Sustainable Geo-resources for Leisure and Recreation_. London: Earthscan. ISBN 978-1-84407-870-7 . * ^ Mroue, Haas; Schreck, Kristina; Luongo, Michael (2005). _Frommer's Argentina & Chile_ (3rd ed.). Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-7645-8439-8 .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Braudel, Fernand (1984) . _The perspective of the world_. Civilization and Capitalism. 3. Berkeley : University of California Press . ISBN 978-0-520-08116-1 . OCLC
OCLC
505033669 . * Sagaris, Lake (2000). _Bone and dream: into the world's driest desert_. Toronto
Toronto
: Alfred A. Knopf Canada
Canada
. ISBN 978-0-676-97223-8 . OCLC
OCLC
57692400 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to ATACAMA DESERT _.

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